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Full text of "Compute! Magazine Issue 043"

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The Christmas Of The Computer 



COMPUTE! 

The Leading Magazine Of Home, Educational, And Recreational Computing 



$2.50 

December 
1983 
Issue 43 
Vol, 5, No. 12 

£185 UK S3Z6C3oaaa 

63379 

ISSN 0194- 3^5 7X 



SuperBASIC 64— 
Adds 35 Graphics 
And Programming 
Commands To Your 
Commodore 64 

Space Thief: 
An Action Game 
For Atari And 
Commodore 64 

Energy Bill Audit, 
Paycheck Analysis, 
And Gas Mileage 
Manager — 
Valuable Home 
Applications Programs 
ForTI-99/4A,VIC-20, 
Atari, Commodore 64, 
And Other Computers 

Tl Word Processing 
System 



V4470"63379'l 



1 2 




History will record as a profound irony ^^B 

that the most powerful word processing package 
ever created for the IBM' Personal Computer 
wasn't created by IBM. 




LEADING EDGE. 

LciJiiis lidtc rnidua^ iiiL., Rirtuuc I iOO Division, 21 Highland Circle, NlcL-dham Hciclits, Ma.-s. 02194 (800} 3-? i- i4 ifi (6171 44^-6762 
Hi'udquarturs and Rctitil Division, 225 Turnpike Strwi , Canton, Mass. 02021 (SOC) HVfiS? 5 (617) 828-8150 



FOR YOUR COMMODORE WORDPROCESSING NEEDS 

INVEST IN THE BEST 



l>T6fesslonal 






Software ^^^^^^5 



. . , rfesslcsiai, 

^ riMS 



PLUS 






-SK"? 




WORDPRO PLUS. IN A CLASS BY ITSELF. 



When choosing a Word Processor (or your Commodore'" computer, there's 
no reason to settle (or anything but the best — in a word. . .WordPro". 

Witti over 30,000 happy clients churning out letters and documents all over 
the world, the WordPro Plus" Series is unquestionably the #1 selling soft- 
ware package on Commodore computers! So when you choose WordPro, 
you know you're investing in a trial-tested program that's a real winner. And 
WordPro is NOW available for your Commodore 64" computer— at prices 
starting as low as S89.95. 

Designed for the user who has no computer or word processing experience 
whatsoever. WordPro Plus brings a new dimension to the term "user- 
friendly." More than just easy to use, WordPro will turn your Commodore 
computer into a sophisticated time saving word processing tool — loaded 
with the same inventory of features found in systems costing much, much 
more. 

Our nationwide team of over 600 Professional Software/Commodore com- 
puter dealers will help you choose the WordPro Plus system that is best for 
your needs. Our full-service dealers have been set up to provide strong 
customer support. In addition to helping you choose the right system, many 
Professional Software dealers also offer WordPro Plus training and system 
installation. 

Professional Software offersa complete spectrum of WordPro word process- 
ing software for Commodore computers ranging from the Commodore 64 to 
the more business oriented 8000/9000 series computers. And WordPro 4 
Plus and 5 Plus also interact with our database management systems includ- 
ing InfoPro and The Administrator. So whatever your Word Processing 
needs, there's a WordPro system that's right for you. 

WordPro" and WordPro Plus™ are trademarks of Professional Software Inc. 
The WordPro Plus Series was designed and written by Steve Punter of Pro Micro Software Ltd. 
Commodore" and the Commodore 64'" are trademarks of Commodore Electronics. Inc. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



WordPro 3 nus/64- 




Invest in the best. . 

WordPro Plus. In a class by itself. 

Call us today for the name of the WordPro Plus dealer nearest you. 

Professional Software Inc. 



51 Fremont Street 
Needham, MA 02194 



(617)444-5224 
Telex: 951579 







Ws just made 
owning an Atari compi 
n a lot more logicaL 




Introducing the Rana 1000 disk drive. It^ a whole new game for Atari computers. 




This two digit LED readout 
displays a code that tells you 
everything you need to know. 



This switch tells you your 
write protect feature is 
keeping your information safe. 



When Rana Systems introduced the Elite 
Series of Apple® compatible disk drives, we didn't 
know what a tremendous impact they would make. 
It turned out to be a line so outstanding in perfor- 
mance, styling, capacity, and price, that it instan- 
taneously made us a major force in the market. 
Well, needless to say, the response was so great 
that we were forced to create the same highly ad- 
vanced disk drive for Atari® A disk drive that when 
coupled with Atari's computer, could perform 
everything from accounting, financial planning, 
and stock charting, to word processing, business 
management, and letting you write your own pro- 
grams. Plus, we made it simple enough for a child 
to use, for learning anything from the alphabet to 
a foreign language. 

Working with a diskette 
versus playing with a cassette. 

Let's face it. The only reason Atari made a 
cassette option to their computer was to make it 
affordable. But now you don't have to settle for less. 
Because now you can get a diskette for your Atari 
computer which outperforms their cassette. With 
Atari's cassette you only get half the functions of a 
computer compared to what our floppy disk can 
give you. Their cassette is not only limited in the 
software available, but it also takes 20 times longer 
to get the information you need. And Rana's disk 



The remaining switches 
provide readouts on density 
storage, error status, and 
drive number. 



This switch, when you touch it, 
tells you what track you're on. 



RanaSystems 



drive offers twice the storage capacity of either 
their cassette or disk drive. 

Why even stylewise our new low profile design 
not only looks 100 times more spectacular, but it 
occupies 3 tirries less space. And our new Rana 
1000 also gives you a piece of its mind every time 
you use it, because our disk drive gives you informa- 
tion as well as takes it. And we think that says a lot. 

Ihe disk drive 
that has all the answers. 

Rana offers you a myriad of features Atari 
couldn't even conceive of. Like five electronic func- 
tions on the front panel that give you a LED read- 
out when touched. Our disk drive tells you what 
track you're on, and what density and how much 
information you're storing. And, we have a write 
protect feature which protects your diskette from 
being erased. In fact, no other disk drive can 
offer you that; 

As you can see, it was easy to build a disk 
drive superior to Atari's. Because for every reason 
you buy a disk drive, Rana has superior technology. 

The Rana 1000 disk drive. It brings your Atari 
computer to a higher level of sophistication for a 
price one third lower than Atari's. So your choice 
shouldn't even be a matter of logic. 

Just common sense. 



Always a step ahead. 




21 300 Superior Sireel. Chaiswonti, CA 9i31 1 21 3-709-5484 For dealer mtoffnaiion call loll 
(fee l-aOO-421-2207. In California only call: 1-800-262-1221 Source Number: TCT.654 



Apple Is a r«glslerBd trademark o( Apple Computer. Inc.* Atarilsaregisteredtrarieriiarkof Atari, lri(;-,aWBmerCommuniGaliotisCompany 



^MOSAIC SPECIAL CHRISTMAS ANNOUNCEMENT 



FOR ATARI 400/800 & COMMODORE OWNERS 



ASREXPRm^ 



DECEMBER 5th 

THRU 
DECEMBER 23rd 

We'll ship Overnight Express directly to you 
at no extra charge until December 24th. Phone in your order on 
your VISA or Mastercard between those dates. Or call us for your nearest 
I MOSAIC dealer for delivery TODAY! 



64K SELECT 
FORlATARr 



Most advanced memory board 

available for the Atari computers. 52K 

, continuous RAM vi/itti 3 more banlts of 

4K RAM for a 64K total. 800 owners 

can expand to 192K RAM! 



64ACCESS-M* 
FOR COMMODORE 64 

Enter ttie vjoM of truly povk'erful 

computing. Now 64 ovi/ners can tiave ■ 

ttie power of ttie top of ttie line 

business microcomputers. Start witti 

128K and access up to a megabyte 

of Mosaic memory 

(• Subject to availability] 



RAMMASTER"64 
FOR VIC 20' i 



A full service memory board with 

expansion port, flexible memory 

control, pause switct\ witti 64K RAM 

plus ttie power of Mosaic - 

Bonk Select, i i 



48KRAMK1T 
FORAtARI400 

Ttils RAM Kit expands your own Atari 

16K RAM board to a full 48K RAM. Only 

5 wires to solder. 



RAMMASTER"32 
FOR VIC 20' 

A full sen/ice memory board wltti 

built-in expansion port flexible 

memory configuration, write protect, 

pause switcti and more. 



RAMMASTER™46 
FOR VIC 20" 

A full service memory device with 16K 

RAM. Built-in expansion port, write 
protect, and flexible memory control. 



32K RAM 
FOR ATARI 

This is the benchmark of Atari 

compatible RAM boards. Slot 

independent, fully compatible. 



EXPANDER 
FORATARr 

Converts to a 32K RAM board with 

the chips from one Atari 16K 

RAM board. 

^mosQi 

ELECTRONICS, INC, 



STANDARD 16 
FOR VIC 20* 

A 16K RAM board with 
exceptional reliability and 
performance. j 



:i-ADD-RAM^ FOR OVERNIGHT DELIVERY 
OR SEE YOUR NEAREST MOSAIC DEALER. 

RO, Box 708 Oregon Cify, OR 97405 "In Oregon 653-7885 

Atari 400/800. VIC 20 and CommcxJore 64 are registered trocJemorta of Atari Inc.. Commodore Business Machines. Inc respectivelv. 



December 1983 Vol. 5, No. 12 



FEATURES 



22 The Home Office KathyYakal 

32 The Christmas Of The Computer? KathyYakal 

■52 Calorie Cop Gerald P. Graham 

■66 Paycheck Analysis Larry L. Bihimeyer 

•72 Utilily Bill Audit Lorry L. Bihimeyer 

'86 Gas Mileage , Ron Blue 



EDUCATION AND RECREATION 



98 Nightflyer David J. Bohike 

108 Space Thief Steve Low 

122 Chopperoids ..". L. LBeh 

132 Get The Gold Frank Elsesser 

138 64 Mosaic Puzzle Bruce Jordan 



REVIEWS 



178 Millionaire GaryM, Kaplan 

182 The Witness DanGutman 

184 MAC/64 Craig Chamberlain 

190 Stellar Triumph Eric Brandon 

192 Gamestapel ForTheTlmex/Sincloir Arthur B. Hunkins 

192 Memory Expanders For The VIC-20 OttisCowper 

196 Tl Statistics Roger B. Crampton 



COLUMNS AND DEPARTMENTS 



6 The Editor's Notes f?obertLock 

10 Readers' Feedback Ttie Editors and Readers of COMPUTE! 

26 Computers and Society: Hligh Tech, High Touch, And 1984 Dovid D. Thornburg 

44 The Beginner's Page: Zones Of Unpredictability, Port 2 Richard Mansfield 

142 The World inside The Computer: Winnse The Pooh's Alphabet Adventures Fred D'lgnozio 

156 Learning With Computers Glenn M. Kleiman 

160 On The Road With Fred D'lgnozio: The Electronic Chalkboards: 

The BBC And The Powerpad Fred D'lgnozio 

170 Friends Of The Turtle: A Turtle Resource Update David D. Thornburg 

174 Questions Beginners Ask Tom R. Halfhil! 

244 Machine Language: Hopping Around , Jim Butterfield 

252 Programming The Tl: Computer Fun C, Regeno 

264 INSIGHT Atari Bill Wilkinson 

336 64 Expiorer Larry Isaacs 



THE JOURNAL 



198 
216 
230 
236 
259 
274 
288 
298 
306 
314 
322 
328 
330 
340 
344 

349 
350 
351 
353 
380 
385 
392 



SuperBASIC64 Martin C. Kees 

M LX: Mach ine Language Entry Program For Atari And Commodore 64 C horles Bronnon 

List And Scroll For The VIC And 64 TomForsythe 

Commodore Files For Beginners, Pari 2 Jim Butterfield 

Art Museum : Lloyd Beaston 

Bitmap Graphics On The 64 Michael Tlnglof 

Atari Screenbyfer Car! Zahrt and Orson Scott Card 

Disk Expiorer For Commodore Robert W. Baker 

The Hidden PitfollsOf Computer Arithmetic Michael A Covington 

Tl Word Processor James D. Baker 

Son Of Lister For VIC And 64 Jim Butterfield 

Commas And Colons In Applesoft Strings; An Easy Way To Use Them Donald W, Watson 

Atari Chartmaker Tom tJ. Halfhill 

Comparing Commodore Machine Language Programs Harvey B. Herman 

VlC/64 Clock PaulF. Schotz 



A Beginner's Guide To Typing In Programs 

How To Type COMPUTEl's Programs 

CAPUTE! Modifications Or Corrections To Previous Articles 

News & Products 

COMPUTEI's Auttior Guide 

Product Mart 

Advertisers Index 



TOLL FREE Subscription Order Line 
800-334-0868 (In NC 919-275-9809] 



NOTE: See page 350 

before typing in 
programs. 




V/64/P/AT/Tl/AP/C/TS 
PA'/64/TI/AP/C/AT 



AT/AP 
AT/64 

AT 

Tl 



AT/64/A 

AT 
64 
TS 
V 



AT 
64 



64 
AT/64 
\f/M 

PMM 
V/64 

64 

AT 
PA//64 

Tl 

V/64 

AP 

AT 

PA//64 

V/64 






AP Apple AT Atari, P PET/ 
CBM, VVIC-20, C Radio 
Shack Color Computer, 64 
Commodore 64, TS Tlmex/ 
SinciQlr, TJ Texos Instru- 
ments, "All or several of 'he 
above. 



COMPUTE! Publications Jnc,^ 

One of the ABC Publishing Companies: 
ABC Publishing, President, Roberi G. Burton 

1330 Avenue or the Americas, New Vort. r;ev.' v-rt. -lODI? 



COMPIHE! The joumdl for Progressive Computing (USPS: 537250) is published 12 times edch yt^r bv 
COMPUTE! Publicalions, Inc., P.O. Box 5-106, GrciTisbom, NC 27403 USA. Phonf: (919) 275-%09. luliturial 
Oificesareloc.Tled at 505 Ed ward la Drive, GreenstKiro, MC27'109. DornesMcSuhscriptioiis 12i^slu"h, S24,ill] 
Send fiubsctiption orders or change of address (P.O. iorm^^T^) lo Circulation DepL, COMPUTEIM.i^j/ine, 
P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. Second class postage paid at Creensboni, NC 27403 jnd additional 
mailing offices. Entire contents copyright ^.i^f 1983 by COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN 
0194-357X. 



EDITORS NOTES 



If all the rumors are correct, by 
the time you're reading this, 
IBM will have announced and 
introduced "PC Junior," the 
new personal and home com- 
puter also known as "Peanut." If 
you own a PC, a "junior," or a 
Coleco Adam system, we're in- 
terested in articles. Address them 
to Submissions Editor, New 
Computers, COMPUTE!, P.O. Box 
5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. 
While this Christmas was 
destined to be "the Christmas of 
the computer," delays in ship- 
ments for Coleco and Atari, and 
the impact of expectations re- 
garding the new IBM entry, have 
made it anything but a happy 
season for investors in the per- 
sonal computer stocks. Texas In- 
struments, Commodore, Warner 
Communications (Atari), and 
Coleco have been seesawing 
back and forth with every delay, 
anticipated or actual. Warner 
stoutly denies any falling off in 
their intentions toward the per- 
sonal computer marketplace; 
Coleco vows to ship hundreds 
of thousands of systems by 
Christmas; and Commodore 
head Jack Tremiel is quoted in 
the Wall Street Journal, in re- 
sponse to concerns about IBM's 
pending entry, as suggesting 
that there are far more people 
with $200 than $700 for a com- 
puter. We should doubtless look 
forward to an interesting spring. 



From COMPUTEl's perspec- 
tive, we're seeing thousands of 
new computers sold every week, 
and plan to continue providing 
you the same level and quality 
of applications and support. We 
don't expect the major players to 
change anytime soon. 

We noted with regret the 
filing of bankruptcy by the Os- 
borne Computer Corporation, 
and with special regret some of 
the mudslinging that occurred 
after the fact. Among the avail- 
able scenarios is the possibility 
that Mr. Jaunich, president of 
the company, arrived too late to 
stem the flood of problems that 
predated him. Our regrets to the 
laid-off employees, and best 
wishes for a sound recovery. 

If you're in the marketplace 
for a unique Christmas present, 
Kathy Yakal presents a random 
sampling in the sidebar to her 
feature "The Christmas Of The 
Computer?" A chocolate diskette, 
perhaps? 

Random Bits: 

This is the largest issue ever of 
COMPUTE! and all of our previous 
records are being broken: largest 
number of pages, largest number 
of four-color advertising pages, 
largest number of advertising 
pages, and largest number of 
editorial pages. 

Our compliments to Senior 
Editor Richard Mansfield. His 



book. Machine Language for Be- 
ginners, was recently ranked 
among the top five best-selling 
computer books in the country. 

COMPUTE! is moving. Each 
year, in the five-year-long history 
of our company, we've moved 
into new quarters that we were 
convinced would last us several 
years. Our fifth move is coming 
up in late January, and this time 
we're realh/ going to move into a 
location that will hold us for 
several years. We've not only 
left room for next year's new 
staff members, but have planned 
expansion space for future years' 
growth. None of the old-timers 
around here are quite sure what 
it will be like to stay in one spot 
for more than twelve months, 
but we're certainly looking for- 
ward to it. Next month we'll let 
you know the address of our 
new location. The post office 
box and telephone numbers will 
remain the same. 

The staff of COMPUTE! Publi- 
cations, Inc., wishes you all a 
happy holiday season and a safe 
and rewarding new year. 




Editor In Chief 



6 COMPUTE Decemberl983 



mi'j<f<^f^':i^i 



■m^mm^m 



m 



y^ 



•iit*S*(i 



§m' 






Ptof^ 



gion 



^^fe^ 



■^=•.^»i; 



^3. 



m 



ye^JS 



■^"i 



Now you have the power of a 
professional quality Check Register 
System. Maintain multiple checking ''■ 
accounts, complete with full checkbook 
reconciliation and 16 budget categories. 
Change or delete any check, check or 
deposit amount, or deduction and 
CheckEase! will automatically update 
all balance figures. Review checks 
forward, backward or by check '^^^ 
number. Configure for RS232 or ^" '■ 
compatable Commodore printer. Post 
■checks as they clear the bank. Upgrade 
data from cassette to disk. Print by 
check number, category or if item is tax 
deductable. Commodore 64 and VIC-20 
users can even save months worth of 
check data in a format compatable with 
Commodore's Personal Finance 
package for later analyzation. 



$24.95 cassbtte (VIC-20 min. 8K) 



$29.95 cassette: Commodore 64, 
*Atari 400®/800®/12(X) XL® 

$34.95 disk: Commodore 64, 

*Atari 400®/800®/12{)0 XL®, 
-'IBM PC, ■■APPLE H/Hplus/ne® 




Avaiiabie at finer Software Stores everywhere. Available fourth quarter i983. 
Or Call (213) 501-5845 for the name of your local dealer or distributor. / 




T&F Software Company 10902 Riverside Drive / North Hollywood, California 91602. (213)501-5845 



^£Sk!1S'^!K.U?'" ^' ™^ SYSTKMS. CHECKEASKI IS A TOADEMARK QV CMS S^■STi■;MS LICENCED TO T&V SOKRVARH VIC-><) COMMODORE M PERSONA! 
FINANCE. ATARI .mi ATARI m. ATARII2(X) XL. API'LE IL APPLE 11 PI US. APPLE II E. AND IHM PC AKE KEGISTB^ED T1<AI)E\1AKKS OK THEIR RESPECTIV'E^^^ 



Publisher 

Edito: In Chief 

Director or AdrrHnistrafion 



GarvRJngersoll 
Robert C Lock 
Alice SWolle 



Senior Editor 
Managing Editor 
Assistonf Monoging Editor 
ProducfionEditoi 
Fealures Editor 
Technical Editor 
AssrstontTechnjcQl £diIor 
Pfogram Editor 
Assistant Edrlors 
Assistant Copy Editor 
EditohoJ Assistant 
Programming Supervisor 



R[Cha rd Mans (iefd 

KoltiieenEMortinek 

Ton^/ r?oberfs 

Gail Walker 

TomRHoIftiiil 

OttG f?. Cowper 

John Krous© 

ChtarlesBrannon 

Dan Carmichoel. Lor^ce Elko 

Juanifa Lewis 

KattiyVakal 

Pahtck Porrtsti 



Assistont Programming Supervisor Gregg Pe#le 



Technical^ Assistant 
Editorial Progrommets 



Programmjng Assistant 
Administrative Assistants 



CopvAssistants 
Associote Editors 



Contributing Editor 



Dale WcBane 

Jeff Hamdan<. Kevin Martin. 
Chris Poer 

IVtQf k Futtle 

Vicki Jennings. Laura 
fV5acFQdden, Julia Flem-ng 

Becky Hal Linda Shiow. 
Ivtartna Banks 

JrmButlertield, 
Toronto. CarK3Ck3 

Hofvev Herman. 
Greensboro, NC 

Fred D'lgno^io, 
2117 Carter Road S,W . Roanoke. VA 24Q15 

David Thorn burg. 
P.O. Box 1317, Los Altos. CA 94022 

Bill Wilkinson 



COIvlPUTEIS Book DtvJSton 
EditOf 

Assistant Edrlors 
Editorial Assistant 
Artists 



Orson ScqttCa^d 
Stephen Levy. Gregg Kefzer 
J^ndoll Foster 
Janice fairy. Debbie Bray 



Art Directory Product ion Manager 

Assistant 

Mechanical Art Supeivisor 

Artists 

Typesetting 

Illustrator 

Pr om ot ion Assistant 



Georgia BikosDavfS 

irma Swoin 

De Potter 

LesieJessup, Cindy Mitchell 

TerryCash.C!ebiTtioma5 

HarrySlair 

Todd Heimarck 



Associate Publisher/Notionol 
Advertising Sales Manager 

Advelismg Coordinator 

Advertising Accounts 

Sales Assistant 



Andy Weehan 
PattiWiilJoms 
Bonnie Volenti rx> 
J?05emarie Dct^/is 



Operations.'Customer 
Service Monager 

Customer Representatives 



Dealer Coofdinalot 

Assistants 

lndividualOrderSuper\nsion 
Assistants 



Operators 
Shipping &Receiving 



Carol Lock 

Patty Jones. Chris Potty. 
Christine Gordon 

Fran Lyons 

Goil Jones. Shorory Minor 

Dorothy Bogon 
Rhonda Sovoge. Lisa Flohorty, 
Anita Roop, Sharon Sebastian. 
Debi Goforlh 

CcssanOf a Robinson 
tvlorvSprogue 

Jim Cowafd, Lofty O'Connor. 
Dai [?ees. Chris Cain, 
Jotin B, IVIcCor^rieli 



E>atD Processing Manager 
Assistont 



LeonStokes 
Joon Compton 



Accounting Manager 
Comptroller 
Accounting Assistants 
Assistants 



PauU Megiioia 

James M Hurst 

Lirkdotvliller. Dons Hail 

JiliPope.Ajt^noHarris.Emifie 
Covii. Anne Ferguson 



Robert C. Lock Chiet Executive Officer 

Gory R. IngersolL P^eskJent 

Paul J- Nflegliaki, Director, finance and Plofming 

James M Hurst. Comptroiler ^TVaS^ 

Debi Nash, Executive AiSJstont iJ^J5jn?5-Li 

Carol Dickerson, Assistant 



Coming in Future issues 

The Future Of 
Synthetic Music 

Robots That Roll, Crawl, 
And Bounce 

Several Action Games For 
Multiple Computers — 
Battle Of The Barriers, 
Colorobot, Demons Of Osiris, 
And The Worm Of Bemer 

Commodore Chaining And 
Disk Mointenance 

£asycalc — A Spreadsheet 
Program For The TI-99/4A 

Atari Autorun BASIC 



COfvlPUTEl Publicotioni Inc. publishes: 



COMPUTED 
COMPUTE! Books 



Corporate office: 

505 EcJwaraiQ Dfrve, 
Grnensboto. KC 27.109 USA 
Mailing address: COMPUTE! 
Post Onice Bc» 6406 
Gieensljoro, NC ??.103 USA 
Telephone: «f9-275-9e09 



Subscription Information 

COMPUTE! Circulation Dept. 
P.O. Box 5406 
Greensboro, NC 27403 

TOLL FREE Subscription Order Line 

800-334-0868 

In NC 919-275-9809 



COMPUTE! Subscription Rates 
(12 Issue Year]: 



us 



[one yr] $24 Air 



[two yrs.l $<i5 
(three yrsj S65 
CanadQ and Foreign 
SurfoceMoil $30 



Europe. Australia S42 
Middle East. Central 
ArT^erica and Nortti 
Africa S52 

South A/nerico. Sootti 
Africa. Far Eosl S72 



Advertising Sales 




The Gittelman 
Company' 

/AIDaitc- 

■J ■s'l*UthWilfk:ms 
r ^i — -\ -^ 

The Gittelman'^ 
Company J 

ShOiDn Brodiu 
)oe Porter. Mike fanley 
.'- "215-64(1 
NyMetto>1i^7-67l7 



> 



COMPUTE! Home Office 

; Harry Blair 
Souttieostern Sales 
'tJepresentotive 
919-275-9809 



In Britisti Columbia, Canada 
Alaska or Hawaii call 40S-364-5&b; 
Elsewhere in Canada or outside 
Nortti America coll 919 276 9609, 




COMPUTE! 
Home Office 

Andy Meehan 

National Advertising 

Sales Monager 

'?1V'276-9809 



Phoebe Thompson 
and Associates 

101 Church Street 
Suite 13 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 
PHOEBE THOMPSON 



Phoebe Thompson 
and Associates 

2556 Via Tejon 
pQlos Verdes Estates. 
CA 90274 
JOANN SULLIVAN 



SB & Associates 

P.O. Box 335 
Libertyvilie, IL 60048 
GORDON BENSON 



COMPUTE! 
Home Office 

505 Edwardia Drive 
Greensboro, NC 27409 
HARRY BtAIR 

boutheo?.i'-"rrr, ^^ijip-i ^epreseniotive 



The Gittelman Company The Gittelman Company Address all advertising materials to: 



Sfotler Office Building 

Suite 518 

20 Providence Street 

Boston, MA 02116 

AL DALTON 

RUTH WILLIAMS 



Summit Office Center 
7266 Summit Avenue 
Fort Washington. PA 19034 
SHARON BRODIE 
JOE PORTER 
^y!IKE STAN I FY 



pQtti Williams 

Advertising Production Coordinator 

COMPUTE! Magazine 

505 Edwardia Drive 

Greensboro. NC 27409 



the CO^/PUTi! SLb:.c:ibef lis' is mr:de ovciloble 'O ccrolulh/ scieene:! orgcnizaticn j wrtr- o product or ^er^c-:; which rr.ay r>s 
ot interest to our leaders. If you prete: not to receive such mQliings, please send iir\ ejioct copy ol your subscription Icbei to, 
COMPurEi, P,0- Box 9M. Farmingdaie. NV 11737, Include a note indicating your pieteience to receive only your subscription. 



Authors ot manuscripts warrant thot oil moterlois submitted to COMPUIEI ore original rriateriois with lull ownership rights 
resideni in said outhors By submitting orticies to COMPUIEI, authors acknowledge Itiot such materials, upon acceptance lor 
publication, become tne exclusive property or COWPUllil Publicotions. Inc, No portion ot Ihts magazine may be reproduced 
in any form without wriHen peimlssion frorm ttie publisher Entire contents copyrigM '■ 1983, COMPUTE! Publications, Inc. Rights 
to programs developed and submitled by aultiors ore expfained in our outhor contioct Unsolicited materials not occeplBd 
for publication in COMPUTE' wll be relumed it auttior provides a self -addressed, stomped envelor^ie. Progroms (on tope or 
disk) must accompany each submission. Printed lislir>gs ere optiorvaL but helpful. Articles should be furnished as typed copy 
(upper- arxl lowercose, pleose) witti double spacing. Each page of your article should bear ftie tftle of the article, date ond 
f>ame of the author, COfylPUIEI assumes no iioblity for errors In articles or odverlisemenls. Opinions expressed by authors are 
not necessarily those o( COWPUIE!. 



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COMPUn! December 1983 



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Commodore 64" is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Ltd. 



READERS' FEEDBACK 

The Editors and Readers of COMPUTEI 



Chill Factor For Disks And Tapes 

I have often read that diskettes must not be ex- 
posed to temperatures below 50 degrees. Does 
this mean that people who live in cold climates 
must not order disks or programs by mail in the 
winter? Will the disk be ruined or must it be given 
time to warm up again? Do cassettes suffer the 
same limitations? 

Helen Weidner 

Severely cold weather should not limit your mail order 
purchases of diskettes (blank or preprogrammed). The 
storage medium will keep some of the cold away from 
the disk. However, the safest procedure is to climatize 
the disk for at least 24 hours before inserting it in the 
drive. Extreme cold and heat cause contraction and 
expansion of the plastic disk, which alter the disk track 
locations. 

Also, extreme humidity can damage a disk. A safe 
guideline (suggested by 3M, for disk operation) is a 
temperature range of 50 to 125° Fahrenheit and 8 to 
80% humidity. Cassette tapes are less sensitive than 
disks to temperature and humidity extremes, but 
climatizing them, too, is a good idea. 



Where Are The Commodore 1541s? 

We have received many letters from readers asking 
about the disappeairmce of Commodore 1541 Disk Drives 
from the market. A Commodore representative told us 
that the demand was greater than the supply. Appar- 
ently, Commodore did not anticipate that so many 64 
owners would purchase 1541s rather than Datassettes. 
However, several Commodore dealers informed us 
that the return rate of 2541s had recently been high, 
suggesting a technical flaw. Possibly Commodore is 
attempting to locate and correct the problem and then 
reissue the 1541s. Commodore has said that the drives 
would be back on the market soon. 



30,30,2C,30,30,0D. Other than location 00, no 
matter where 1 start, 1 get this same pattern. 
Can you help me? 

Larry Rieth 
Jim Butterfield replies: 

It's not hard to view disk ROM, once you get the com- 
mands right. The false pattern you were getting, by the 
way, is the 00,OK, 00,00 status message in ASCII. I 
find it easiest to call up the bytes one at a time. 

The program here should do the job. There are 
some "cursor cosmetics" built in to aid with convenience 
of use; these are not essential, so you may want to elim- 
inate them. Everything is in hexadecimal, since that's 
the most convenient way to read machine language. 
Again, change this if you wish. 

1 don't have any 1541 memory maps. I have been 
hanging back since Commodore has been knmon to 
change architecture from lime to time. If you want to 
vieiv disk ROM, start at $C000 and work up from 
there. 

190 PRINT "INPUT MEMORY ADDRESS" 

200 PR1NT"IN HEXADECIMAL: " :0PEN1, 8, 15 

220 PRINT" [2 SPACES} {4 RIGHT H 31 SPACES) 

[UP}" 
230 Z$="XXXX":INPUTZ$ 
240 PRINT"{UP} "; :IF LEN(Z?)<>4 THEN GOTO 

{SPACE]220 
250 T=0:FOR J=l TO 4 : Y=ASC (MID? { Z$, J) ) 
260 Y=Y+48*CY<58)+55*(Y>64) 
280 IF Y<0 OR Y>15 THEN GOTO 470 
290 T=T*16+Y:NEXT J : K=0 : PRINT" [6 RIGHT}"; 
300 V=INT(T/256):U=T-V*256 
360 PRINTll, "M-R";CHR$(U);CHR$(V) 
370 GET#1,X$:IF X$="" THEN X$=CHR$(0) 
380 PRINT" "; :X=ASC{X?)/16 
390 FOR J=l TO 2:G0SUB 500: NEXT J 
420 T=T+1:K=K+1:IF K<8 GOTO 300 
440 X=T/4096 
450 PRINT : PRINT" E2 SPACES }"; :F0RJ=1 TO 4: 

GOSUB 500:NEXT J : PRINT" [UP } " :GOTO 220 
470 CLOSE 1:END 

500 X%=X:X=(X-X%)*16:IF X%>9 THEN X%=X%+7 
510 PRINT CHR$(X%+48); : RETURN 



Reading Commodore 1541 Disk Drive 
iVIemory 

I own a 1541 Disk Drive. I wrote a small program 
so I could read the disk ROM and display the 
contents in hex format. Starting at location 00, I 
can get information for about 100 bytes. Then I 
get a repeating pattern: OD,30,30,2C,20,4F,4B,2C, 

10 COMPUH! December 1983 



Atari XL Features, Disk Density, And 
Octave Expansion 

Upon reading your review of the Summer Con- 
sumer Electronics Show (August 1983), I thought 
of the following questions about Atari's com- 
puters: 
1. Do the XL series require a plug-in BASIC car- 




THE BEST REASON FOR HAVING A HOME COMPUTER. 



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there are fiv/e programs in the Early 
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Children is a set of nine entertaining 
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uses shapes, sizes, directions and 



«> 



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12 can learn to play melodies with Early 
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Early Games feature multiple 
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And that's the best reason for having 
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it's cold on top of the 
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tridge, or is BASIC built-in? 

2. What is ttie physical difference between a single- 
density disk and a double-density disk? 

3. How can a single-density disk be converted to 
double-density? 

4. Are there any software or hardware packages 
available to increase the amount of music octaves 
the Atari computers can generate? 

5. How does the direct-connect modem included 
in the 1400XL and 1450XLD computers work (as 
far as connection goes)? 

Andrew Matsuoka 

1. The 1200XL requires the optional BASIC cartridge, 
but the new 600XL, 800XL, 1400XL, and 1450XLD 
all have BASIC built-in. 

2. The term double density can be loosely applied. It 
can refer to more tracks per inch (TPI), larger sector 
size (128 bytes versus 256), or additional tracks and 
sectors. In an effort to provide compatibility, Atari does 
not truly use double density. In effect, they added extra 
sectors, increasing disk storage from 90K to 227K. 

3. The 1050 drive can read single-density disks, so it is 
a simple matter of copying a file from a single-density 
disk to a formatted double-density disk. 

4. The four Atari sound generators have an eight-bit 
resolution, so there are only 256 possible notes, or five 
and a half octaves. It is possible to chain tioo voices 
together to create one voice with 16-bit resolution, per- 
ijiitting a nine-octave range. You can have two 16-bit 
voices, or one 16-bit voice and two eight-bit voices. The 
Advanced Music System, available from APX (Atari 
Program Exchange) allows 8-bit sound and can be syn- 
chronized zvith an external cassette recorder to let you 
create recorded music with more than four voices. (You 
play one tape through the speaker while the Atari plays 
music. The composite sound is then recorded on a second 
tape recorder.) Take a look at "16-Bit Atari Music" in 
the March 1983 issue o/ COMPUTE!. 

5. Direct-connect modems attach to telephones with 
modular jacks , cither through the handset or the base. If 
you cannot simply unplug the cords from your tele- 
phone, you'll need to contact your telephone company. 
Adapters are also available from stores like Radio Shack. 



Dual Joystick Control On The TI-99/4A 

I built the adapter suggested by Gary Cook ("How 
To Build Your Own TI-99/4A Joystick Adapter/' 
COMPUTE!, August 1983), and it worked well as 
long as I only used one joysHck. However, when 
I tried two joysticks in a program, I discovered 
that the joysticks would lock each other up when 
moved in the same direction until one of the joy- 
sticks was disabled. 

To correct this, I added diodes (1N914 or 
equivalent) at each connection except ground. 

U COMPUTE! September 19B3 



Diodes should be added in the lines going to both 
joysticks, and they should have the cathode 
(banded end) toward the joystick switches. After 
this modification, simultaneous joystick move- 
ment was fine. 

Enclosed is a modified drawing of the adapter 
box. 

Jim Mallonee 

We tested this and it ivorks xoell. This alteration is un- 
necessary for those who plan to use only one joystick. 



TI 
CONSOLE PIN OUT 



ATARI ; COMMODORE JOYSTICK 



Add Diodes Here- 




Add Diodes Here - 



1 UP 

2 DOWN 
LEFT 
RIGHT 
N.C. 
FIKE 
BUTTON 

7 N.C. 

8 GROUND 
•» N.C, 

ur 

DOWN 

LEir 

RIGHT 

N.C. 

FIRE 

HUITON 

N.C. 
-8 GROUND 
-q N.C. 



POKE Dangers 

I'm concerned about the admonitions from the 
Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide. On 
page 215: "...without an assembler you will have 
to POKE the machine language program into 
memory which is totally inadvisable." Even more 
ominous is the note on page 417; "Commodore 
Semiconductor Group cannot assume liability for 
the use of undefined opcodes." 

What's the worst thing a wrong number could 
do? Erase magnetic files? System crash? Could an 
undefined opcode cause permanent hardware 
damage? 

David Paulsen 

Feel free to POKE around anywhere in your computer 
without worrying about causing trouble. The txvo war)i- 
ings that you cjuote refer to two different things. 

It would be "inadvisable" to POKE a machine 
language program into the computer without U5i}ig an 
assembler because it zoould prove extraordinarily frus- 
trating. Creating a machine language program by 
POKEing in the codes loouldn't disturb your computer, 
but it would take so long and zoould be so error prone 
that it might zoell drive you up the zoall. 

The otiier issue is rather technical. The 6502 chip, 
the little "brain" within Commodore and other com- 
puters, has a theoretical capacity to understand 256 
different commands (opcodes) in machine language. 



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Hoxoevcr, the designers only created 56 commands 
iviiich, even when multiplied by their several addressing 
modes, still don't use up ail 256 possible opcodes. How- 
ever, some of these unassigned numbers will nevertheless 
have effects if you use them in your ML programming. 
For a complete description of these hidden commands, 
see "Extra Instructions," an article in the October 
J983 issue of COMPUTB. 



How Much Memory For An Atari Disk? 

I'm very seriously thinking about purchasing a 
disk drive for my Atari 400. I want to know if 32K 
is enough memory to have a disk drive and run 
DOS, and still program. Is the neiv Atari disk drive 
able to plug right into your computer? 

Adam Bullock 

As a matter of fact, it's possible to run a disk drive with 
a 16K Atari. DOS (without the menu) uses under 6K. 
For practical purposes, though, you shoiddhaveat 
least 24K in order to run most programs. 

The new 1050 double-density (256K) drive attaches 
to the standard serial port like any other Atari 
peripheral. 

Commodore 64 Video Revisited 

Afi Update From }im Butterfield 

The programs given in "Commodore 64 Video - A 
Guided Tour," Parts 6 and 7 (July and August, 1983), 
work fine on my machine, and will work well on many 
earlier model Commodore 64 machines. On the neiuer 
machines, there's a problem that can be solved by adding 
the extra line: 

90 POKE 53265,27 

Here's the problem: In neioer models of the 64, the 
computer actually does its own raster interrupt at time 
of power-up. This is done for a peculiar reason: The 
computer zuants to know if it's a European model or 
not. 

As TV technicians will tell you, North American 
television has 525 scan lines, zvhereas the European 
PAL system has well over 600. The computer's internal 
clock also runs at a slightly different speed. But the 
ROM is the same in both systems. 

Now, the ROM needs to know lohether it's working 
within a European or North American system, since it 
will want to time certain events (realtime clock, com- 
munications speeds, cassette tape) at a constant speed 
regardless of its internal clock rate. So at time of power- 
up, it commands: "Tell me when I reach line 622 of the 
screen." (The actual value it uses is 311, since scan 
lines are "twinned.") 

Some time later, the computer asks, "Has line 622 
showed up?" If the answer is yes, the computer knows 
it must be on a European system. If the answer is no, 
the computer decides that this must be the North Amer- 

16 COMPUTE! DecemberWeS 



ican system, which doesn't have 622 lines on the screen. 
Noiv the computer can fix up its timing tables. 

In the meantime, it has left the raster register with 
a high number in place. To make the split programs in 
Parts 6 and 7 work, loe must take this high nufnber 
out. Address 53266 handles most of the raster register, 
and it's all we need to do the job specified. But first we 
must clean out that high bit in address 53265 with a 
POKE value of 27. 

If this seems rather complex, don't worry about it. 
just add the line 90 POKE 53265,27 to all programs, 
and everything should behave correctly. 



A Sharper Picture For The Ti-99 

The normal screen color of the TI-99/4A — as- 
suming you have a color TV — is green while the 
program is running and blue when it is not. If 
you have a black-and-white TV, you can get a 
sharper picture by asking for a gray background 
with a statement like 

10 CALL SCREEN(15) 

at the beginning of the program. This disables the 
color-generating circuit of the TI-99 and removes 
the pattern of vertical lines often seen on a black- 
and-white TV that is fine-tuned for maximum 
sharpness. It also increases the sharpness of the 
characters. The change remains in effect as long 
as the program is running. 

The same idea can be applied to other 
machines that allow you to control the background 
color. 



Michael A. Covington 



Atari 800 Software For The 
1400XL/1450XLD 

I was thinking of trading my Atari 800 for the 
1400XL or the 1450XLD, but would all the software 
for the 800 work in the 1400XL and/or in the 
1450XLD? Or, would it be easier to just buy 
the CP/M module and the Atari expansion box for 
my 800? 

I am looking for a disk drive for my Atari 800. 
I have seen the Atari 810 and the 1050, the RANA 
1000, and the Percom disk drives. Which one would 
be the least expensive and still be a good choice? 

Also, I would like to know if the Commodore 
1701 Video Monitor would hook up to my Atari 
800 through the monitor jack. 

Shane McWilliams 

Almost all BASIC programs and the majority of other 
programs will run just fine on the new XL computers. 
The Atari Operating System in ROM was designed so 
that future upgrades loould be transparent to previous 
software, as long as that softxvare followed certain rules. 
Some programs shortcut these rules, so they end up ac- 



Sometimes, a word is worth a thousand pictures. 







m 



Once there was a y_y time, 
before the written word, when people used I '^ pictures to communicate. Symbols representing 

entire -\/^ ideas were easy to ^H^ see and understand. And the people were comfortable with this language, 
And they were <_a happy. r— i 

But tlien came the ■"m n , computer. 

And symbols were replaced by complicated commands. Soon data processing meant learning a whole new 

vocabulary. And the .^j people became frightened of the new comj)uler language. And they were ' ' sad. 

fl 

Then came Jane. r~~i 

Absolutely, positively, unequivocably, unquestionably, the most simple way to operate a ^HB computer. 

Jane does away with the keyboard 1^'^^ • Instead, a simple, hand-held device called a ^ "^ mouse 

selects from a variety of applications. From letters to lists, to calculations and spreadsheets. Jane does them all. 

Jane does away with complex command words. 

Instead, simple, easy-to-understand ^p 1 >,-, pictures tell the computer what to do. 

From one operation lo many, all on one screen at the same lime. 



Best of all. June doesn't cost lots of $ money. Now everyone can use a home computer. Jane gives back to 
the people a language they understand. 

And they ^^V Jane. You can too. 




QJJ 




ma run 



Jane comes complete with Janewrite'", Janecalc'", Janelisf". and of course, a mouse. 

Jane is now available for the Apple II , II +[64[<],//e, Commodore 64. Available soon forthe new Atari'" series and the IBM PC" and compatibles. 
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cessiitg routines that have moved eheioherc in the neiv 
XL computers. Atari has published a list of Atari programs 
that do not work properly on the new machines. 

If you are only interested in CPIM, you do not 
need an XL computer (the CPIM module attaches via 
the serial port), but many future expansion cards will 
not work with non-XL Ataris (or the 1200XL). 

All the third-party disk drive manufacturers offer 
certain features aver the 810 disk drive, most noticeably 
price. The new so-called double-density Atari 1050 
drive reduces the price gap, but some third-party drives 
offer tivice the 90K storage of the 810, along with dual 
drives, LED consoles, and printer ports. As with com- 
puters, the decision is up to you. 

Look at the drives critically and decide what features 
you want and need. You should make sure the drive 
offers total compatibility with Atari drives, so you can 
boot, read, and write disks prepared on an 810, such as 
commercial programs or a friend's disk. Most third- 
party drives deviate slightly from the 810 drives, but so 
do individual 810' s from each other. Borrow several 
copies of disks prepared with an 810 and try them out 
on the unit in question. Warranties and service options 
are also crucial with this type of equipment. You cannot 
count on your authorized Atari service center to repair 
a third-party drive. 

And, yes, you can use the Commodore 1701 Video 
Monitor with your Atari. As a matter of fact, you can 
even use the proprietary video enhancement circuit via 
the rear connections of the monitor, just buy or wire a 
cable to correspond to the RCA jacks and the Atari moni- 
tor pinout (the Commodore 64 and the Atari monitor 
jacks are almost ide7Jtical). You can also connect your 
Atari and 1701 with the cable that comes with the 
monitor. The monitor can also be used via the front 
connections with any computer that has composite video 
output, such as the TI-99I4A. 



Modifying The Kernal On The 
Commodore 64 

I have been trying to run the Kernal from RAM - 
the same RAM underneath the Kernal ROM from 
EOOO to FFFF. I'm trying to make some modifica- 
tions to the Kernal, but as a first step it would be 
best to move the unmodified Kernal from RAM. 
I've come close to being successful, but just when 
I think it's ready to work, the computer crashes. 
Do you have a solution? 

Charles Kluepfel 

A strange thing happens when you try to flip out the 

Kernal - the BASIC ROM goes, too. It might be helpful 
to read "Commodore 64 Architecture" (COMPUTE!, 
January 1983). 

If you want to rewrite the Kernal routines, you 
must also copy BASIC into RAM. In BASIC, the whole 
procedure would be: 

18 COMPUTC! December 1983 



for j=40960 to 49151 :poke j, peek( j ) : next 

{space}j (copy basic) 
for j=57344 to 65535 :p0ke j, peek( j ) : next 

{space} J (COPY KERNAL) 
POKE 1,53 (SWITCH OUT BASIC AND KERNAL RO 
MS) 

This is the piece you're missing. Now it zoill work. 



Avoiding Tl INT 

A little known fact about TI computers is that 
they will accept nonintegers for arguments such 
as array subscripts and CALL HCHAR and CALL 
VCHAR arguments. If a floating point value is 
used, the computer will round off to the nearest 
integer. For example, A {1 .6) is the same as A (2), 
and A(5.25) is the same as A (5). 

This is useful when you want to compute the 
proper element of an array with floating point 
values. For example, say you have a sprite with 
coordinates SPRITEX and SPRITEY, and you want 
to see what's underneath it on the screen. You 
can then use the following command to get the 
value: 

CALL GCHAR(SPRITEY/8+ .5,SPRITEX/8 + .5,var) 

Why is this important? Taking the INT of 
those values uses a lot of valuable time, and the 
INT is absolutely unnecessary. In a graphics pro- 
gram, this can speed things up considerably. 

Neil Weinstock 



Cassette Auto-Boot For Atari 
"Roadbiocic" 

If you have a working copy of "Roadblock" (COM- 
PUTE!, July 1983, page 108), make the following 
changes to create a cassette boot version. 

1. Load the original listing of Roadblock. This must 
be a working copy. 

2. Change line 10 to: 

10 OPEN #3,8,128,"C:":FOR I = 13804 TO 1 5010: 
READ ArPUT #3,A:NEXT I:CLOSE #3:END 

3. Delete line 15. 

4. Add line 1000 as follows: 

1000 DATA 0,10,236,53,242,53,169,60,141,2,211,169, 
196,133,10,169,57,133,11,96 

5. LIST or SAVE to tape. 

6. Ready the cassette on which you want your 
boot version, and make a note of the tape 
counter. 

7. Now RUN the modified program (which is still 
in memory). 

8. You will hear two beeps. Press play and record 
on tape and then any key on your computer and 
a cassette boot will be created. 



a child's mind 




Developing a 
child's mind is seri- 
ous business. But 
witin Spinnaker's 
Family Learning 
Qames, helping a 
child learn new 
skills and concepts 
BT--^ J5 fun for everyone in the family. 

^^^^^^* Take UP FOR QRAB5.'" It's a fast- 
•^^^ce'd crossword game that will keep parents and 
kids on their toes. Quick-grab the letters you need off the 
rotating cube before someone else does! Place them in 
your playing area and build words fast for points. It's chal- 
lenging, it's e><;clting, and it's actually helping your children 
develop their vocabulary and spelling skills. 




Then there's FRACTION fEV/Ef^.'" It's got arcade action! 
Hop along on your pogo stick and find the right fractions, 
zap the wrong ones, look out for holes In the floor, and 
keep a close eye on the clock. Everyone in the famliy will 
want a turn-and it's a great way for kids to learn what 
fractions are and how they relate to each other 

And don't forget C05I^IC LIFE'"-an arcade-type game 
where you populate a planet using strategy, speed, and 
your ability to make quick decisions. 

Find Spinnaker Family Learning Game cartridges at 
your local software retailer, and play them on your Atari® 
or Comnnodore 64"' 
home computer 
And make learning 
fun for the whole 
family! 




sPinnnMAjEi? 



We make learning fun. 



©1935, 5pinnaKer Software Corp. h\\ nghts reserved- UP fOR GRABS, rr^ftCTIOti TEVER and COSMiC UFE computer programs ii^^ uademarK5 of Spinnaker Software Corp. Atari 15 a registered trsdemarK of 
fttarl. Inc. Comnnodore 64 is a traderriarh of Commodore Electronics Umited 



9. Rewind the tape to the count you noted earlier. 
Turn off your computer and remove the BASIC 
cartridge. Turn on your Atari while holding down 
the START button.' 

10. You will hear one beep. Press play on tape 
and then any key on your computer and 
Roadblock will auto-boot. 

The cassette boot that you have just created 
should load and run in approximately 65 seconds. 
For an even faster cassette boot (45 seconds), use 
Ed Stewart's program in COMPUTEI's Second Book 
Of Atari, page 227. 

Richard K. Wagner 



function. For example, DEF FND2(V) = V/2 is a func- 
tion that divides a number by two. PRINT FND2(W) 
then would give you a five, and FND2(3) gives 1.5. 
The variable V, called a dummy variable, defines the 
relationship of the nundier you giiK' the function. You 
can still use V in your program (and you don't have to 
use V as the dummy argument) as its value won't be 
changed by a FN statement. 

On the Atari, you can just write a subroutine to 
accomplish the same thing. For example: 

1000X = X/2:RETURN 

fust set X equal to the value in the function's paren- 
theses, GOSUB 1000, and assign X appropriately. You 
can even name the subroutine with DW2 = 1000 and 
then GOSUB DIV2. 



DEF FN In Atari BASIC? 

The statement DEF FN does not work in Atari 
BASIC. How can I convert DEF and FN statements 
to work on my Atari? 

Sam Scarfina 

First you need to define ivliat an "alien" BASIC'S com- 
mands do in order to translate them. The purpose of 
DEF is to define a user-xvritten function. Functions 
intrinsic to Atari BASIC include COS, INT, SQR, 
FRE, etc. DEF FN would let you create your oxon 



COMPUTE! welcomes questions, comments, or 
solutions to issues raised in this column. Write to: 
Readers' Feedback, COMPUTE! Magazine, P.O. 
Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27403. COMPUTE! 
reserves the right to edit or abridge published 
letters. © 





Vic 20™ or Commodore 64^" Compute 



Own Weatherman 

I new HAWS (Home Auto- 
'matic Weather Station) com- 
bines a quality weather sensor 
with software to let you track 
weather conditions inside or 
outside your home. HAWS moni- 
tors weather data including dew 
point, temperature, humidity, 
and atmospheric pressure; plots 
historical data and graphically 
displays weather trends; deter- 
mines the comfort and chill fac- 
tors to help you dress; HAWS 
even forecasts the weather and 
compares your predictions to 
the local weatherman's- 

HAWS uses the same sensor 
employed by weather services in 
60 countries worldwide. The 
HAWS package costs only 
$199.95 and includes the sensor, 
cassette or floppy disc program, 
IS-foot cable with connector for 
the computer, and a complete 
user's manual. 

Send today or call toll free to 
order your HAWS package. 



This exciting, new weather package 
allows you to learn, monitor, and predict 
the weather using the same equipment as 

the pros. 




Ordering Information 
Send $199.95 in check or money order payable to 
Vaisala, Inc. Include name, address, telephone num- 
ber, your computer model (VIC20 or Commodore 64), 
and program preference (tape cassette or floppy disc). 
Or call toil free to place your order. 
Major credit cards accepted. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 

1-800-227-3800 ext. haws 

VIC 20 anO CommotlDre 64 are trademarks of Commodore Elecironics Ltc) 



Learn/Teach Meteorology 

More than a toy or game, 
HAWS provides the first oppor- 
tunity to use your computer as a 
data sampler and data analysis 
system for meteorology, allow- 
ing the user to interact with 
incoming data to monitor and 
forecast weather conditions. 
HAWS includes an instructive 
software program and a com- 
plete user's manual that teaches 
meteorological terms and equa- 
tions to allow anyone to quickly 
grasp weather concepts either at 
home or in the classroom. Sim- 
ple plug-in components and 
easy hookup also means you 
can free up your computer at 
any time for other duties. HAWS 
is a great educational tool for 
anyone. Order today 

® VAISALA 

VAISALA INC, 

2 TOWER OFFICE PARK 

WOBURN, MA 01801 



20 COMPITTE! December 1983 




Spiiuiaker Aerobics. The moreyou do, 
the less yoti have to show for it. 

I for you. 
f Whet 



Spinnaker's new computer fitness program 
makes shaping up fun to do. And makes you 
■ feel terrific 
AER0BIC5 gives you everything you need. Warm- 
ups, stretches, aerobics, cool-downs. It lets you work 
on overall fitness. Allows you to concentrate on con- 
ditioning specific parts of your body Or both. S. 
Best of all, you can exercise on your own sched - f 
ufe. In your own home. For as long or 
r-, as little as you like, Whatever works 



Whether you're a beginner or already In great 
y*^' shape, you'll love working 
out with Spinnaker AEROBICS. 
Which means you'll do it more 
often. And have even less to 
show for it 

AEROBICS is compatible 
with Apple,' Atari,'' and 
Commodore 64" computers. 




sfwnai^nR 



We make learning fun. 



O 1983, SpinnaKef Software Corp AJi rights reservea Apple ana j^tan are registereflirademarhs of Apple Computer, Ire and Atari. Inc respecliveiy ComnriOdDre6dibd trademarhof 
Commodore Eiectronscs, Ltd AEROBICS computer program is a irademarh of SpinnaKer Software Cofp 



The Home Office 



Kathy Yakal Editorial Assistant 



Computers have been used in businesses for many years 
to streamline procedures, promote efficiency — even to 
do things that were never possible without them. The 
same thing is beginning to happen in homes ivith 
microcomputers: New businesses are being created, and 
existiiig home offices can benefit from the variety of 
information services and software that is available. This 
article explores some of the ways that the traditional 
office is changing. 



For some people, "going to the office" no longer 
means a hurried breakfast, a quick glance at the 
newspaper, and a frenzied trek through rush-hour 
traffic. There are many options now available for 
people who would like to be able to do at least 
some of their work at home with a personal 
computer. 

Working at home is not a new concept. There 
are many jobs that can be done easily in a home 
atmosphere: free-lance writing, day care, mailing 
services, some types of accounting, and so forth. 

But the availability of microcomputers, and the 
proliferation of small business software and tele- 
phone linkups to huge banks of current news and 
other information, have made it possible to locate 
many offices wherever the worker wants them. 

You don't need an expensive, multifeatured 
business computer to run a business from your 
home. It's not necessary to have a technical back- 
ground. And you won't find a catalog limiting 
you to a certain selection of jobs. 

"The limit to what you can do with a personal 
computer to start a business is human imagina- 
tion," says Hank Scheinberg, an executive vice 
president for Continental Software in Los Angeles. 
"I don't think it's necessary to have a higher-level 
machine to do it, either. The lower-end machines 
will continue to get easier to use." 

Selling Words 

According to many software distributors, business 
software is starting to outsell games. Accounting 
and mailing list programs are very popular, but 
perhaps the best sellers are word processing 
software. 

It appears that many of those people who are 
purchasing word processors are using them for 
business purposes. "I would say that that's the 

22 COMPUTE! December1983 




Sue Click, of Cardio-Trace of Indiana, dctiionstrntes hmo a 
person's heartbeat can be transmitted from a pacemaker to an 
electrocardiogram machine through a modem. 



most common use among my readers," says J. 
Norman Goode, publisher of Micro Moonlighter 
Newsletter. "And it's not just the general concept 
of word processing. There are many variations 
that people don't often think of, like supplying 
vendors with reader service information." 

Goode's newsletter is geared toward people 
who want to use their microcomputers to earn 
some portion of their income. "I would say that 
the majority of our readers are moonlighters, 
people who need a second income or who want 
to set their spouses up in some sort of home busi- 
ness," says Goode. "But I occasionally get letters 
from people who were successful enough to turn 
their part-time jobs into full-time ones." 

The second most popular home business, 
according to Goode, is the consulting service. 
"The hottest topic is information brokering," he 
says. "For a fee, people will do specialized re- 
search by accessing on-line data bases, which 
they then write up as a report for their client." 

An Unusual Application 

Computers are becoming an important part of 
even the most personal of services, like health 
care. Medical procedures and equipment have 
made great advances by using microprocessors. 
But some people fear this, thinking that medical 
attention could become cold and impersonal. 
Sherry Pegg and Sue Click, of Indianapolis, 



s^3 






HILL 



iLES 



JAl DEPOT 

:? MILES 



;>!. 




bitroducing a conipttter game 

thatwill bring outtne railroad buff, the tycoon, 

the adyenturer,and the kid inyour l(id. 



TRAIM5 i5 one computer game that will really bring out 
the best in kids. Of all ages. 

Because TRAINS Is a Spinnaker game, which means it's 
a learning game that's really fun to play 

Tf^AIMS puts kids in charge of an old-time railroad. And 
whether their railway empire gets bigger or goes out of 
business is entirely up to them. 

As theyjuggle the challenges of picking up supplies and 
delivering to various industries, paying their employees, 
keeping the locomotive filled with coal, and making enough 
money to venture into new territohes, kids are actually 



learning the economics of running a business. 

They're learning to manage financial resources, and to 
use different Kinds of information in setting pnorltles. 

And best of all, they're having fun while they learn. 

Look for TRAIM5 on disk at your 
local software 
retailer, and play 
it on your Apple,'' 
IBM,' Atari/ or 
Commodore 64 ' 
computers. 



^>- 



''°'*^r. 



SPJmiM/fjEff 



We make learning fun. 



® 1985. 5plnn3her Software Corp m rights rescTvrjd Apple. IBM and Alan are registereH trademarhs of Apple CompuLer. Inc . Internauonal Bii5ine55 Macntnes Corp and Alan Inc respectluelv 
tommodore 6U is a trademark of Commodore Electronics limited TRAin5 Computer Ptogtam is a trademarK otSpinnakef Software Corp 



Indiana, operate a health-related business out of 
Pegg's home that is convenient and comfortable 
for patients, and far from impersonal. 

Called Cardio-Trace of Indiana, the company 
was set up eight years ago to provide follow-up 
care for people who have recently had pacemakers 
installed. Pegg and Click visit the homes of cardiac 
patients, get to know them and explain procedures, 
and give them a small transmitter about the size 
of a cigarette case. If the patient prefers, he or she 
may wear the transmitter in a ring or bracelet. 

The transmitters, which are designed by the 
individual pacemaker manufacturer, are actually 
tiny modems. They differ from the modems com- 
monly used with personal computers in that they 
send only analog messages and can only transmit, 
not receive, signals. 

When Pegg and Click call, the patient puts 
the transmitter next to the mouthpiece of the 
phone; a signal is then sent over the phone lines. 
That signal translates into a readout on an electro- 
cardiogram machine. Pegg and Click, who have 
been trained to read those traces, can tell if the 
patient is experiencing any unusual heart rhythms 
and if the transmitter is still functioning properly. 

Of course, if the readout indicates some seri- 
ous problem, the patient's physician is called im- 
mediately. If not, they send the readout to a car- 
diologist for analysis, and a written report to the 
patient's doctor. 

The office paperwork is done on an Apple 
II -I- using software modified by Pegg's husband, 
Terry, who is a biomedical engineer at St. Francis 
Hospital in Indianapolis. Terry's program allows 
them to send form letters, maintain detailed pa- 
tient files, and keep general business files like 
accounts receivable and tax records. 

Keeping Up At Home 

A personal computer and a modem give you access 
to a spate of news and information services. Even 
if you don't have a home business, these electronic 
clearinghouses may still provide you with infor- 
mation that will enhance your work, your financial 
affairs, or your personal life. 

Subscriptions are required to access most of 
these services. Some charge a per-minute fee for 
on-line time; in many cases, though, you are 
supplied with a toll-free or local number to avoid 
running up huge long-distance charges. 

CompuServe and The Source are probably 
the best known, but there are some new and some 
more specialized teleservices. 

• Desk Top Broker 

This financial service, which has recently come 
on-line, allows you to enter transactions, maintain 
a portfolio, and see current stock prices on your 
home computer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. 
"For the first time, individual investors can 

24 COMPUTI! December 1983 



service their own accounts as fast as any broker. 
The Desk Top Broker provides unprecedented 
independence and fiscal agility, giving the little 
guy an edge in the market," says C. Derek Ander- 
son, president of the brokerage firm CD. Anderson 
& Co. 'Tt marks a new era in personal investing." 

• RCA Hotline 

RCA Global Communications, which has operated 
a Telex service for a number of years, has recently 
introduced a system for home computer owners. 
Called the RCA Hotline, it offers world news, 
sports, weather, international financial informa- 
tion, and even things like book, movie, and record 
reviews. 

Alan Garratt, administrator for public affairs 
at RCA, sees a number of business applications 
for Hotline subscribers, especially those involved 
in worldwide business transactions. "Executives 
find that they can make good use of it at work or 
at home," he says. "If you get a great idea at HiOO 
at night, you can write it up and send it off, 
whether or not anyone is in the office." 

Free-lance writers who write for overseas 
publications, communications consultants, and 
people involved in importing and exporting 
manufactured goods have also found the service 
useful, according to Garratt. 

"It's not so much that our system makes pos- 
sible jobs that couldn't be done before," he says. 
"They can just do it much easier — productivity 
time is better." 

More To Come 

These examples are not given to imply that we 
are moving toward an entire work force that op- 
erates from its members' homes. Some types of 
businesses may always require a staff to work 
together at one location. But microcomputers, 
business software, and the instant information 
and communication made accessible through 
telecommunications, are generating new options 
for business sites. 

For more information, contact: 

Micro Moonlighter Newsletter 
4121 Buckthorn Ct. 
LaoisviUe, TX 75028 

RCA Global Commuukalions (Hotline) 

60 Broad St. 

New York, NY W004 

attn: Alan Garratt 

Customer Service: (800)526-3969 

C. D. Anderson & Co. 
300 Montgomery St. 
San Francisco, C A 94104 
Janis Brewer 
(800)822-2222 

Cardio-Trace of Indiana 

4231 E. Thompson Rd. 

Indianapolis, IN 46237 © 
















'i ft4.\!« 



^ 



■iiiiiM 



Introdttdng Snooper Troops detectiye series. 

Educational games that turn 

ordinary homes into Sherlocli homes. 



Where can you find educational computer games that 
your hld5 will really enjoy playing? 

Elementary, my dear Watson, from Spinnaker 

Our SnOOPEf^ Tf^OOFS" detective games are fun, exciting 
and cfiallenging. And best of all, they have real educational 
value. 5o while your kids are having fun, they're learning. 

As a Snooper Trooper your child will have a great time 
solving the mysteries. But it will take some daring detective 
work. They'll have to question suspects, talk to mystenous 
agents, and even search dark houses to uncover clues. 

Luckily, the program provides your kids with everything 
they need; like a SnoopMobile, a wnst radio, and a SnoopMet 
computer 



SMOOPER Tf^OOPS detective games help your children 
learn to take notes, draw maps, organize and classify infor- 
mation and they help develop vocabulary and reasoning 
skills. All while your kids are having a good time. 

5o [fyou want to find educational games that are really 
fun, here's a clue; ask your local 
retailer for SMOOPER TROOPS 
computer 
games.* 




.«3g ' 



JT^s^rsi^^AB? 



We make learning fun. 

t IMS. SsinrwKei Sortwdiu Corp All rpgnti icierueo Apple, iBnana Awn are fegiswred \txSi:mi:hy ol Apple Compular. mc . inemattonal BusinmiMacnirws Cmo dno ftUTi. Inc , reipec lively Commoaori. 64 15 a tiddemaiK 
Gf CnmmtxJoie Electronics LimiieO SnoOPCR TROOPS cornputer program fl j Iraacmafh of Spiniidher Sonwwrc Corp 



Computers And Society 



David D. Thornburg. Associate Editor 



High Tech, High Touch, 
And 1984 



Take a deep breath everybody — 1984 is a month 
away. 

It is obvious to everyone who cares to look 
that 1984 is going to be a pretty good year. In fact, 
it will be nothing like the deeply depressing vision 
of George Orwell in his novel. 

It is interesting to examine why 1984 won't 
happen the way Orwell said it would. In fact, the 
reason is pretty simple — at the same time we've 
been moving into a high-tech world, we've also 
been growing in our sensitivities as human beings. 
In the book Megatrends, John Naisbitt points out 
that the growth of the human potential movement 
has run parallel to the growth of high technology 
in the marketplace. 

This is fortuitous, since we are at one of those 
points in history where major social change is 
possible. 

For the last several years we have been 
making a transition from an industrial economy 
to an information economy. To put it simply, 
American car production has dropped through 
the floor while computer and software production 
has shot through the roof. From a time when most 
of our countrymen worked in the fields, we have 
moved to an era where only 3 percent of our work 
force produces our food, and more than half of us 
work in the information sector. 

Orwell's vision for 1984 predicted the tre- 
mendous growth in the number of information 
workers, but it also depicted this transition causing 
us to become faceless entities to be manipulated 
by the government. Reality has been far kinder 
simply because of our own sensitivities as human 
beings. Perhaps it is our genetic survival coding 
that insured that we would not roboHcize ourselves. 

Perhaps, it was just luck. 

For whatever reason, we gave ourselves the 
chance to retain our humaneness, and we took it. 

26 COMPUTEI December 1983 



Do you remember the three big movies in the 
summer of 1982? Two were high tech {TRON and 
Star Trek IF), and one was high touch (£.!.). You 
know which one was popular. 

Did you see On Golden Pond or La Traviata — 
and cry? 

I did. 

The popularity of films that touch us is one 
sure sign that w^e are not about to sacrifice our 
human spirit on the altar of high technology. But 
what really delights me about our new age is that 
the computer — the supreme embodiment of 
high technology — can and will be seen as a tool 
to enhance and preserve our creative spirit. The 
computer can be a tool to bring us together, not 
pull us apart. 

Of all the places where the computer has this 
power, I think the schools are among the most 
important. To see just one example of why this is 
so, consider the use of word processors in the 
classroom. 

One of the greatest forces that stifle creative ■ 
writing is the labor of recopying a final manuscript. 
I've seen many third- and fourth-graders learn to 
hate story writing because of the laborious hand 
copying involved with the creation of a legible 
manuscript. A word processor goes a long way 
towards solving this problem. 

Of course, some teachers (failing to realize 
that we already have) may argue that we shouldn't 
make our children dependent on high technology. 
Very few children know how to make a quill pen, 
or how to make their own inks. In fact, many 
children have access to very high tech ball-point 
pens, some of which use tungsten carbide balls 
(tungsten carbide is very high tech). 

The issue of accessibility to word processors 
will go away as the computer continues to become 
more commonplace in homes and schools. The 



Last Yiear Over 
20,000 Americans Vifere 



Committed loAsylum. 







Ince people enter 
^^/wm,they don't wantto 
leave. And neither will you. 

Inside this thrilling 
adventure game from 
Screenplay " challenges 
lie around every comer, 
behind every door. There 
are hundreds of doors, too! 

You've gone crazy 

from playing too many adventure games, 
You've been placed in the asylum to act out 
your delusions. To cure yourself, you must 
make good your escape. 

There's no one you can turn to for help. 
Almost every turn leads to a dead end. Or 
worse, vigilant guards stand in your way. If 
you can't outmuscle them, can you outthink 
them? Inmates line hallways offering help. 

Asylmt runs in 48K on the Atari, Commodore 64 and IBM PC 
computers. See your local software dealer $29.95. 




But can they be trusted? 
While getting out of 
B the asylum may take 

months, you'll get into our 
J game instantly. 

Smooth scrolling three 
dimensional graphics give 
you a very eerie sense of 
^H reality.This feeling is also 



heightened by the use of 
full sentence commands. 

No wonder thousands of people bought 
AsylumXast year, and PC World recently 
named Asylum one of the top y i, ^ 

ten games for the IBM PC. > =: *v 

Play Asylum. AH you have ■■ 

to be committed to is fun. i" 

screenplay "— 



scneenpl^ 



Box 3558,Chapel Hill NC 27514 800-334-5470 



You could win $10,000 from Screenplay anywhere our games are sold. 




KarlMikesell 

Palatute, Illinois 

levelZO 



•^, 



1 




4 






Ir 






k ^1 





Mary McDemim 






■^n«. 



£mMm 





The12 strongest People 

InTheWbrid. 

I You may know them as students, doctors, 

' office workers, lawyers. But don't let that fool 
youThey are the Warriors ofRasT 

At will, they can enter the world of Ras. A 
world where sorcery is real and heroics are commonplace. 
It is there that you'll find the four challenging new compu- 
ter role-playing games: Dunzhin, Kaiu Wyldeand Ziggurat. 

You can join them, pitting your mind and 
reflexes against mazes filled with creatures that are 
more threatening at every turn. Turns that become 
more treacherous with every step. And with eac h triun iph 
you become stronger, faster, wiser. 

Even better, you 
can carry your experience from 
one game in the Warriors of Ras 
series to the next. You may need 
to. Dunzhin, Kaiu Wylde and 
Zi^uratart increasingly difficult. 

^P So sharpen your 
sword You "^f could become th< 
first Level 20 Warrior. The strongest in the world. 

And all the while even your best friends may 
never know what's happened to you. epMlQ||||loif '' 








V/ylde 



Ziggurat 



1 J 1 * ' .1 $29.95 each. All games are for AUtrimtd Commodore 64. 

COUia DeCOmetne DunzliinisahoavaUdbleforAppkandmMPC 



Box 3558, Chapel Hill NC 27514 800-334-5470 



You could win $10,000 
from Screenplay anywhere our games are sold. 



point is that a word processor can relieve the 
tedium of recopying a manuscript by hand, and 
can go a long way towards developing and main- 
taining a child's creativity. 

Other computer-based tools for creative ex- 
pression (such as graphics tablets and picture 
generation software) can help maintain creative 
energy. In fact, the analytical computer can end 
up being a strong assistant to our creative expres- 
sion — it can be high tech and high touch at the 
same time. 

And so, with this view, I warmly embrace 
the forthcoming new year safe in the knowledge 
that we — through our sensitivities as human 
beings — have insured that Orwell's vision for 
1984 will always remain fictional. 

On Piracy And Example Setting 

We all know that unauthorized copying and dis- 
tribution of software is not only against the law, 
but also that it can drive good authors out of 
business. We may think that it is the lone pro- 
grammer working in a back room who is most 
victimized by this practice, but large companies 
can be hurt, too. 

Faced with dwindling school budgets, some 
teachers seem almost proud of their abilities to 
increase their school's software library at no net 
cost to the school. 



If you think this doesn't happen, consider 
the case of a major educational publisher which 
understands that teachers want to evaluate soft- 
ware in their own classrooms before buying it. In 
an effort to be responsive to this reasonable ex- 
pectation, the publisher made its software avail- 
able on a 30-day trial basis. At the end of the 30 
days, many of these products were returned. On 
close examination, the publisher found that the 
documentation binders had been opened and 
that some of the pages were reinserted in the 
wrong order — a sign that they had been copied 
along with the disks. 

How could this company have prevented 
this significant financial loss at the hands of ap- 
parently unscrupulous teachers? Some might 
argue that the disks should have been copy pro- 
tected, but copy protection works to the detriment 
of those who feel that they should be able to make 
legitimate backup copies of their disks. Also, for 
every software lock, there is a key available for a 
modest price. 

What is needed is a new word in these 
teachers' vocabulary — ethics. 

How prevalent is the problem? It's hard to 
say, but I have heard many teachers say that the 
reason they prefer Apple to Atari is because much 
of Atari's software is distributed on cartridges so 
you have to buy one for each computer in use. © 





IIMTPIC^ 64 




MODES: pen. brush, text. CURVED SHAPES: arc, circle, ellipse. 
STRAIGHT SHAPES: box, line, triangle, parallelogram. FILL: pen- or 
tirush- fillBd shapes. SETTABLE COLORS: pen. bristles, brushmoves, 
four dot-colors, crosshair, border. MOVES: horizontal, vertical, diagonal, 
by dot, brush width, character. POINT MOVES: to start, end, midpoint, 
next home, perspective. BLOCK MOVES: copy, rotate 90°, halve/double 
across and down, mirror across and down, SELECT FEATURES: file save/ 
get picture or block to tape/disk; mix shapes, text, all graphics 
characters; eight storable brushes; select brush width; tilted shapes; 
^perspective point and line; mark start, end, perspective point; Help Menus^ 

/Each cassette program has manual with complete instfuclions. Postage 
I and handling add S2.00 for US or Canada, S4.0Q foreign. Payment in 
I advance in US Dollars by check or international money order or via visa, 
\MG, American Express. 




There's nothing like it!' 



• EDUCATIONAL ART: Art the modern way. For ages 12 and up. 

• FUN; You design it. PAIfvlTPIC does the work. 

• PROFITABLE TOOL: PUT PAINTPIC PICTURES IN YOUR OWN 
PROGRAMS & GAMES. 

• SOPHISTICATED: Fourth generation application for the 
Commodore 64. 

• REVOLUTIONARY: THE END OF CRUDE GRAPHICS FOR THE 64 

Step by step instructions, a good first program. 

ph: 714-261-1624 

^II^PT. $35 

Kiwisoft Programs, 2944 Alpine Way, Laguna Beacti. CA. 92651. 



Fruslration 
Insurance. 

10 Good Ways to Protect Yourself from Personal Computing Problems. 



Computing frustration can hit anyone. Beginners at home. People In 
business. Experienced programmers. Anyone. It doesn't tiave to happen. 

Just lool* into an Osborne/McGraw-Hlil book and you'll find the 
answers you need to protect yourself from computer frustration. We've 
published a line of over 70 clear, technically accurate boo!(S that are very 
user-oriented. With a range of titles that includes everything from general 



interest to hardware, software, programming, technical reference and 
assembly language guides. 

Defeat frustration with an Osborne/McGraw-Hill solution. You'll find 
the one you need at your nearest bookstore or computer dealer. Or order 
direct by phone or mail. Here is a partial list of titles. 




5PH 





■ VIC 20 " User Guide by John Heilborn 
SRanTalbotl 

Order #86-1 SLS.95 

Offers bolh cleii insfruclions for 
aperabn; the computer and its peri- 
pl)erals iiid easyto-follonr lessons ir; 
VIC" BASIC. 



* Your Comniodore 64™: A Guide lo the 
Commodore 64™ Corapuler NEW! by 
John HeilbornS Ran TalbotI 
Older #114-2 S14.9S 

An easylo. understand teachini guide 
psched mlh all Ihe inform alion you 
need to master your C-W computer. 



• Commodore 64<" Fun & Games NEWI 
by Ron Jeffries, Glen Fisher, S Brian 
Sawyef 
Order #116-9 S11.95 

A collection of 35 games and puKles 
guaranteed f o provide hours of enjoy- 
ment for any 0-64™ user 



• Armchair BASIC: An Absolute 
Beginnei's Guide to Programming in 
BASIC by Annie Fok and David Fon 
Order #92-6 S1I.95 

Filled «ilh instructions and enamples. 
It's an uninbmidating inlroduclion to 
the most popular microconpufer 
language-BASIC 



• The Osboine/MdSntr-fin Home 
Computer Sofhtaie Guide NEWI by 
Steve Dillea 
Older ttl07-X I1I.9S 

Every major home computer sofhware 
package, includin|> personal finance, 
investment, education, worij process- 
ing and games is listed, summarized, 
and analyzed in this comprehensive 
lelerence guide. 









w^m 






^^1^^^^ 




■ The MBASIC Handbook NEW! by 
Waller A. Efflin & Gregory Solberg 
Order #102-9 S17.95 

Gain a better understanding of pro 
gramrriing while you learn to develop 
and customize programs with this 
fundamental guide to Micfosott™ 
BASIC. 



■ WordStar ' Made Easy [Second EdiliDn) 
by Walter A, Eltlin 

Order #9a-X SU.9S 

■; , a r^uanlum improvement over Iho 
MicroPro manuar PC MAGAZINE 



• The ZXil^/TSlOOO™ Home Computer 
Book NEWI by David C. Foyf 
Order #1061 37.95 

Learn ho* to operate these revolu- 
tionary lovr-cost ccmputers while 
developing valuable programming shilis. 



• An Introduction to Microcompnlers: 
Volume 0; Tlie Beginnerls Book by Adam 
Osborne & David Bunnell 
Order #64-0 SI4.9S 

:, .one ol those tare inttoducloty 
books. . outstanding and informallve'.' 
PERSONAL COMPUTING 



• Apple ' II User's Guide tor Ihe Apple ' II 
Plus and Apple* lie (Second Eijition) 
by Lon Poole 

Order #104-5 S17.9S 

A brand-new edilioh of the liesl-selling 
Apple IJ User's Guide! 



A. 




Before you hit the Frustration Key, reach for 
an Osborne/McGraw-Hli! book. 
By phone, call TOLL FREE: 800-227-2895. In 
California, call 800-772-4077. VISA and Master- 
Card accepted. 

By Mail, complete the coupon and mail 

to Osborne/McGraw-HitI, 2600 Tenth Street, 

Berkeley, CA 94710. All orders must be pre-paid. 

Check, money order. VISA and MasterCard accepted. Add shipping fees per 

item; $0.75 4!h Class, SI, 50 UPS, S3.00 1st Class/UPS Blue Label, California 

residents, add local tax. 

Allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Prices subject to change without nohce. 

Osborne/McGraw-Hill 

KjOfiryrnoPMeimaflCctp • WctdSurKSfejis^ftflliiaww* tlilooProlMnMlwtMl • ZJUIiiatrrtt^iflolSrteWficMitli m •TSlftBoi 



f 



. please send me a Iree catalog 



Dept. D-12 



Name 

Address^ 

State 



City. 
Zip- 



Indicate method of payment . 

ViSA/Fipdale 

Cards 

Signature 

QTY 



_ Check/Money Order 
MasteiCard/Eip date_ 



ORDER S 



PRICE 



u 



linn 



Osborne/McGraw-Hill 

2600 Tenth Street 
Berkeley, CA 94710 



Tax 



Shipping 



TOTAL 



J 



The Christmas Of 
The Computer? 



Kothy Yakai, Editorial Assistant 



111 December 1982, Time^fli'^ the computer its annual 
"Man of the Year" award. Now Christmas of 1983 is 
being touted as the big one for these new machines, due 
to the market shake-out and radical price cuts over the 
last 12 months. Here's a review of the events of 1983 
and a preview of how this Christmas is shaping up for 
the home computer industry. 



July is the month when many retailers begin 
making their Christmas plans — products are or- 
dered for the busiest shopping season of the year. 

In the summer of 1983, it certainly looked as 
if this might be the Christmas of the computer. 
The home computer market was in the midst of a 
big shake-out, and a few industry leaders had 
emerged. Competition, improved technology, 
and lower manufacturing costs had put the home 
computer well within the budgets of many Amer- 
ican consumers. Announcements of some flashy 
new products and even further price cuts at the 
summer Consumer Electronics show in Chicago 
sent retailers and distributors scurrying to place 
huge orders. 

Christmas notwithstanding, the emphasis on 
computers in education could have also meant 
big sales for hardware and software manufacturers 
in the back-to-school market. But in order for that 
to happen, hardware should have been in place 
and in great supply by August. It wasn't. Not one 
of the major hardware manufacturers seemed to 
be in a good position at that time to ship its prod- 
ucts, due to production delays. 

Let's back up a bit and look at what led up to 
this year's scramble. 

Half The American Households 

The personal computer industry is, of course, 
based on supply and demand. According to pro- 
jections released at Future Computing's Second 

32 COMMITB December 1983 



Annual Home Computer Market Forum in San 
Francisco, the viable hardware suppliers right 
now in the low end of the market seem to be 
Commodore, Atari, Texas Instruments, Timex, 
and Radio Shack. Future Computing (FC) reports 
that estimated monthly shipments by these com- 
panies are: Commodore, 160,000; TI, 100,000; 
Atari, 65,000; and Radio Shack, 35,000. 

End users create the demand. Many studies 
have been done on just how high that demand is. 
Roughly, 1 out of every 20 households owns a 
computer now, but 3 out of 20 want to buy within 
the next year. By the end of the 1980s, more than 
half the American households are expected to 
have one, according to PC's study. 

There are lots of reasons why people want to 
buy computers. Keeping up with the status quo. 
The fear that if their children don't have a com- 
puter at home, they will be left behind in school. 
That eternal desire to get organized once and for 
all. And, of course, videogames. 

How people choose which computer to buy 
has also been the subject of much study. Some 
rely on the recommendations of salespeople in 
computer stores, but that has become increasingly 
difficult. Computers often appear on the shelves 
of mass retailers and discount houses where em- 
ployees may not know a lot about the product. 
Others depend on the media for their information: 
computer books, magazines, and television 
shows. Probably the most common method is 
advice from friends. 

Complicating Things 

There is a third aspect which complicates the 
issues of supply and demand: software. 

Third-party software publishers often do not 
want to start developing and marketing software 
for a computer until there is a healthy installed 
base. But this is a software-controlled industry: 



"s-y!:^^,^ 




...and one day people will be 
able to send mail by satellite 
right fiom their own homes. 



Who would have thought it possible? 

Now a new software package makes 
Western Union mail by satellite services available 
through your personal computer. 

POSTMAN from Sydney is a remarkably 
simple program to use. Just type your message 
into the format on the screen and your letter 
is instantly transmitted by Western Union's 
satellite and mail network. 

Mailgram® messages can 
arrive overnight anywhere in the 
U.S., Canada and Puerto Rico. 
E-Coms® are beamed to a receiv- 




ing Post Office for priority delivery. And 
Computer Letters are an inexpensive Tele- 
gram look-alike that arrive with the speed of 
First Qass Mail. 

The POSTMAN package costs $44.95 
complete; there are no additional subscription 
fees. Western Union charges will be billed to a 
special acrount or your credit card* 

For more information about 
POSTMAN, including where to buy it, 
call 619-231-1775, Extension 40. 
POSTMAN. How did we 
ever live without it? 



POSTMAN FROM SYDNEY. SEND WESTERN UNION MAILGRAMS, 
COMPUTER LETTERS AND ECOMS RIGHT FROM YOUR OWN HOME. 

Mailsrilm IS a rtsisltrai trailemarh of The Western Union Tetesrapti Coi;pjr.> E-Com is a product ana a teg slwed [fatieniark ol the U.S. Postal Seivice 'Visa and Maste^Carc 
« 1983 Sydney Development Corp, o 1983 The Western Union Telegraph Company. 



Award-Winning Hits for your Commddore 



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CHOPUFTER 

For the Commodore VIC-20. 

Those are ourmen they're holding 
hostage! We don't care how you 
do it. but you 've got to shoot your 
my in there and bring 'em bacl< 
alive. You've got three choppers, 
probaljly not enough but it's all we . 
can spare And the enemy camp 
is pretty heavily fonified With tanks, 
jetfighters and truly nasty laser 
bombs. Okay, maybe it's a suicide 
mission, but somebody's got to do it. 
Dozens of innocent lives are at 
stake. We're counting on you. . . 
don't let them down! 






mmmi 














Now you can play some of America's hottest computer games on 
your Commodore, and get a FREE introduction to Home Manage- 
ment Software. It's our way of showing you that action-packed 
gaming is only the beginning of your Commodore's capabilities. 



•SCLCCTIOAS SOMC OF THE ■ItOST MNOViTIVC COUnTCR PROGI>liMS~ I9S3CCS $OmVAHe SIIBW€ASC AWAHBS. 






with a Free Software Bonus. 






•:Vi r^i''*-': ->» 



SERPENTIHE 
For the Commodore VIC-20. 

In the Kingdom of Serpents, tt\e only 
rule is eat or be eaten. Jhree huge 
and evil red snal(es are slithering 
through a complex series of mazes, 
closing in on your good blue serpent 
from all sides. l\/love fast and watch 
your tail! Try to survive long enough 
to let your eggs hatch Into reinforce- 
ments. Swallow the magical frogs 
or your enemy 's eggs and you can get 
the strength to go on... but look 
out to your left. . . and ahead of 
you! They've got you surrounded, 
and it looks like meal time. 









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It can teach you. Manage your family finances. Even help you buy 
a new car. And now, for a limited time only when you buy one of our 
specially-marked games you'll receive a certificate good for one 
of our Home Management Programs absolutely free. 



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NO ADLXnONALMB^tQCTy PEQUnO^ 



-CmPUFTtR-AIID "SCmHTmB"*ll[ VIC-2B TRAHSLATmS OF OmCmiS St BM OOnilHAMB DAVID SWOffl. RCSPCCTIVCir 



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Get Creative! 



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SAVE NEW YORir 
Far the Commodore 64. 

It was as peaceful a day as New York 

ever gets, when suddenly the sky 

went dark and a monstrous droning 

noise filled the air Hordes of 

gmtesQue aliens were swooping 

down from all sides, biting Into die 

Big Apple as if they hadn't eaten 

for days. They were laying eggs, too. 

Horrible slimy things that got down 

into the subway tunnels and began 

clawing their way up. If anyone 

was going to save the city it would 

have to be me. I leapt into my 

rocket and began blasting away 

I thought I stood a fighting chance, 

but fuel's ninning low. . . another 

wave of invaders on the horizon 

...signing off... 



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Gef more o£/f of your Commodore. 



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PIPES 
ForthBVIC-20anil 
Commotiore 64. 






I Arlo is a tiard-working plumber, but 
I a touch absent-minded. He 's building 
I a water supply system for the 
.. whole neighborhood, and he realty 
^ has his hands full. Help Arlo decide 
\ what kind of pipe to buy and where 
: to put it... his limited budget 
doesn't leave him much margin for 
error. Figure out the shortest, most 
economical way to get everyone 
t hooked up... and just hope poor Arlo 
has remembered to open and close 
the right valves. A marvetously 
entertaining and challenging 
: £ exercise In planning, economics and 



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PIPES 




NOAMK^x>4S t-^MCW fttfluce^ 








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Look for complete promotional details inside each specially- 
marked box of our year's biggest hits. Or talk to your Creative 1 
Software dealer See how creative your Commodore really can be! 



m'l 



^r'Ssf^£m::7S:vi 



•StUCTlDASS0»ICafm-M0STmilDVAmiaaiFUT[flFB0G8AMS-l9S3CESS0FIWABtSHmCA$fAWAmS 



^^mssss^^^m. 



Offbeat Giffs And 
High-Tech Whimsy 



You've already seen the beginnings of it. 
T-shirts and bumper stickers with clever 
computer sayings on them. People's faces 
digitized and put on buttons. Little foam 
bats to "beat" your computer. High-tech 
whimsy. 

Several companies 
have introduced products 
in this lighter vein that you 
may want to consider for 
gifts this year. 

The Computer Tie 

Designed to interface your 
wardrobe with your com- 
puter, these ties are woven 
in a navy blue silk and poly- 
ester blend with the words 
BIT/BYTE/FLOPPY/HARD/ 
RAM/ROM/MICRO/MINI 
written in a continuous 
pattern on them. One size 
fits all. $15.95. (Tie-One-On, 
Inc., P.O. Box 40225, 
Philadelphia, PA 190106) 

Milk Ctiocoiate Dislcettes 

Sweetware, Inc., which specializes in edible 
reproductions of high-technology objects, 
has just introduced what they consider the 
ultimate high-tech gift: the Milk Chocolate 
Eat-Only Diskette. The diskettes come in 
pairs (a half-pound of chocolate) in a gift 
box. 

Company vice president Alan Levu says 
that the chocolate diskettes make an ideal 
gift for anyone who uses computers, and 
even dedicated computer haters will get a 
chuckle out of them. They're guaranteed 




"user-delicious." 

Sweetware sells the diskettes by mail 
order and through department stores and 
computer retailers. (Sweetware, Inc., 516 
Shelburne Rd., S. Burlington, VT 05401) 

Ttie bitCard 

These software packages/greeting cards are 
actually graphics and text adventures that 
relate to a specific holiday or event. The first 
in a series of bitCards, "A Christmas Adven- 
ture," can be customized with references to 
the recipient, and programmed to deliver a 
personal holiday greeting to him in whatever 
words the sender; wishes. This message ap- 
pears as part of an animated graphics scene — 
the player's reward for completing the ad- 
venture. The bitCard draws the player into a 
fantasy world in which he is a participant. 

Available for Apple 11 + le, 48K disk; 16K 
cassette for Atari 400/800, TRS I/III/CC, and 
Commodore 64. Cassette version also avail- 
able for 5K VIC-20 and VIC-20 with 8K RAM 
expansion. $16.95 all versions. (bitCards, 120 
South University Drive, Suite F, Plantation, 
FL 33317. bitCards is a subsidiary of 
CHARTSCAN DATA, Inc.) 

Computerized Greeting Cards 

Another way to personalize your greeting 
cards by using your computer is available 
from Compucards. The package consists of 
Christmas cards and envelopes with con- 
tinuous tab feed and clean edge perforations 
that let you write a message on each card, 
address it, and print it out. The accom- 
panying diskette contains an upgraded ver- 
sion of the public-domain program Tinytext, 
which has message-merge capabilities and a 
separate mailing list program. Both programs 
come with instructions on diskette. 

For Atari computer owners (800 with 48K 
and disk drive). Package of 20 cards and en- 
velopes, $9.95. Diskette, $5. (Compucards, 
P.O. Box 894, Stone Mountain, GA 30086) 



Many people do not want to buy a computer until 
there is a lot of software to support it. It's a vicious 
circle. Those computer manufacturers that man- 
aged to survive the shake-out did so partly by 
having enough in-house software available to 
please consumers until third-party packages could 
be developed. 

Pipe Dreams 

Let's recap the highlights of 1983. 

•Coleco introduced a prototype of a new 
personal computer called Adam at the summer 

38 COMPimi December W83 



Consumer Electronics Show. Slated to retail at 
under $600, this system consists of an 80K com- 
puter with detachable keyboard, high-speed tape 
drive, letter quality printer, and built-in software. 

• Atari discontinued its 400 and 800 models 
and shelved the 1200XL. A new line was intro- 
duced at the summer CES: the 600XL, 800XL, 
1400XL, and 1450XLD. A good number of new 
peripherals and some corporate restructuring 
were also expected to help capture a greater per- 
centage of the market share. 

• Commodore slashed its hardware and soft- 



BabylsFiist 
SoftHaie. 




What software does the well- 
educated toddler prefer? 

Ask Adam. He plays with the 
full line of PDI interactive story- 
book software. 

Why? Because Adam's mother 
knows children from 3-6 don't 
have to read to have fun learning 
with PDI software. 

Each storybook package 
includes a voice-based cassette 
ynchronized for the Atari com- 
uter. The cassette combines a 
learning game and a story 
read aloud by a profes- 
sional actor. 

While listening to the 
story, your child is 
— asked to direct 
;he action on 
screen by mov- 
ing the joystick. 
As the story 
progresses, 
your child 
'kc becomes 
■'m':- part of 
the 



action, while acquiring new skills. 

Best of all, the voice track helps 
children use PDI programs with- 
out assistance. 

When PDI programs talk, chil- 
dren listen. And learn. 

Parents will listen, too. And 
what they'll hear is the sound of 
children developing pre-reading 
skills, including letter recognition 
and number concepts. 

But more than talk, we've got 
action, too. From Sammy the Sea 
Serpent to the Adventures of 
Oswdid, all PDI Pre-School pro- 
grams include bright colors, 
charming music and friendly 
characters children warm up to 
quickly. 

If all that's not enough to set! 
you on PDI software, this should. 
PDI has commissioned a study to 
measure the effects of our soft- 
ware on pre-school children. 

The study, a first of its kind, was 
supervised by educators special- 
izing in pre-school development. 
We'll be glad to send you the 
results, if you'll send us a post- 
card with your name and 
address tO: 
"The PDI Pre-School Study" 
c/o Program Design, Inc. 
95 East Putnam Avenue 
Greenwich, Conn. 06830 




Program Design, Inc. 



'Atari is a trademarl< of Atari, Inc. 



ware prices and announced several new software 
packages midyear. Commodore 64s have been 
selling for under $200, VIC-20s for under $100. 
Peripheral prices have also been reduced dramat- 
ically, making Commodore's personal computer 
packages some of the most attractive in the market. 

• Rumors began circulating about a new IBM 
personal computer called the Peanut, which was 
expected to retail for under $600. Industry leaders 
had predicted that IBM would wait for the home 
computer market to shake out under them before 
they introduced a competitively priced product; 
late 1983 seemed to be that time. 

• Mattel Electronics announced a home com- 
puter system called the Aquarius and a computer 
adapter that would turn the Intellivision game 
machine into a computer. Both machines were to 
have a number of peripherals. 

A Few Snags 

All of these new products could have meant a 
very healthy holiday season for the home com- 
puter industry. But manufacturers encountered a 
few problems between summer announcements 
and fall shipping schedules. 

Coleco's Adam, after a couple of earlier delays 
that kept it from making its August debut, 
finally received FCC approval in early October. 
Production models were expected to be in the 
stores by mid-October, possibly too late to make a 
dent in the Christmas market. Some retailers gave 
up and began cancelling orders in early fall. 

Commodore's hardware manufacturers have 
not been able to keep up with the demand. Disk 
drives vanished entirely for a few weeks in the 
fall, reappearing again in early October. Commo- 
dore 64s were in short supply and began evi- 
dencing some technical problems; some retailers 
have reported unusually high return rates. Soft- 
ware is plentiful, but so are back orders on hard- 
ware. Many retailers still believe there is a good 
chance that it will be a Commodore Christmas. 

Atari still had not brought out any of its new 
XL line bv mid-October. A spokesman said that 
the 600X1 and 800XL should be out in time for 
Christmas, and that the 1400XL and 1450XLD 
would probably be ready for shipping in the first 
quarter of 1984. The add-on keyboard for the 2600 
game machine, which is not yet available, is ap- 
parently still being considered. 

Texas Instruments suffered tremendous fi- 
nancial losses in the first two quarters of 1983. 
They lowered their prices and embarked on an 
enormously expensive ad campaign to capture 
the Christmas market, but they had already lost a 
lot of the market to Commodore and Atari. Their 
new strategy is to emphasize the quality and edu- 
cational value of their machines. 

IBM's Peanut failed to appear in time to cap- 

40 COMPUTE! Decembef1983 



ture any great percentage of the potential holiday 
buyers. Speculation is that the debut had been 
put off until January. 

The Mattel Aquarius Home Computer System 
is being distributed — minus several of the an- 
nounced peripherals — in only four markets: Los 
Angeles, Chicago, Atlanta, and Detroit. The com- 
puter adapter, also without some of its add-ons, 
is still expected to be available around Christmas. 

Massive layoffs by Atari, Texas Instruments, 
and Mattel, as well as all of the no-shows, did 
nothing to instill public confidence. 

Some Good News 

Availability of hardware is not the only deter- 
mining factor in how successful this Christmas 
will be for the industry. 

"People need to remember that we've crossed 
the bridge over to what is now a software-driven 
industry," says Dan Schaefer, vice president of 
marketing for Warehouse One, a Norwood, Mas- 
sachusetts, software distributor. ''People are no 
longer so enticed by fancy keys on computers — 
they want to know what they can do with their 
computers, what kind of software will support it." 

Schaefer is not nervous at all about losing 
business this year because of absent hardware. 
"There's a tremendous installed base of Ataris, 
Commodores, TIs, and IBM-PCs," he says. As of 
October 1, Warehouse One began keeping their 
main distribution center in Kansas open until 
midnight on weeknights and all day Saturday, 
and offering next-day delivery, to help retailers 
keep up with the Christmas demand. 

"Last Christmas was enormously successful 
for retailers, and that was at a time when the econ- 
omy was terrible," Schaefer says. "Considering 
the economy this year, and the demographics of 
the average computer buyer, this should be an 
exceptionally good one." 

The tardy arrival of this year's new hardware 
does not particularly surprise Schaefer. "Anytime 
a new industry emerges, this happens. Products 
are announced long before they are actually avail- 
able. The hope is that if the product sounds good 
enough, people will hold off buying something 
that already exists until they see what this other 
company comes up with. 

"Some people in this industry have a ten- 
dency to dwell with glee on other people's fail- 
ures," says Schaefer. "This is an extremely 
dynamic industry: it changes every day. There is 
still plenty of opportunity for the smart 
businessman." 

So consumers may be a bit disappointed by 
potentially limited choices this December, but at 
least one sector of the home computer industry 
is looking forward to a very successful holiday 
season — software publishers and distributors, © 



^:;:&iM^ 



im 



Now from Timex...a powerful new computer. 






» 



» 








Timex introduces a second generation of home com- 
pufers designed with one purpose in mind: to be useful. 

With 72K onboard memory, it's powerful enough to 
solve more problems in your home. Entertain you with 
brilliant color graphics and 8-octave sound. 

Plus do word processing in addition to spread-sheet 
tunctions. 



And while it does more, it does it with even greater 
simplicity 

Us one-touch keyboard means you don't have to 
l<now typing. New Timex Command Cartridges can be 
used without any knowledge of programming. 

Finally A home computer you can really use in your 
home: the Timex Sinclair 2068. 



72K on-board memory. 

More memory than any 

computer in Us class. And 

more memory means you 

con do more. 



8-octave sound. 

Con be used to create 

four sounds simultaneously 

over a wide frequency 

range. 



Unique one-louch entry. 

Requires no typing skills; 

makes programming 

easier to learn. 




Word processing capability 

This program provides 

a 64-character wide screen 

when used with a video monitor. 

An 80-colijmn printer that j 

y^ provides hard copy ' 

will be available early 1964. 












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Now the excitement of original 
arcade graphics'and sound effects 
comes home to your computer 

Introducing ATARISOFI™ A new 
source for computer software. 

If you own a Commodore VIC 20 
or 64, a Texas Instruments 99/4A, an 
IBM or an Apple II, you can play the 
original arcade hits. 

DONKEY KONG by Nintendo, 
CENTIPEDE™ PAC-MAN, DEFENDER, 
ROBOTRON: 2084, STARGATE and 
DIG DUG. [On the Tl g9/4A you can 
also play Protector II, Shamus, Picnic 
Paranoia and Super Storm.] 

So, start playing the original hits 
on your computer 

Only from ATARISOFT 

Some g ames also available on 
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ATk.II$OFT 

Now your computer fits 
the arcade hits. 

ODNKEY KONG , Mario and NINTE WDQ are crademarks and © 
Nintendo 1S81, 1983. FAC-MAN and characters are trademarks 
of Ballv Midway Mfg. Co sublicensed to Atari, Inc. by Namco- 
Amenca. Inc. DEFENDER is a trademark of WillianiB EfecLronics. 
Inc. , manuifactured under license from WiHiama Electronics, (nc 
ROBOTHON. 2CB4 is a trademark and © of Williams 1 992, manu- 
factured under license from Williams Electronics. Inc. STARGATE 
is B trademark and O of Williams 1981. manufactured under license 
from Williams Electronrcs, Inc. DIG DUG is created and designed 
byNamcoLtd manufactured under license by Atari. Inc Trade- 
marks and O NamcD t982- PROTECTOR 11 is a trademark of Syrv 
apsE Software Corporation, manufactured under license by Atan. 
Inc. SHAMUS is a trademark of Syn^se Software Corpnratjon. 
manufactured under license by Acan, Inc RCNlCRAPA^JOlAisa 
trademark of Synapse Software Corporacion. manufactured by 
Acan. Inc. SUPER STORM is engineered and designed by Synapse 
Software Corporation, manufactured under license by Atan, Inc. 
ATARISOFT'" products are manufactured by Atan, Inc, fcruseon 
c^e above referenced macfiines and are not mgds. licensed or 
approved by ttie m.snuf acturers of tf>ese machines COfvlMDDORE 
G4. VIC 20. TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 99/4A. IBM. APPLE, CQLE- 
COVi S! DN and INTELLI VISION are respectively trademarks of 
Commodare Electronics Limited, Texas Instruments, International 
Business Machines Cor^., Apple Computer; Inc . Cdeco Industries. 
!nc and Mattel. Inc A Warner Communications Company 
1983 Atan, Inc. All figfits reserved. 



Complete this coupon and we'll keep you 
up to date on the newest hits from 
ATARISOFT^" 



EMame 



Address 



City 



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Zip 



Telephone 

PHODUCT OWNED: (Check mel 

□ TI-99/4A □ Commodore Vic 20 

I I IBM PC Q Intellivision 

I I CDmmodore B4 Q Apple II 

I I ColecoVislon Q Other 

Mail to: 

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So. San Francisco, CA 34080. asm 35 



THE BEGINNER'S PAGE 



Richora Mansfield, Senior Editor 



Zones Of Unpredictability 

Part 2 



The RND command is a necessary part of most 
computer games or computerized simulations of 
real events. That's because life (as far as we know) 
has a random quality. Perhaps it's our limited 
viewpoint, but some things do seem to be acci- 
dental. When you play Poker, or if you write a 
Poker game on your computer, you'll see ran- 
domness in action. When cards are shuffled and 
dealt, something accidental, something unpre- 
dictable is supposed to happen — no one knows 
what order the cards are in when they are passed 
around. 

Last month we explored some of the general 
rules for working with the RND command in 
BASIC. However, since it is one of the less trans- 
portable of the BASIC instructions, we need to go 
into some of the specific differences in the ways 
that each particular computer handles RND. 
Transportable means the ease with which a program 
written in one computer's BASIC will run on 
another's BASIC. There are always a few adjust- 
ments to make, but some programs are so machine 
specific {especially graphics programs) that they're 
ver}' hard to translate and are, therefore, not very 
transportable. Different computer brands tend to 
have specific peculiarities in their use of RND. 

But before looking into the particular use and 
syntax of RND on your computer, let's run a brief 
test of the randomness of your RND. RND on any 
computer is an effort to cause accidental, unpre- 
dictable results. The more unpredictable, the bet- 
ter. One simple way that we can test your RND is 
to see if it favors one number over another. If we 
limit the test to the numbers 1 through 10, will it 
hit, say, 3 more often than 7? 

Type in the program and RUN it. You'll see 
the statistics on how often each number is turning 
up. Ideally, you'll end up with 10 percent for each 
number. At first, of course, the percentages will 

44 COMPUTE! December 1983 



be off, but if you let the program run for a while, 
you should get pretty close to even distribution. 

There are a few general programming tech- 
niques to notice here. If you add up the percents, 
you won't get precisely 100 percent. That's be- 
cause we're using the INT command to round off 
the numbers printed on the screen. The computer 
is working with extended decimal fractions, but 
for neatness, we're not printing everything out. 
Take off the INT to see how messy things get. 
Also look at line 40. Here 1 is added to X each 
time we get a random number. That's so we'll 
have numbers 1-10 instead of - 9. Remember 
that an array (a collection of numbered variables) 
will start with zero. That is, A(0) is the first "cell" 
in an A( ) array. To make it easier for us to keep 
straight, we can just ignore the A(0) cell and work 
with the cells from 1 on up. 

Can you tell why line 100 is necessary? At the 
start of our test, some numbers won't come up at 
all. They will leave a zero in their A( ) array variable 
cell. The computer won't allow you to divide by 
zero. So, we need to put in a special test for zero 
and then skip over line 110 where the division 
would normally occur. 

Special Seeding 

There's an important aspect of randomness which 
is not tested by this program: order of arrival. A 
computer which gave the numbers 1 through 10 
in order, each cycle through the test, would look 
perfect on the test. The distribution would be 
exactly 10 percent, but it certainly wouldn't be a 
good randomness generator. There are two as- 
pects to the randomness of the order of arrival of 
numbers. First, you don't want the same sequence 
of random numbers each time you turn on the 
computer. We'll call this the start-up sequence. 
With a repeating start-up sequence, each time 



Vfedoritcare 
which computer you own. 

Wfell help you 
get the most out of it. 




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you played Poker the first hand of the evening 
would be identical to the last night's first hand. 
And the second hand would match last night's 
second hand. And so on. 

The second aspect is repeating sequences 
within a program. You don't want to have a short 
sequence of random numbers that starts repeating 
itself (1534215342...). Last month we dealt with 
both of these issues and discovered that, in fact, 
the order on several computers is not random 
unless you take a special step to mix things up. 

The special step is called seeding and it means 
using something random as a starting place. Com- 
puters are relentlessly logical. It's not easy for 
them to do things accidentally, to create random- 
ness. So, they use a special algorithm (a method) 
to try to mix things up. The RND command takes a 
number (the seed), turns it inside out (by "rotating" 
it in its binary form), multiplies it by itself, 
rounds it off, and so forth. All this twisting and 
turning is designed to come up with an unex- 
pected number. However, if the starting place is 
the same, the result will be the same. The same 
algorithm is used each time. That's where random 
seeding comes in. 

It's Fast. You're Not. 

If you give RND a seed from the computer's ultra- 
fast, realtime clock, you won't get the same seed 
twice. (Realtime means time which passes as hu- 
mans use it: 60 minutes to an hour, etc. All com- 
puters have internal timers, but not all have clocks 
that keep realtime.) That's the method used by all 
of our computers except the Apple; it has no real- 
time clock. Why don't you ever get the same seed 
when it comes from the clock? Because this clock 
is terrifically fast and you're not. The time it takes 
you to turn on the computer, type RUN, and hit 
RETURN is never exactly the same. Consequently, 
the start-up time for a game will depend on you 
and that's plenty random by computer standards: 
if you bat an eyelash, the computer clock has reg- 
istered hundreds of time cycles. In any case, 
you'll need to know how to work with your par- 
ticular RND, and it will help you translate pro- 
grams from alien BASICs if you also have some 
idea of how the other computers use RND. Here 
are some notes on how to use RND on several 
popular computers: 

• Commodore Computers. You can first seed 
the RND with (TI), the special variable which holds 
the current value of the clock. To do this, you 
would write a line early in your program like this: 

10A = RND(-TI) 

This will cause the computer to provide a 
different sequence each time the computer is 
turned on. That is, the seed will depend on the 
clock and it will be called upon when you type 



RUN to start the program. To insure that calls to 
RND later in the program are also highly random, 
use RND (0). 

• Atari. There are no special requirements for 
the Atari. It seeds the RND generator itself. 
Whenever you call upon RND, you'll get both 
randomized as well as different start-up sequences 
each time the computer is turned on. The syntax 
is the same as Commodore: A = RND (X) . It 
doesn't matter what X is. 

• TRS-80 Color Computer. Same syntax, but 
use RND (0) to achieve both randomized se- 
quences and random start-ups. 

• TI-99/4A. Using RND alone will result in 
identical sequences. To avoid that, you should 
use the additional command RANDOMIZE early 
in a program: 

10 RANDOMIZE 
100 A = RND 

Further, our TI columnist, C. Regena, 
suggests using RANDOMIZE before each call to 
RND to insure total randomness. 

• Timex/Sinclair. To call the clock for a seed, 
you should put the following line early in a 
program: 

10 RAND 

and then call RND the same way the TI does (no 
argument in parentheses): 

100 A = RND 

RND, when it follows RAND 1 - 65535 (any 
of these numbers), will result in a repeating se- 
quence of "random numbers" which is the same 
each time power is turned on (if you use the same 
number after RAND). The computer generates 
65536 numbers to use for its random numbers. The 
number following RND determines the entry point 
into this sequence of numbers. However, when 
you use zero after RAND, the entry point into the 
list of numbers is determined by how long the TV 
has been turned on. This is essentially the same 
solution that the Commodore computers use. 

• Apple. Because the Apple doesn't contain a 
clock, the best way to seed the RND is to ask the 
user to hit a key, within a loop: 

10 PRINT "Press RETURN when ready to start" 
20 IF PEEK ( - 16384) < 128 THEN A = RND(l): 
GOTO 20 

This will give you a random seed to prevent 
start-up sequence repetitions. The value in ad- 
dress - 16384 will remain below 128 until a key is 
pressed. Thus, you'll keep reading off numbers 
via the RND, but will have reached an unpredict- 
able position in the list by the time you hit RE- 
TURN. Following that, use RND (1) for the best 
randomness. There is a bug, however, in the 
Apple's BASIC which causes the sequences to 



48 COMPUTE! December 1983 



THERE'S A COMPUTER BORN EVERY MNUTE.. 

GIVE IT A HOME. 



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start repeating themselves rather quickly. There's 
no cure for it. 

One final note about RND. If you're writing a 
game, one way to test it is to deliberately violate 
the randomizing rules we've mentioned above. 
There are cases when you will umnt to have a re- 
peating, nonrandom sequence of numbers to 
check things within the program. If that's what 
you're after, you can leave out the randomizing 
seeds and test things against the resulting known, 
predictable patterns. 

Randomness Test 

10 GOSUB 500 

20 FOR I = 1 TO 100 

30 T = T + 1 

40 X = INT (RbTD (1) * 10):X=X+1 

50 A(X)=A(X)+1 

60 NEXT I 

70 GOSUP 500 

80 FORI=]T010 

90 PRINT Ir 

100 IFA(I)=OTHENPRINT" — 0%":GOTO120 

110 PRINT" — "?INT(T/A(I) ) ; "%" 

120 :HEXT I 

130 GOTO 20 

500 PRINT" {CLR] ": REM CLEAR THE SCREEN 

510 RETURN © 




**Gunnal 
buys a 
Computer" 

1984 

Calendar 

Gurmal is Coming... 

Share in the adventures of Gurmal each 
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ALSO 



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4122 E. Chapman Ste 30, Orange, CA 1714) 771-4038 



CALORIE COP 



Gerald P Graham 



Tliis pyagrani determines your caloric output for a great 
vnricti/ of activities (from sitting to xvciglit lifting), and 
gives you your total daily energy output. With screen 
instructions and menu, it's simple to use. Writtoi for 
the Atari, versions for the Apple, VIC, 64, TI, and 
Color Computer are also included. 



In the December 1982 issue of COMPUTE!, Charles 
Brannon presented a program for calculating the 
calories in vour diet. It also estimates your daily 
needs and then predicts how long it will take you 
to get rid of any extra weight you want to lose. 

"Calorie Cop" is a companion program which 
determines the caloric output for each activity 
you perform. It also calculates the calories ex- 
pended for each actiyity so you can see your total 
daily energy output. When you RUN the program 
you are given instructions and then a seven-page, 
alphabetical menu of activities from archery to 
wrestling. Just press the letter corresponding to 
your activity, and if you don't see it, continue to 
press RETURN to turn the pages until you find it. 
If your activity is not listed, then use one that is 
comparable. 

Keep in mind that the results should be mod- 
ified by knowledge of the context of the activities. 
Some activities require greater skill and coordina- 
tion than others, thus a higher caloric output. In 
cases where an unskilled person is competing 
against a skilled person, the former usually works 
harder. Desire and effort are also factors. One 
research study involved filming very heavy indi- 
viduals playing tennis doubles. The very heavy 
players were found to be standing 65 percent of 
the time. Whereas vigorous tennis doubles re- 
quires .046 calories per minute per pound of 
weight, standing is worth only .011 cal/min/lb. 
Do not use this or any other diet/exercise program except 
under the advice and consent of your physician. 

62 COMPUH! December 1V83 




Many different options are available in "Calorie Cop." Atari 
version. 



Program 1: calorie Cop (Atari Version] 

5 GRAPHICS 0:CLR 

10 DIM NAME* (20) 

12 GRAPHICS la 

14 POSITION 5,4:? tt6;"CALORIE CDP" 

30 FOR DELAY=1 TO 2500:NEXT DELAY 

35 SETCOLOR 0,0,0 

40 FOR DELAY=1 TO 400: NEXT DELAY 

55 GRAPHICS 0:SETCOLOR 4 , 2 , 1 : SETCOL 

OR 3, 0,4: COLOR liPOKE 752,1 
60 ? :? :? "THIS PROGRAM WILL TELL Y 

OU HOW MANY":? 
62 ? "CALORIES YOU USE FOR A PARTICU 

LAR" : ? 
64 ? "ACTIVITY. YOU WILL BE PROVIDE 

D AN":? 
1^6 7 " [;I.>*llAi>4'i»Sl^;[ T THAT WILL TELL Y 

OU HOW":? 
68 ? "MANY CALORIES EACH ACTIVITY US 

E3 EACH":? 
70 ? "MINUTE FOR EACH POUND OF YOUR 

BODY" : ? 



Bettha Canl Play Just One! 




You will soon come to expect the unexpected 
in the hilarious and challenging underground 
dream world of Drol. A little red-headed girl and 
her propeller-beanied brother have been lured by 
a witch doctor's curse into the multi-leveled ruins of 
a lost civilization. It's your task — as a hero equipped 
with a rocket backpack and full-screen radar scope — 
to dodge hopping scorpions, monsters and snakes, fly- 
ing turkeys, swords, daggers, arrows, magnets, witch 
doctors, and vacuum cleaners(!) in your attempts to rescue the children 
and reunite them with their mother. Each new level of game play is 
full of surprises, 

Drol's wry sense of humor and amazingly detailed cartoon im- 
agery, make this game a charmer! 

For the Apple 11/11 -h /lie, Atari, and Commodore 64 home com- 
puters in disk format. 





ooM&Aa 



;^# 



Gumball 



TM 




Hours of fun await you at the Sticky 
Sole Gumball Factory — where you'll be work- 
ing against the clock to sort a tasty collec- 
tion of colorful gumballs. 

Your job may seem sweet at first, but after 
you've discovered the explosive-laced gumba 
(placed by over-zealous dental assistants) or 
your irritating supervisor (who is eager to undo your best efforts), you may feel 
that you have bitten off more than you can chew. 

If, against all odds, you meet your day's quota, you'll be promptly rewarded 
with a promotion (to a more challenging position) and an amusing cartoon show- 
ing your higher standard of living. 

Gumball — a new fast action game filled with colorful and delicious surprises. 
Forthe Apple ll/ll-H/lle. 

Irresistible Fun From Broderbund! 

BroderbundSoftiuare" 

Discover the Difference 

17 PAUL DRIVE, SAN RAFAEL, CALIFORNIA 94903 

Apple 11/11 + /lie, Alafi, and Commodore 64 are IrademarKs of Apple Campuier. Inc., Atari, Inc.. Commodore Eleclronics Ltd., fespeclivel/. 






mmuc 






^i^^i-: 






',;;;-S^fc 



Hear at last. Games with 



Alien annihilation never sounded 
so good. 

Because we've broken the sound barrier 
on home computer games. With music. 
You heard right. Music. 

And we're not talking mamby- 
pamby little bleeps here, pal. 
We're talking 
. toe-tapping, 

/^ finger-snapping, 

■ Top-40 stuff. Scored 
just for our newest releases. 
And playing throughout. 
Which ought to keep a Joystick Jockey 
like yourself humming right along through 
each and every blast, bomb and blow-up 
that threatens your existence. 
From strategy games to shoot 'em ups. 
Are you ready to face the music? 
If Our Music Has You Hearing Thmgs, 
Wait Till You SeeThis, 

Incredible, arcade-quality graphics. 

And they're so great— how great are 

they? They're so great you'll want to play 




them again and again. And then you'll tell 
your friends about them. And they'll want 
to play. And then your family will find out 
and they'll all want to play. And then that 
fat kid down the block will want to play. 
And all your sister's friends. And their 
boyfriends. And , , . better keep our newest 
releases a secret. Or get Dad to pop for 
another Atari, 

The First Games Ever, That Tell You What 
The Heck Is Going On, Right At The Start. 

It's just like a movie. 

Except, instead of filling both hands with 
buttery popcorn, you've got your hand on 
the Joystick, tensed up for what's to come. 

And while you wait, poised, ready eager, 
you'll find out, through the terrific screen 
titles, the objective of the game, the char- 
acters and the scenario. 

You'll find out what planet you're on. 

What the fuss is all about. 

Why you're involved. 

And perhaps of singular importance to 
you, how to keep from being obliterated. 











real music for your Atari. 




Our star. Our Numero 
Uno. The Tail of Beta 
Lyrae™ Changes as you 
play. Will drive you out of 
your mind with unex- 



' t «f tif u f t;t i 




pected switcheroonies. No one's ever 
mastered it. But you sure can try. . . 






And then there's Cosmic 
Tunnels™ Four games in 
one. Meaning four times 
the challenge. Four times 
the chance you might just 

get blown away. The graphics are sure to 

blow your mind! 

Mr. Robot and His 
Robot Factory™ Looking 
for a factory job? Here's an 
opening. Help Mr. Robot 
thwart the aliens. Screens 
scream with color, action and sound! Plus, 
a graphics kit to design your own game 
screens! 




Monster Smash™ is 
the gravest game to ever 
hit the cemetery And 
it's filled with a deathly 
strategy. What do you 

have to do? Mash the monsters! Let the 

visitors live. 

^ ^ Cohen's Tower™ gets you 

r;^:i: .s:~3"«.'" used to life in the Big City 
fast. Starting you off in a 
skyscraper But the boss is 
really watching. So work 
fast. You might just get a 
. if you can handle the action. 

Get ready to bring your Atari the most 
playable, the most graphically involving 
new games it's ever screened. Or heard. 

It's the most out of our minds. 

And together, with your Atari, we make 
beautiful music. 

DATAMOST 

The most out of our mindsr 

TM isii rcgistLTcd Irsdtmark tii" Datamost, Inc. S943 Fullbri^'ht .Avf,. Chiitswurth. C.A 9i;!ll 
(21:^)70^!] 202 'Atari is a registered iratiemark of Atari CtjmpiUt-rs Inc. J^iUntnmiwt hWH 



Mi 


Naa.^ 


JU 


91 


|im| 


fl 


r} 


Ei^fil 


15 



raise , 




74 

78 
80 

100 
105 
1 10 

250 
260 
270 
280 
2V0 
300 

320 
330 
340 



;50 



>60 



365 
370 



380 
390 

400 
410 

420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
475 

480 
490 



500 

505 
510 

520 



530 
540 

550 

552 

555 
556 

557 

558 

560 



? "WEIBHT 
A TOTAL" 

■^ "OF ALL 

FOR DELAY 
GRAPHICS 
QR 3,0,2: 
GRAPHICS 
OPEN #1, 
DIM A* < 1 
4) 

IF CAL T 
PX=0: PY= 
FOR 1=1 
READ ACT 
IF ACTIV 
POSITION 
;"-■'; A C T 
NEXT I 
REM 

IF PEEK ( 
THEN POS 
[ML OF AC 
IF PEEK( 
THEN PO 

rrrnr to g 

IF PEEK ( 
23: ? "PR 
<;20 SPAC 
IF PEEK ( 
BET #1 , A 
R A*>"R" 
A«< >"»" 
IF AtOC 
NX=NX+1 : 
RESTORE 
GOTO 260 
RESTORE 
IF A*="# 
IF A*="* 
FDR 1=1 
READ ACT 
NEXT I 
GRAPHICS 
1 

? : ? " A 
? : ? " T 
NT*: CL: ? 
ER POUND 
? : ? " I 
TTER THE 
? " ENTE 
7 : ? " E 
I VI TV" 
TRAP 520 
KE 752,0 
AP 40000 
IF M I N = 
IF M I N < 

■cbell:> " : 

? : ? " E 
POUNDS" 
IF LBS<0 
<BELL} " : 
OUTPUT=L 

? " CALO 
ITY= ";0 



IT WILL ALSO GIVE YOU 5 70 
CALORIES USED. j-JH^rV-j^ 5S0 



THE MEMU TO RPPERR . 



=1 TO 5000:NEXT DELAY 
0:SETCOLOR 4 , 2 , 1 : SETCDL 
COLOR 1 

0:POKE 752,1 
4,0, "K" : POKE B2, 
) ,ACTIVITY*C39) , AMOUNT *( 

HEN 730 
3:G0SUB 1020 
TO 18 
IVITY*, CL 
ITY$="END" THEN 330 

PX,PY:PRINT CHR*(1+192) 
I VITY*: PY = PY+1 



20 ) > 
IT 10 
TI VI 
20) > 
SITI 
O TO 
20) > 
ESS 
ES> " 
764) 
: A* = 
) AN 
THEN 
HR* ( 
IF A 
: NX 



60 A 
N 2, 
TY-Ci 
120 
ON 2 

NEX 
180 
a UH 
; : PO 
= 255 
CHR« 
D A* 

340 
155) 
CTIV 




ND PEEK (20) < 120 

23:7 "ENTER IB^*i 

2 SPACESJ": 

AND PEEK(20)<1B0 

,23:7 "PRESS fTTJi 

T PAGE"; 

THEN POSITION 2, 

EN DONE 

KE 20,0 

THEN 340 
( A ) : IF ( A«< "A" 
<>CHR*(1S5) AND 

THEN 410 
ITY*="END" THEN 



" THEN 600 

" THEN 660 

TO NX * IS + ASC ( A*) -64 

IVITY*, CL 

0:SETCOLOR 4,3,0:COLOR 

CTIVITY: ";ACTIVITY* 
HIS ACTIVITY USES " ; AMOU 
" CALORIES PER MINUTE P 

F YOU TYPED THE WRONG LE 

N" 

R ZEf 

NTER 



;R0S BELOW" 

LENGTH OF ABOVE ACT 



SPRINT " IN M1NUTES";:PD 
: INPUT M IN: POKE 752,1:TR 

THEN 590 

THEN PRINT "tDOWN: 
GOTO 470 

NTER YOUR BODY WEIGHT IN 
: INPUT LBS 

THEN PRINT "CDDWN> 
GOTO 470 
BS*MIN*CL 

RIES USED FOR THIS ACTIV 
UTPUT 



PRINT 

AR = ' 

CAL 



>iti>l(;1i CALORIES USED SO F 
CAL=CAL+CL*MIN*LBS:PRINT 



590 

650 

660 

670 

675 

630 

690 

700 

710 

1 2 

1 120 

1125 

1130 
1140 

1 150 

1 1 60 

1 170 

i 180 

1190 
12 00 
1210 
1220 
12 30 

1240 

1250 

1255 
1257 
1260 
1270 
12 3 
1 290 
1300 
1310 
1 3 20 
1330 

134 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 

1400 

14 10 
1420 
1430 

1440 
1450 
1460 

1470 
14B0 
1490 

1500 

1510 



7 ■ 
NUE 
GET 
155 
RES 
M I N 
6RA 
DIM 
GRA 
POS 
POS 
FOR 
END 
PR 
PR 



PRINT 



PRESS [:]ahilJ:;: TO CONTI 



#1 , A: A*=CHR* ( A) : IF A*<>CHR*C 
) THEN 580 
TORE :NX=0:GOTC 260 
=1:G0T0 560 
PH I C5 0: CLR 

END* (20) 
PHICS 2+16 

ITION 5,3:7 *t6;"THAT'S ALL" 
ITIDN 5,6:7 tt6;" FOLKS" 

DELAY=1 TO 1000:NEXT DELAY 



INT " CCLEAR> 
INT "[40 R > " 



r:T^i*lU*4-.M=M?II 



RETURN 

DATA ARCHERY, 

DATA 

, .03 9 

DATA BADMINTON-singles-Vigorous 

, . 065 

DATA ^:^^:^■J1=<:T;l ^^^.lJ l r T^ ■ ■ ^ J i ■[ ' h^JT ^ 
.031 
BASEBALL-Pi tchi ng or Catch 
.040 



034 



BRDHZNTOH-sinaies-Modenati 



BRS KETBRLL- MOdera-t: 



EASKETBALL-Vi goroLiB, .066 
BICYCLING-Downh 1 I 1 , .0IB 



BXcyci-ZNG--sif»w-s MPh-i-eve-1 



DATA 

1 n g , 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

, . 03 

DATA BICYCLING 

Level, .050 

DATA 

raSBCBJ, .072 

DATA BOXING-IN RING, 

miT:*N:[.<S.-1J:1:><:fr^ . 

BOWLING, .028 

CONVERSING-QUIETLY 



MQderate-10 mph- 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

□jr, 

DATA 

023 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

EHBE 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

E, ■ 

DATA 
ded, 
DATA 



BICVC1_IMG-Fast-J.3 W 



101 
063 



0: 



1 1 



01; 



ti4.i.i:*^;[rc-^tf:i:i>^<:r? , , 

DANCI N6-SI aw, .029 
DANC ING-Fast , .064 



045 



03 



DRIVING A CAR, .019 

i>iiv-**<:rH , .010 

EATING, .011 



EKERCISES-flbdt]Mi.naI 



EXERC I SES-Bal anc 1 ng , .0 

. 043 
EXERCISES-Trunk Bending 



16 



FENCING- Moder^a-C 



. 03 



FENCING-Vi gorous , .057 



FIELD HOCKEY- O-Chen than 



. 063 
FIELD HOCKEY-Goalie, .0 
iiii<.-1!M:fH . .016 

FOOTBALL-Backs & Ends, 



30 
. 05 



GARDENING, .030 

L?iiiWJ3.*.iiiii f«iii M*initJa.jj.L 

030 
GOLF-carr y i ng clubs-Uncr 
. 035 

. 030 



56 COMPUTES December 1983 



The STX-80 printer for Christmas '83 ! 

What a great gift idea! 

It's the S7X-80 printer from Star. Sleek, 
compact and priced under $200, it's sure to 
put you in a very giving mood. 

The S7)(-80 prints whisper-quiet print- 
outs. It features true descenders, foreign 
language characters and special symbols. It 
offers both finely detailed dot addressable and 
block graphics. 

And you can give it with confidence 
knowing that it can run with virtually every type 
of personal and business computer 

The SfX-SO printer from Star It's 
the perfect gift for every computer user in your 
life. Especially if one of them happens to be you! 

Enjoy your presents and have a happy 
and healthy holiday 



fflicronies'inc 



TW POWER BEHINDTHE PRINTED WORD. 

Computer Peripherals Division, 

RO- Box 612t86. Dalfas Ft. Worth Airport. TX 75261 (214) 456-0052 






w--^^ 


m 


1 stx-ac 


I 


L 




^1 


# 


/ 








mmm. 



/ 



^ 




^'■-x<vTOC-:->cfl 



^>^. 



N 



,'\ >,^i^ 



1520 
1530 
1540 
1550 

1560 

1570 

1580 

1590 
1600 
1602 

1603 
1605 

1608 
16 10 

1620 
1630 
1632 
1634 
1636 
163B 
1640 
1642 
1646 
1650 
1660 
1670 
16B0 
1690 

1700 

1710 

1720 
1730 







DATA GYMNASTICS-Heavy , .056 

DATA lir:i:i>3.T!Tl , .063 

DATA HIKINB, .042 

DATA l.fc^ B 1il;».-*J:V<: »' ri»< ai ;>< :r f 

60 

DATA HORSEBACK RIDING-Walk, .01 

9 

DATA r:TTl ; ^J:T:IHl^:><»>^;t-^iJrnn . . 4 

6 

DATA HORSEBACK R 1 D I NG-6a 1 1 op , . 

067 

DATA fci<;Ii]:b<:;H , .018 

DATA JUDD, .087 

DATA 

ufjtittt'm, .078 

DATA KARATE, .087 

DATA 

, . 063 

DATA LACROSSE-Goal ie, .030 

DATA HEEDaiiirC^KIlMailiSraECMi 

Qna, .010 

DATA MOTOR BOATING, .016 

DATA ISC.HJ:fcrf;'><:MH»<=li>^:TF . .086 

DATA PAINTING-INSIDE, .015 

DATA I J;>4:fcli<:ic^illhib*<V3a , .035 

DATA PLAYING CARDS, .011 
DATA 



. 030 

DATA PLAYING HORN, .013 
DATA l-Jg:V*^:Tr»i>€;i:t.: . .018 



EUMPXMG R0PE-70 - 88 COUn 



■-RCROS3E:- Other than 



DATA RACQUETBALL, .063 

DATA \:i^i=***:[!^m' n,t,m:Tr'^, .00a 

DATA RESTI NG-Si tti ng, .009 
DATA k4iJ';h<.'[c^^t.--Br^HB-1 d?. .036 
DATA ROWING-Vigorous, .118 

DATA i:tij:i:»^:E< q B =i ' jJ c y :,T^t- mii»» i 
■rsm. .07 1 

DATA RUNNING-Level -1 mile in 10 

mi n . , . 078 
DATA 

. 085 



RUNNXNt^-I-evel-1 Mile in 



DATA RUNNING-Level -1 mile in B 

mi n . , . 092 

DATA 

. 100 



RUNNING- Leve 1-1 Mile in 



1740 DAT 

mi n 
1750 DAT 



1760 
1770 
1780 
1785 

1790 
1795 
1800 
1810 
1S20 
1830 
1340 
1850 

1860 

1865 
1870 

1880 
1890 
1900 
1920 

1930 



RUNHXNG-Level-J. Mile in 



DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

54 

DAT 

78 

DAT 

DAT 

. 06 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

DAT 

CO 

DAT 



A RUNNING 
. , .110 

A 

. 130 
SAILING, 

SEWING OR 

SHOWERING 



Level— 1 mile in 6 



020 
. 032 

KNITTING, 
. 028 
. 034 



010 



SITTI NG-Dui etl y , 
SKATING-Moderate 

SKIING-SIMOW-Downhill 



. 017 
010 

013 
. 036 
. 064 



KZXNG-^ NOW- ue ve 1 - s i > 



059 
. 



A SKIING-SNOW-Level -f ast 



A aaasHn?, .007 

A SOCCER-Other than goalie, 



A b*iIrfHd;&tf.^^T>ff^ . .030 

A SQUASH. .070 

A Wirf:i:i>><:[rg.ITTT^»g r, .011 

A STATIONARY RUNNING-70 - 80 

unts/min., .078 

A ajnaaen?, .014 



19 4 
19 50 
1960 

1 970 

1980 

1990 

2000 
2010 

2020 

2030 
2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 
2090 

2100 

2110 

2120 

2 130 

2140 
2150 
2160 
2170 
2 180 
2 190 
2195 
2200 
2210 
2220 

2 23 
2300 



DATA SWIMMING-CRAWL-30 yds/min. 

, . 058 

DATA t;f;fc^=l=M:rrt_l»lrJ:IL'l«J:Umi lJL-*i-Tl.W 

, .07 1 

DATA SWIHHING-BACKSTROKE-30 yds 

/ m i n . , .035 

DATA a a^^=l=^■^:[.cl^T:Tri:<.-*i:tl] L^uJ.^^■m■ ■ ^ E 

fa'TiiW . .0 55 

DATA SWI MMINB-BREASTROKE-30 yds 

/min., .048 

DATA b1=fc<:i:M;trg:1:3rf!V*i:liJL<;^l;mi rL- 

e:bib, .064 

data swimming-butterfly, .078 

DATA tJ:ui«i^id:i:fcfc^ir.TitJiKV<=: . . 02 

6 

DATA TABLE TENNI B-Vi g orous , .04 



DATA hd4n=tj;[ij :KN:|H, .011 

DATA TENNIS-SINGLES-Moderate, . 

046 

DATA hil=<:i;ii <.-&-!■ J7TiTTiC^ iJ«. T.TJ.lll--J , . 

065 

DATA TENNIS-DOUBLES-Moderate, . 

038 

D3TA hi=i:i:>fe^>IillJ;]«ab^lJ«? [.lJaTEf . 

DATA TYPING, .015 

DATA L'Ji]«BA'J.i;m4.iJ Cr^^;i;i^ ;,-IJl[.f.L=Jii 

ES3S, .020 

DATA VOLLEYBALL-BEGINNERS-Vi gor 

ous , . 036 

DATA LiJ-im^'J^ T-n ' B'ft 'f*=^>git< r -MJ^V. 

E, .04 

DATA VOLLEYBALL-SKILLED-Vigorou 

5 , .065 

DATA gr:n:*4:r reiw^ < j^Hgq M j, i Li! . 

DATA WALKING-LEVEL-3 MPH, 

DATA i!;r:T:*<:t^a w^ i j:i H- g:' Mj^y , 

DATA WALKING-LEVEL-5 MPH. 

DATA igf:---i i k i:rrm-iii=r.T=i=^ . .015 

DATA WASHING HANDS S* FACE, 

DATA I5r:^< »^;»^:t=^^^■^■ .010 

DATA WATER SKIING, .053 

DATA l5I^CF!:kiM»4iii*<:Ltq:IJ'V; . 

DATA WEIGHT L I F T I NG -Legs , 
DATA 

. 065 

DATA WRESTLING, .091 

DATA END, 0,0 



. 022 
. 030 
. 03 9 
. 064 

. 020 



050 
060 



HEXGHT LXFTXNG- Whole bOd 



Program 2: 

Calorie Cop (Microsoft Version— Apple, 64, 
ViC, Color Computer) 

1 WI = 40: LE = 24 

5 HOME 

10 PRINT : PRINT i PRINT s PRINT 

15 PRINT TAB< WI / 2 - 5) 5 "CALORIE CO 

P" 
30 FOR I = 1 TO 1000! NEXT I 
40 HOME 
50 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WILL TELL YOU H 

OW MANY" 
55 PRINT : PRINT "CALORIES YOU USE FOR 

A PARTICULAR" 
60 PRINT : PRINT "ACTIVITY. YOU WILL 

BE PROVIDED AN" 
65 PRINT : PRINT "ACTIVITY MENU THAT W 

ILL TELL YOU HOW" 
70 PRINT : PRINT "MANY CALORIES EACH A 

CTIVITY USES EACH" 
75 PRINT ! PRINT "MINUTE FOR EACH POUN 



58 COMPUTE! December 1983 



♦ ♦ . At The Lowest Cost 
The New ClippGr 



[^yiivarc's nc-w C'lippcr is rhc maximum prufection surKC suppressor with ;K!vanccLl circuits 
and Icururcs you won'r I'inJ in rhc conipcririon. The C'lippcrKtvcs you three fully protected 
outlets that stop surges. 

At the suHJ^esteJ retail price of $49.95, Dymarc has incorporated all the proven quality 
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The $49,95 price includes a full one year warranty so the next time you j^o looking for surj^e 
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franty 



^ For the Dymarc dealer 

( nearest you, 

call toll-free: 

800/638-9098 



21 Governor's Ct.. Baltimore, MD 21207 I I industries, inc. 
Plug Into Dymarc Computer Protection. 



WHAT DO EACH OF 

THESE HAYDEN GAMES 

GIVE \0U THAT NO OTHER 

GAME CAN? 



Kf&MiW' 




Now you'll have twice as much fun 
playing Hayden games. Because when 
you buy one game, we'll give you any 
of these games free/ 

And what games! 

There are widely popular fast action 
games like LASER BOUNCE, WARGLE 
and SHUTTLE INTERCEPT. 

And strategy games that are in a 



class by themselves, such as the classic 
chess game, SARGON 11. 

Even text adventure games like 
CRIME STOPPER and CRYSTAL 
CAVERNS that will keep you on the 
edge of your chair. 

Inside every one of these Hayden 
games, you'll find a coupon good for 
another game of your choice. 



A FREE HAYDEN GAME. 



0ONOTB(POXK>. 



HAyPEN SOFTWPBE \ 




BUY ONE, GET ONE FREE. 

All you have to do is fill out the 
coupon, complete the warranty card 
and send them to us. 

As soon as we receive them, we'll 
send you your free Hayden game. 

Take advantage of Hayden 's game 



*Offer expires January 31, 1984. Havden games are available for Apple™ 
disk, Atari "disk and tape, Commodore'" disk and tape. Not every game 
is available for every type of computer. 



plan today. Check out all the exciting 
Hayden games at your retailer now. Or 
call Hayden at 1-800-343-1218. (In Mass. 
(617)937-0200.) 



HAyDEN SOFTWARE 



Hayden Software Company, 600 Suffolk Street, 
Lowell, M4 01853 

Apple,. Atari and Commodore are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, 
Inc., Atari, Inc, and Commodore Electronics Limited, respectively. 



D OF YOUR BODY" 690 END 

80 PRINT ! PRINT "WEIGHT. IT WILL ALS 1020 HOME 

O GIVE YOU A TOTAL" 1030 PRINT "-=<ACTIVITY MENU>=-" 

B5 PRINT ; PRINT "OF ALL CALORIES USED 1035 RETURN 

1036 REM BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE DATA 
90 PRINT : PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY WHEN F STATEMENTS IN PROGRAM 4 

INISHED"; 
95 GET A* 

250 IF CAL = 1 THEN 730 PrograiTi 3: 

260 GOSUB 1020 Calorie Cop (TI-99/4A Version) 

270 FOR I = i TO LE - 4 ^^^ ^ 

280 READ ACTIVITY*, CL 11 PR I NT '■ " ■ T AB < 9 ) ■ " CALOR I E COP" 

290 IF ACTIVITY* = "END" THEN 330 \i% phi^j .-:!.:.!.:. 

300 PRINT CHR* (64 + !>;"-"; ACTIVITY* .^^ ^^^ 1 = 'i"t'o' V0 0'<3" 

190 NEXT I 

^^^ j**^^l l_ 200 CALL CLEAR 

330 I - I 1 210 PRINT "THIS PROGRAM WILL TELL Y 
340 PRINT : PRINT "CHOICE "; oy.. 

350 GET A* 220 PRINT "HOW MANY CALORIES YOU UB 
355 IF <A* < "A" OR A* > CHR* a + 64 e " 

)) AND A* < > "0" AND A* < > CHR* 230 PRINT "FDR fi PftRTICULAR ACTIVIT 

(13) THEN 350 Y. " 

360 IF A* < > CHR* (13) THEN 410 240 PRINT "YOU WILL BE PROVIDED AN" 

370 NX = NX + 1: IF ACTIVITY* = "END" 250 PRINT "ACTIVITY MENU THAT WILL 

THEN RESTORE : NX = TELL"; 

400 GOTO 260 260 PRINT "YOU HOW MANY CALORIES EA 
410 RESTORE CH" 

430 IF A* = "0" THEN 660 27(51 PRINT "ACTIVITY USES EACH MINUT 
440 FOR I = 1 TO NX * (LE - 4) + ASC E" 

(A*) - 64 2^^ PRINT "FOR EACH POUND OF YOUR B 

450 READ ACTIVITY*. CL °^'^" 

460 NEXT I "''^' '^'^I'^''' "WEIBHT. IT WILL ALSO GI 

470 HOME ''^ ^ 

30i3 PRINT "YOU A TOTAL OF ALL CALOR 

I E S " 

310 PRINT "USED. " 



;20 PRINT 



4B0 PRINT : PRINT "ACTIVITY: "; ACTIVIT 

Y« 
490 PRINT : PRINT "THIS ACTIVITY USES: 

"; PRINT CL 330 pRi^j "WAIT FOR MENU TO APPEAR" 

500 PRINT "CALORIES PER MINUTE PER" -^^j^^ pQR j^^ jg 50^0 

510 PRINT "POUND" 350 NEXT I 

520 PRINT : PRINT "ENTER LENGTH OF ABO 36PJ if CAL=1 THEN 32767 

VE" 370 BOSUB 970 

530 PRINT "ACTIVITY IN MINUTES"; 390 for i = i tQ 18 

540 INPUT MIN 390 READ ACT$,CL 

545 IF MIN = THEN 590 400 IF ACT$="END" THEN 430 

547 IF MIN < THEN 540 410 PRINT CHR* ( 64 + 1 );"-"; ACT* 

550 PRINT i PRINT "ENTER YOUR BODY WEI 420 NEXT I 

GHT" '*30 REM 

555 IF MIN < THEN 540 440 PRINT "CHOICE :"; 

560 PRINT "IN POUNDS"; 450 CALL KEY(0,K,S) 

570 INPUT LBS 460 IF B = THEN 450 

572 IF LBS < THEN 570 470 A*-CHR*(K) 

575 OUTPUT = LBS « MIN « CL 480 IF A* = CHR« (1 3 ) THEN 540 

577 PRINT "CALORIES USED FOR THIS" 490 IF A*="0" THEN 930 

578 PRINT "ACTIVITY^ "jOUTPUT ^00 IF A*<"A" THEN 450 

579 PRINT : PRINT "TOTAL CALORIES USED 510 IF A* >CHR4 ( 1+63 ) THEN 450 
„ 520 RESTORE 

530 GOTO 590 

540 NX=NX+1 

^„„ „^-r,.r,.., t-ri r.r,..,-r T Ki. ,^ 550 IF ACT«<>"END" THEN 370 

502 PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE .. ^^^ RESTORE 

570 NX=0 

585 SET A*: IF A* < > CHR* (13) THEN ^gg eg-^Q 37^, 

585 590 FOR 1 = 1 TO NX * 1 S + ASC ( A* ) -64 

590 RESTORE s NX = 0: GOTO 260 i00 READ ACT*,CL 

660 HOME 610 NEXT I 

665 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "YOUR TOTAL 620 CALL CLEAR 

CALORIES": PRINT "ARE " ; CAL 630 PRINT ::: 

670 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "THA 640 PRINT "ACTIVITY :";ACT* 

T'S ALL FOLKS!" 6 50 PRINT :: 

680 FOR PAUSE = 1 TO 1000: NEXT PAUSE 660 PRINT "THIS ACTIVITY USES " ; CL 

62 COMPimi December 1983 



580 PRINT "SO FAR= " ; : CAL = CAL + OUTP 
UT: PRINT CAL 




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Microsoft And TI-99/4A Version Notes 

For Calorie Cop 



Kevin Martin, Editorial Programmer 

The Microsoft version of Calorie Cop is 
written for the Apple and will run on the 
Commodore 64, VIC-20, and the Color Com- 
puter with minor changes. 

On the 64 and the VIC, add these lines: 

5 PRINT "{CLR}" 

40 PRINT "{CLR}" 

95 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN95 

350 GETA?:IFA$=""THEN350 

585 GETA?:IFA$<>CHR5(13)THEN5S5 

560 PRINT "{CLR}" 

1020 PRINT "{CLR}" 

On the Color Computer: 

5 CLS 

40 CLS 

95 IF INKEY$="" THEN 95 

350 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 350 

585 IF INKEY$<>CHR$(13) THEN 585 

660 CLS 

1020 CLS 



The instructions for the program are 
formatted for a 40-column screen. For the 64, 
VIC, and Color Computer, substitute the 
following lines so that the instructions fit on 
your screen, or you may simply leave these 
lines out. If you leave them out, then also 
remove line 95. 

For the 64, change line 1 to: 

1WI = 40:LE = 25 

For the VIC, change line 1 to: 

1WI = 22:LE = 23 

For the Color Computer, change line 1 to: 

1WI = 32:LE = 16 

To exit the program type a when you 
are prompted for CHOICE. Before ENDing, 
the program will tell you the total number of 
calories used. 

Be sure to type in Program 4 along with 
either the Microsoft or TI-99/4A version. This 
program contains the necessary DATA state- 
ments for both of these versions. 



670 PRINT "CALORIES PER MINUTE PER" 

iB0 PRINT "POUND" 

670 PRINT : : : 

700 PRINT 



'IF YOU ENTERED THE WRONG 
■ACTIVITY TYPE IN ZEROS B 

'ENTER LENGTH DF ACTIVITY 



7 10 PRINT 

E L D W '■ 

720 PRINT 

730 PRINT 

IN " 
740 INPUT "MINUTES: ": MIN 
750 IF MIN=0 THEN 800 
760 PRINT 
770 PRINT "INPUT YOU BODY WEIGHT IN 

780 INPUT "POUNDS: ": LBS 

790 a'UT = LBS*HIN«CL 

800 PRINT "CALORIES FOR THIS ACTIVI 

TY " 
810 PRINT "EQUALS " ; OUT 
820 PRINT 
830 PRINT "TOTAL CALORIES USED SO F 

AR" 
B40 CAL=CAL+OUT 
850 PRINT "IS ";CAL 
860 PRINT : : 
370 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TD CONTINU 

E. . " 
880 CALL KEY(0,K,S) 

64 COMPUTE! Decemt»r1983 



890 IF S=0 THEN B80 

900 RESTORE 

910 NX=0 

920 GOTO 370 

930 CALL CLEAR 

940 PRINT "TOTAL CALORIES =";CAL 

950 PRINT "BYE ! " 

960 END 

970 CALL CLEAR 

980 PRINT ' 



-==<<ACTIVITY MENU>>== 



990 RETURN 

1000 REM BE SURE TO INCLUDE THE DAT 
A STATEMENTS IN PROGRAM 4 

Program 4: 

Calorie Cop (DATA Statements For 
Programs 2 And 3) 

1040 DATA ARCHERY, .034 

BADMINTON-MODERATE, .039 
BADMINTON-VIGOROUS, . 065 
BASEBALL,. 031 
BASEBALL-PITCH&CATCH, .040 
BASKETBALL-MODERATE, .047 
BASKETBALL-VIGOROUS, . 066 
BED MAKING, .031 
B I CYCL I NG-DOWNH I LL , . 1 8 
B I CYCL INS-SLOW-LEVEL, .030 



1050 


DATA 


1060 


DATA 


1070 


DATA 


10B0 


DATA 


1090 


DATA 


1100 


DATA 


1110 


DATA 


1120 


DATA 


1130 


DATA 



1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 

1240 

1250 

1260 

1270 

1280 

1290 

1300 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 

1350 

1360 

1370 

13B0 

1390 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

1440 

1450 

1460 

1470 

14B0 

1490 

1500 

1510 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 

1580 

1590 

1600 

1610 

1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 

1680 

1690 

1700 

1710 

1720 

1730 

1740 

1750 

1760 

1770 

1780 

1790 

1800 

1810 

1820 



DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 

DATA 



.030 



,020 
,016 



BICYCLINB-MODERATE, .050 
BICYCLE-FAST-UPHILL, .072 
BOXING-IN RING, , 101 
BOX I NG-SPAR I NG , . 063 
BOWLING, .028 
CANOEING, .029 
CONVERSING, .011 
COOKING, .013 
DANCING-SLOW, .029 
DANCING-MODERATE, .045 
DANCING-FAST, . 064 
DRESSING&UNDRESSINe, , 
DRIVING A CAR, .019 
DUSTING, .010 
EATING, .011 
EXERCISES-ABDOMINAL, 
EXERCISES-BALANCING, 
EXERCISES-JUMPING, .043 
EXERCISES-BENDING, .023 
FENCING-MODERATE, . 033 
FENCING-VIGOROUS, .057 
FIELD HOCKEY, .063 
FIELD HOCKEY-GOALIE, .030 
FISHING, .016 

FOOTBALL-BACKS&ENDS, .050 
FOOTBALL-LINEMEN, .040 
GARDENING, .030 
60LF-CR0WDED&WALKING, . 030 
GOLF-UNCROWDEDS<WALK, .035 
GYMNAST I CS-L I GHT , . 030 
GYMNAST I CS-HEAVY, .056 
HANDBALL, 063 
HIKING, .042 

HILL&STAIR CLIMBING, .060 
HORSEBACK R I DE- WALK ,.019 
HORSEBACK R I DE-TROT , . 046 
HORSEBACK -GALLOP,. 067 
IRONING, .018 
JUDO, .087 
JUMPING ROPE,. 087 
KARATE, .087 
LACROSSE, .063 
LACROSSE-GOALIE, .030 
LISTENING TO RADIO,. 010 
MOTOR BOAT I NG , . 1 6 
MOUNTAIN CLIMBING, .086 
PAINTING-INSIDE, .015 
PAINTING-OUTS IDE, .035 
PLAYING CARDS, .011 
PLAYING DRUMS, .030 
PLAYING HORN, .013 
PLAYING PIANO, .018 
RACQUETBALL, .063 
RESTING-LYING DOWN,. 008 
RESTING-SITTING, .009 
ROWING-SLOW, .036 
ROWING-VIGOROUS, .118 
RUNNING-11 MIN. /MILE, .071 
RUNNING-10 MIN. /MILE, .078 
RUNNING-9 MIN. /MILE,. 085 
MIN. /MILE, 
MIN. /MILE, 
MIN. /MILE, 
MIN. /MILE, 



092 
100 
110 
130 



RUNNING-a 

RUNNIN6-7 

RUNNIN6-6 

RUNNING-5 

SAILING, .020 

SCRUBING, .032 

SEWING OR KNITTING, .010 

SHOPPING, .028 

SHOWERING,. 034 



1830 


DATA 


1840 


DATA 


1850 


DATA 


1860 


DATA 


1870 


DATA 


1880 


DATA 


1890 


DATA 


1900 


DATA 


1910 


DATA 


1920 


DATA 


1930 


DATA 


1940 


DATA 


1950 


DATA 


1960 


DATA 


1970 


DATA 


1980 


DATA 


1990 


DATA 


2000 


DATA 


2010 


DATA 


2020 


DATA 


2030 


DATA 


2040 


DATA 


2050 


DATA 


2060 


DATA 


2070 


DATA 


2080 


DATA 


2090 


DATA 


2100 


DATA 


2110 


DATA 


2120 


DATA 


2130 


DATA 


2140 


DATA 


2150 


DATA 


2160 


DATA 


2170 


DATA 


2180 


DATA 


2190 


DATA 


2200 


DATA 


2210 


DATA 


2220 


DATA 


2230 


DATA 


2240 


DATA 


2250 


DATA 


2260 


DATA 


2270 


DATA 


2280 


DATA 


2290 


DATA 



,058 
,071 
,035 
,055 
,048 
,064 



SINGING-STANDING, .017 
SITTING-QUIETLY, .010 
SITTING-WRITING, .013 
SKATING-MODERATE, .036 
SKATING-VIGOROUS, .064 
SKIING-DOWNHILL,.059 
SKIIN6-LEVEL-SL0W, .054 
SKIING-LEVEL-FAST, .078 
SLEEPING, .007 
SOCCER, .063 
SOCCER-GOALIE, .030 
SQUASH, .070 
STANDING, .011 
STAT I ONARY RUNN I NG , . 078 
STUDYING, .014 
SWIM-CRAWL-30YDB/MIN, 
SWIM-CRAWL-40YDS/MIN, 
SW I M-BKSTRK-30YDS/MN , 
SW I M-BKSTRK-40YDS/MN , 
SWIM-BREAST-30YDS/MN, 
SW I M-BREAST-40YDS/MN , 
SWIM-BUTTERFLY, .078 
TABLE TENNIS-MOD. , .026 
TABLE TENNIS-VIG. 
TELEPHONING, .011 
TENNIS-SNGLS-MOD. 
TENN I S-SNGLS-V I G . 
TENN I S-DBLES-MOD . 
TENNIS-DBLES-VI6. . 
TYPING, ,015 

VOLLEYBALL-BEG. -MOD. , .020 
VOLLEYBALL-BEG. -VI G. , .036 
VOLLEYBALL-SKILL-MOD, .040 
VOLLEYBALL-SKILL-VIG, .065 
WALKING-2 MPH,.022 
WALKING-3 MPH,.030 
WALKING-4 MPH,.039 
WALKING-5 MPH,.064 
WASHING DISHES, .015 
WASHING HANDS & FACE,. 020 
WATCHING TV, .010 
WATER SKIING,. 053 
WE I GHT L I FT I NB-ARMS , . 050 
WEIGHT LIFTING-LEGS, 
WEIGHT LIFTING-BODY, 
WRESTLING, .091 
END, 0,0 



.040 

.046 
.065 
.038 
.046 



.060 
.065 



@ 




\ferbatim 

flexible disks 

Call Free (800) 235-4137 for 

prices and information- Dealer 

inquiries invited. COD and 

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EXCHANGES 

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December 1983 COMPUTE! 65 



Paycheck Ana lysis 



Larry L Bihlmeyer 



This short program analyzes your paycheck for accuracy 
and lets you project future take-home pay so you can 
budget accordingly. Also included is a variable table for 
easy and personalized modification. For the VIC, 64, 
PET, Atari, Tl, Apple, Color Computer, and Timexl 
Sinclair. 



Here's a handy program that can help you do two 
important jobs: verify the accuracy of your take- 
home pay; and estimate your take-home pay in 
the future so you can do accurate budget studies. 
This is especially helpful since federal, state, and 
Social Security taxes are constantly changing. The 
program can easily be modified so you can adapt 
it to your situation. Here's how: 

• The program is set up for two pay periods a 
month. If your pay periods are different, change 
the wording and revise the tax table values used 
in lines 620 to 840. You can get the necessary in- 
formation from your payroll department. Also, as 
withholding rates change in the future, just update 
these lines accordingly. 

• Cost of living pay is set up as a separate 
variable. It is taxed at a fixed 20 percent rate where 
I work. If your cost of living is taxed the same as 
regular pay, change (B + A) to TS in line 600 and 
change line 850 to F = TX. 

• Overtime pay is included (lines 280-290) as a 
separate variable since it may be at a different 
hourly rate and may vary with each pay period. 

• Deductions are found on lines 340 to 590. 
Just modify them if appropriate. Make sure to 
change line 860 if you use different variable 
names. 

"Paycheck Analysis" will run on the VIC, 64, 
PET, Atari, TI, Apple, Color Computer, and 
Timex/Sinclair. Atari owners only: you must in- 
clude line 110. Timex/Sinclair users must use LET 

66 COMPUTE! December 1983 



before any assignment statements (for example, 
at line 320, type LET A = R*N). 



Program Variables 


Variable 


Description 


B 
C 
A 
R 

N 


Base salary (gross) 
Cost of living (gross) 
Overtime (gross) 
Overtime hourly rate 
Overtime hours worked 


TS 
EX 


Total salary (gross) 

Number of federal exemptions claimed 


U 


Payperiod(s) 

Deduction — United Fund 


T 


Stock plan deduclion 


D 


Payroll deduction — credit union 


S 

M 


Social Security tax (PICA) 
State tax withholding 


IN 
TX 


Income subject to federal tax 
Federal tax withheld 


F 


Total federal tax 


TH 


Take-home pay 


I 


Life insurance deduction 



Paycheck Analysis 



100 
110 

120 
130 

140 

150 

160 
170 
180 
190 

200 
210 
220 
230 



TO 



REM USE LINE 110 ONLY ON ATARI 
DIM A$C1),B$(1),P${I> 
PRINT" fCLR}" 

REM SUBSTITUTE COMMAND IN LINE 120 
CLEAR THE SCREEN ON YOUR COMPUTER 

PRINT " -PAYCHECK ANALYSIS " 

PRINT "{3 SPACES} (6. 92% STATE TAX) 

[3 SPACES}" 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT "BASE SALARY? ( GROSS-SEMI MONTHL 

Y)" 

INPUT 

PRINT 

INPUT 

PRINT 



B 

"COST 

C 



OF LIVING (GROSS)?' 



Dow Tones Has Powerful Connections, 



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Available at selected computer stores. Suggested retail price: $49.95. 

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BusCard allows 3^ to eaqoaiid the 

capabilitiea of your CJommodore 64. 

It gives you easy to use "BASIC 4" 

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Professional Word Processor 

For Commodore 64 and CBM/SuperPet 



i "Absolutely the most versatile word processor I 

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COMPUTE! Afjri), 1983 



So easy to \ise that erron novices csaxi get ' — 'r" 
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PaperCUp has eveiy standard word processor 
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Complete, professional and ea£ry to use. M"o where 
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Delphi's Oracle is a powerful information handling 
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Delphi's Oracle brings power and versatility • - ■ — +- 
usimUy found only in mainframe or minicomputer 
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accurate data entry, and excellent flexibility in 
searching for records. i j' 



S150 




*t-~ — H ■ 



CLUbEb 



Batteries Included, U.SA 
Los Angeles, CaUfornla 
(213) 556-2878 

CBM Systems 

Van NuyB, California 

(213) 904-0111 

Kapri International 
Sun "VaUey, CaUfornia 
(213) 76S-S774 



Software Distributors 
Calver City, California 
Cal:(800) 252-4025 

Software International 
Upland, California 
(714) 981-7640 

Lightware Computer 
YakitnEL, Washington 
(309) 57S-5S07 



R ef S Micro Services 
Minneapolis, Minnesota 
(612) 566-7566 

City Software 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
(414) 277-1230 

AB Computers 
Coknar, Pennsylvania 
(215) 822-7727 



GSI Distributei^, Tnc. 
Spring Valley, New York 
(914) 352-6700 

Bob Neff e> Absoc. 
Greenville, South Carolina 
(803) 269-9540 

Batteries Included 
Toronto, Ontario 
(416) 596-1405 



PET/CBM and Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Etectronlcs, Ltd. 



240 PRINT "ANY OVERTIME? f SHIFT-SPACE )(Y/N 

)" 
250 INPUT A$ 

260 IF (A$<>"N")*(A$<>"Y") THEN 250 
270 IF A5="N" THEN 340 

280 PRINT "HOURLY OVERTIME RATE (GROSS)" 
290 INPUT R 

300 PRINT "NUMBER OF OVERTIME HOURS" 
310 INPUT N 
320 A=R*N 
330 GOTO 360 
340 A=0 
350 REM GROSS SALARY W/ OVERTIME IN LINE 

{SPACE 1310 
360 TS=B+C+A 

370 PRINT "NUMBER OF FED EXEM CLAIMED;" 
380 INPUT EX 
390 REM DEDUCTIONS 
400 PRINT 
410 PRINT 
420 PRINT "PAY PERIOD-MIDDLE (M) OR END(E) 

430 INPUT P? 

440 IF (P$<>"E")*(P$<>"M" ) THEN 430 

450 IF P$="E" THEN 490 



460 1=13, 
470 REM 



50 



I IS INSURANCE DED ONCE A MONTH 
480 GOTO 500 
490 1=0 
500 U=10.00 

510 REM U IS UNITED FUND 
520 T=0 

530 REM T IS STOCK PLAN 
540 D=100.00 

550 REM D IS CREDIT UNION PAYROLL DED 

560 S=.067*TS 

570 REM S IS PICA 

580 M=( .0692*TS)-12.97 

590 REM M IS STATE TAX 

600 IN=(B+A)-41.66*EX 

610 REM EX IS FEDERAL EXEM AND-IN IS TAXA 

BLE INCOME 
620 REM FED WITHHOLDING TABLE (MARRIED, P 

AID SEMIMONTHLY) 
630 IF INM00 THEN 660 
640 TX=0 
650 GOTO 850 
660 IF IN>253 THEN 690 
670 TX=.12*(IN-100) 
680 GOTO 850 
690 IF IN>499 THEN 720 
700 TX=18.36+.16*(IN-253) 
710 GOTO 850 
720 IF IN>772 THEN 750 
730 TX=57.72+.19*(lN-499) 
740 GOTO 850 
750 IF IN>983 THEN 780 
760 TX=109.50+.24*(lN-772) 
770 GOTO 850 
780 IF IN>1204 THEN 810 
790 TX=160.23+.27*(lN-983) 
800 GOTO 850 
810 IF IN>1425 THEN 840 
820 TX=219.90+.32*(IN-1204) 
830 GOTO 850 

840 TX=290.62+.37*(IN-1425) 
850 F=TX+(.20*C) 
860 TH=(B+C+A)-(F+M+S+I+U+T+D) 
870 PRINT 
880 PRINT 



890 PRINT "TAKE HOME PAY IS $" ; INT(TH*100 
+.5)/l00 

900 PRINT 

910 PRINT 

920 PRINT "DO ANOTHER ANALYSIS?" 

930 INPUT B$ 

940 IF B$="Y" THEN 120 

950 END ^ 



COMPUTERIZED GREETING CARDS 
Special Christmas Card Series 



Now you can have your computer send a personal massage to everyone 
on your Ctiristmgs list. These beautiful Christinas Cards and Envelopes 
come continuous with tab feed for standard and home printers. 
Box 20 Cards w/Matching Envelopes 

Only g*" 

specify design when ordering 

CX 1 - Santa Glaus 

CX 2 — Snow Scene and Sleigh 

CX 3 - Yuletide Scene 

CX 4 — Religious 



To order send check or 
money order VISA/MC 
accepted ■ C. 0. D. add 
$3.00. Include $7.50 per 
order ($5. 00 Foreign Orders! 
shipping. 



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P.O. Box 894 

Stone Mountain, GA 30086 



Samples sent on request 
Ptione orders: 
(404)299-0713 



BASIC BYTE JUST 

MABE MANAGING YOUR 

STOCK PORTFOLIO EASIER 



Introducing PORTFOLIO MANAGER by Basic Byte, a high- 
quality, easy-to-use software program for use on your 
Commodore 64 or VIC 20 (16K RAM) personal computer 

It's designed to eliminate fiours of time consuming 
paperwork. And make it easy for you to handle your 
investments. 

PORTFOLIO MANAGER lets you instantly update your 
stock's current value. Calculate gains and losses. Record 
dividends. Print reports. Even determine the price per 
share after your broker's commission. All you have to do 
is follow the easy, step-by-step instructions. 

The price? Only S29.95. And that makes PORTFOLIO 
MANAGER a great investment by itself. 

You'll find PORTFOLIO MANAGER on tape or disk drive 
at your local dealer. Or call direct (313) 540-0655 or write 
RO. Box 924. Southfield, Ml 48037 and order yours today 




BASIC BYTE, INC. 



70 COMPUTE! December1983 




Developed by: 

-a eomptny in the DjUtronic group- 



Tll'l'MM^^ 



The Com> 
Spreadsheet that 
puts you a 
million miles ahead 



CALC RESULI-.The one spreadsheet guaranteed to turn 
your Commodore into a powerful financial tool. 
Offering you every feature found on other more expensive 
programs for much less the cosf. 
Flexible...you can view four different areas at once 
Versatile.-.customize your own print formats 
Distinctive. ..display beautiful color graphics 
CALC RESULJ Advanced is a three-dimensional spread- 
sheet with built-in HELP function and 32 pages of memory 
For the Commodore 64 S149.95. For the CBM'^'' 8032 S199.00. 
For first time users CALC RESULT Easy gives you a fast way to perform 
financial calculations— easily. For the Commodore 64 $79.95. 
For a down to earth demonstration of either version visit your 
local dealer today. 



\ 




^ 

■t-^- 



A Product of: 






Distributed by: 



DES-DATA EQUIPMENT SOFTEAM COMPU 

SUPPLY 800-421-0814 SERVICE 

213-923-9361 800-222- 

Commoaoie 64- is a Irademark ot Commodore Business Machines 



COMPUTER MARKETING 
SERVICES, INC. 
800-222-0585 



WAREHOUSE 1, INC. 

EASTERN U.S./800-253-5330 
WESTERN U.S. -800-256-0056 



BLUE SKY SOFTWARE 
Astilond Office Center 
Evesham & Alpha Avenues 
Voorhees, NJ 08043 
609/795-4025 




As utility bills continue to rise, it's 
a good idea to check them for accuracy.'' 

Here's a practical program enabling you to verify your 
electric, gas, water, and phone bills. Written for all 
Commodores, TI, Apple, and Color Computer, an 
Atari version is also included. 



"Utility Bill Audit" is a versatile program that lets 
you check your electric, gas, water, and phone 
bills for accuracy, or split the costs of these bills 
among the people living in your household. Also, 
if you are interested in energy savings (and who 
isn't these days?), you can monitor your daily 
electric and gas consumption with this program. 

Program 1 will run on all Commodore 
machines, TI, Apple, and Color Computer. One 
minor modification, however, is required if you 
have a TI-99/4A, Apple, or Color Computer. Line 
200 contains a statement to clear the screen 
and cursor home. Substitute the appropriate 
command for your machine in this line (CALL 
CLEAR for TL HOME for Apple, CLS for the Color 
Computer). 

Personalizing The Program 

Before you RUN this program, it is necessary to 
have a thorough understanding of how each bill 
is calculated in the program. First, a particular bill 
is split up according to the values (2,1,2,4) given 

72 COMPUTE! December 1983 



Utility 




Audit 



Larry L Bihimeyer 



in the DATA statement in line 1640. These values 
are assigned to the variable N(X) and represent 
the number of individuals who must pay for each 
bill. In its present form, the program assumes 
that the electric and water bills will be paid by 
two individuals, the phone bill by four, and the 
gas bill by one individual. However, it's unlikely 
that these numbers will correspond to the financial 
arrangements in your household. So, be sure to 
substitute the appropriate values in this line before 
you continue. Of course, if the bills are paid by 
one individual in the house, simply replace all 
four numbers in line 1640 with 1,1,1,1. 

Since the program works on the actual costs 
of your utility bills based on local rates, certain 
information about these rates must be provided 
before you can run the program. This information 
is READ in line 380 and 400 from the DATA state- 
ments in lines 1650- 1680. 

Notice that the first three DATA statements 
in this sequence have nine entries and apply to 
the electric, gas, and water bills respectively. Let's 
consider line 1650 as an example. The first entry 
in this line is the name of the utility (ELECTRIC) 
for which the rates that follow apply. The second 
entry is the unit of measurement for that particular 
utility (KWH for kilowatt hours). The next entry 
is the minimum service charge for the utihty ($5.40 
for electricity). The fourth entry is the tax rate 
based on the sum of the service charge and the 



INSTA 

tntroducing the Insta-Series from Cimarron—lnstantProduarvitySoftware forthe Commodore 

64 Personal Computer. The Software System: Insta-Writer, Insta-Mail, (nsta-Calc, Insta-Check, 
(nsta-Ledger, (nsta-Sched, Insta-File, and proven Word Craft Uftra 64, DTL Compiler64,and CMAR64 
are all available on Diskette, Casette, or Cartridge. This is a software system specifically designed 
for Your Productivity; manage information— Instantly! Call 714 662-2801 or contact the 
Commodore [)ealer nearest you. Insta-Series— you're communicating with the future— IMowI 




THE INSTA-SERIES IS DISTBIBUTED BY MICRO-SCI MARKETING. DIVISION OF STANDUN CONTROLS. INC. 21 SB HATHAWAY STBEET. SANTA ANA 
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Peachtree Software" 

by EDUWAI 




The smartest Avay to get 



the most out of school. 



Peachtree Software develops and 
expands your mind with a little help 
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innovative and exciting software, you 
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mental reflexes, creativity and 
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you're having fun. 

Peachtree Software is an 
imaginative new tool for getting the 
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Open your mind and your horiaons 
4 different ways: 



3 



Interactive Simulations™ 



4 



Interactive Fantasies 



TM 



The last frontier — space — 
becomes your destination as you 
master the difficulties of navigating 
and docking with the space station. 
It's the simulation of a real'life 
situation. 

But it's right at your fingertips, 
testing your technical understanding, 
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for would'be astronauts! 



The name of the game is survival in a 
strange land. And you're the survivor, 
you hope. 

Youll go on a mystical journey with 
Lasarus Long, Miner Hobart — a rich 
gambler who's dying of uranium 
poisoning — and Zora, a manipulating 
magician of questionable ends. 

It's an adventure among fantastic land' 
scapes. Anything can happen — and it 
usually does. 



1 



The Science of Learning 



TM 



EduWarc, The Scjtnce of Learning, DngonWirt, Interactive 

Simulationa and Interactive Fantasies are tiademirlcs of EduWare Servicei, Inc., an MSA cotnpany. 

Peachtree Software IS a tegiileted ttiitnajX of Peachtree Software Incorpotaied. an MSA company. 



This program is a key ingredient for 
establishing a strong foundation in the 
world of numbers, spelling, reading 
and computer literacy. Mathematics 
and language experiences are both 
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establishing basic learning skills. A 
child progresses in this magical world 
at his or her own speed. 






2 



Dragon Ware™ 







M fe;i% 




Enter challenging games of spelling, 
reading and counting skills, three skills 
essential to success in today's and 
tomorrow's world. Colorfully 
animated games exercise a child's 
eye-hand coordination, memory skills, 
sense of proportion and motor skills. 

Shape determination and perceptual 
skills are also challenged in other games 
in the Dragon Ware series. 



The smartest way to learn™. p^=^l. 

I am interested in the Peachtree Learning Ci:ntcrl" "t- -^^mm^^^mr^m^m 




Please send mi: more information about the Learning Center 
program. I am; Q a prospective dealer, □ an end user. 



Personal Corriputer Products 

■MNAGEMENT SCICNCE AMEniCA, INC 



Name- 



Compiiiy „ 
AiJilress — 



. Telephone - 



. State. 



-Zip - 



Peachtree LearnmE Center is a tradematk of Peachtree Software [ncorporated, an MSA company 

© 1983 Peachtree Software Incorpotated. an MSA company 

144S Peachtree Road. NE /Sih Floot/Aibnta.Georea J0J26/1-SOO-554-89O0 



PQFSS 



rate charge (0 percent for electric use). These first 
four DATA entries are READ in as A$(l), B${1), 
M(l), and Z(l), respectively. 

At this point, the numbers begin to get a little 
confusing, so read carefully. The next two num- 
bers are cutoff limits for each electric rate and are 
represented in the program by Ll(l) and L2(l). 
The last three numbers are the actual rates charged 
per KWH use for each level of usage (Rl(l), R2(l), 
and R3(l) in the program). Thus, the program is 
presently set up so that the rate charged for elec- 
tricity is $.0495 for the first 350 KWH, $.0565 for 
the next 950 KWH (i.e., 1300 minus 350), and 
S.0541 for any usage exceeding 1300 KWH. 

The DATA statement inline 1680 is easier to 
follow: the utility (PHONE), the minimum service 
charge ($13.50), and the tax rate on the service 
charge and long distance calls (3 percent). 

So, get out your most recent bills and read off 
the various rates (per KWH for electric, per CCF 
or hundred cubic feet for gas and water). If the 
rates are not given on a bill, contact the utility 
company to get a schedule of the latest rates. Then 
just substitute your local rates for those in the 
DATA statements in lines 1650 to 1680. 

Program Operation 

After inserting the correct rates, RUN the pro- 
gram. You will then be asked which utility bill 
you wish to check. The first three menu choices 
are electric, gas, and water. Bills for these three 
utilities are all calculated in the routine beginning 
at line 560. Let s look at an electric bill as an 
example. 

When the routine at line 560 is executed, you 
will be required to INPUT the present and previ- 
ous meter readings. These values can be read 
directly from your latest electric bill. Next, you 
must INPUT the number of days in the billing 
period. Then you will be asked to INPUT any 
adjustments to the bill, either positive (for ex- 
ample, connection fees, previous balances) or 
negative (credits). 

The program will next calculate the amount 
of electricity consumed for the given period (de- 
fined as U in line 720). Then, depending on the 
value of U relative to the two rate limits, Ll(l) 
and L2(X) (lines 740 and 750), an amount owed 
(T) before tax and adjustments will be calculated 
(lines 760, 780, and 800). Next, the tax on this 
amount will be determined (Tl). And finally a 
total electric bill — the sum of the minimum 
charge, usage cost, tax, and adjustments — will 
be calculated (T3) in line 830. 

The results are then PRINTed on the screen 
with provisions for formatting the output to two 
places past the decimal. Any numbers in the third 
place past the decimal are simply dropped. If you 
prefer rounded numbers, you could easily modify 

76 COMPUTE! December 1983 



the program to achieve that. 

The routine beginning at line 560, as men- 
tioned, also calculates the gas and water bills. 
These are based on the rates READ from the DATA 
statements in lines 1660 and 1670. Notice the sets 
of large numbers (precisely, 99999) in line 1660. 
The rates for gas where I live are the same, re- 
gardless of the amount used. By using large num- 
bers here for the cutoff limits, Ll(2) and L2(2), for 
this utility, it's unlikely that the actual usage will 
exceed these amounts (see lines 740 and 750). 
Thus, the charge for this commoditv will always 
be based on the first rate, or Rl. 

The rates for water, as READ from the DATA 
statement in line 1670, are based on a single cutoff 
limit (Ll(3)) of 1000 CCF. For less than this, a usage 
rate (Rl(3)) of $.144 per CCF is charged. If water 
usage exceeds 1000 CCF, a second rate (R2(3)) of 
$.160 is charged. Again, usinga very large number 
(99999) for the second cutoff limit (L2(3)) assures 
that the overall usage cost is based only on two 
rates. 

Analyzing The Phone Bill 

Phone bills are checked in a separate routine in 
the program beginning at line 1 110. In this routine, 
adjustments to the bill are initially INPUT in the 
same manner as they are with the electric, gas, 
and water bills. Next, the person responsible for 
each long distance charge is required to INPUT 
the amount of each long distance call. A separate 
routine (lines 1260-1360) allows the individual to 
correct any typing mistakes. Finally, the amount 
owed by one individual is displayed. 

The portion of the phone bill that each person 
must pay is the sum of their long distance tolls, a 
proportional amount of both the service charge 
and the billing adjustments, and a proportional 
amount of the tax levied on the service and long 
distance calls. Again, if only one person in the 
household foots the bills, the last number in line 
1640 should be 1. 

In addition to enabling you to catch billing 
errors and helping you to easily divide up house- 
hold bills, this program can help you monitor 
your costs. If you add an energy-saving device 
that is supposed to save, say, 10 percent of your 
total electric bill, take a meter reading when it is 
installed and verify the savings with a later reading. 
You can also project weekly, monthly, and yearly 
savings for any utility in this manner. 

Program 1: Microsoft & Tl Version 
(Commodore, Tl, Apple, Color Computer) 

100 GOTO 330 

110 A1=0 

120 PRINT"INPUT ADJUSTMENTS TO BILL(+ OR 

[space!- ,'0' WHEN DONE)" 
130 INPUT A 
140 A1=A1+A 



SOFTWARE 

THE BALANCED DIET 




PERSONAL ACCOUNTANT: Sophisticated double 
posting accounting system that's easy to use. 



MODEL DIET: Your pci'sona! guiclc to health aiul 
nuirition. 




DANCING FEATS: Phiv iiu<sit instanrlv and he your COMPUTER MECHANIC: Auto maintenance tool 
own one man jovsiick band. with guide lo troubleshooting. 





CYBERZONE: \iniv voice activates lasefs to shoot the MOTHERSHIP: 3 screen graphics game each with a 
cvber's spacecrait. difierent concept of plav. 

COMMODORE 64«TIMEX/SINCLAIR 2068 • ATARI 400,800 AND XL SERIES 

For more of our appeli/Jng programs, try COSMIC GORILLA, VOICE CHESS, GULPMAN, ZEUS 
ASSEMBLER and ZEUS DISSASSEMBLER! 

^-^g^-^^^^— -^ r^MM m^ K^mm ^^^ Y^^^ ^o'^^' dealer or write for more information 



150 
160 

170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 

230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 

340 
350 

360 
370 
380 

390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
5 50 

560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 
640 
650 

660 

670 
680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 
800 



IF A=0 THEN 170 

GOTO 130 

GOSUB 250 

GOSUB 290 

RETURN 

PRINT" {CLR) " 

RETURN 

PRINT "[2 SPACES }";A?(X);" BILL(CONT' 

)" 

PRINT 

RETURN 

FOR 1=1 TO 3 

PRINT 

NEXT I 

RETURN 

PRINT "INPUT C TO CONTINUE"; 

INPUT C? 

GOSUB 200 

RETURN 

DIM A$(4),B$(4),L1(3),L2(3) ,M(4),R1(3 

),R2(3),R3(3),WC50),Z(4) 

FOR 1=1 TO 4 

READ N(I) 

NEXT I 

FOR 1=1 TO 3 

READ A? { I ) , B$ { I ) , M( I ) , Z ( I ) , Ll( I) , L2 ( I 

) , Rl ( I ) , R2 ( I ) , R3 ( I ) 

NEXT I 

READ A$(4),M(4),Z(4) 

GOSUB 200 

PRINT" {2 SPACES}UTILITY BILL AUDIT" 

GOSUB 250 

ELECTRIC BILL" 

GAS BILL" 

WATER BILL" 

PHONE BILL" 

ALL OF THE ABOVE" 

EXIT" 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



PRINT" 
PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT" CHOOSE AN OPTION "; 

INPUT P 

IF (P<1)+(P>6) THEN 530 

ON P GOTO 1020,1050,1080,1110,1590,16 

90 

GOSUB 200 

PRINT" {4 SPACES] "?A$(X);" BILL" 

PRINT 

PRINT "PREVIOUS METER READING" 

INPUT El 

PRINT 

PRINT "PRESENT METER READING" 

INPUT E2 

PRINT 

PRINT "INPUT DAYS IN THE BILLING PERIO 

D" 

INPUT D 

GOSUB 2 50 

GOSUB 290 

GOSUB 200 

GOSUB 220 

GOSUB 110 

U=E2-E1 

Y=U/D 

IF U>L2(X) THEN 800 

IF U>L1(X) THEN 780 

T=M(X)+R1{X)*U 

GOTO 810 

T=M{X)+R1(X)*L1(X)+R2(X)*(U-L1(X)) 

GOTO 810 

T=M (X)+RX(X)*L1(X)+R2(X)*(L2(X)-L1(X) 



810 
820 
830 
840 
850 
860 

870 
880 

890 

900 
910 
920 

930 

940 
950 
960 

970 
980 

990 

1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 

1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1190 

1200 

1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 
1290 
1300 
1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 
1410 
1420 



PERIOD IS ";INT(U* 



;5"; INT(T* 
: INT(T1*10 



)+R3*(U-L2(X)) 

Tl=T*Z(X) 

T2=T+T1 

T3=T2+A1 

GOSUB 200 

GOSUB 220 

PRINT "USE FOR THE 

100)/100;" "rB$(X) 

PRINT 

PRINT "USE/DAY IS " ; INT (Y*100 ) /100 ; " 

[SPACE}";B$(X);" OR $"; 

PRINT INT(T2/D*100)/100;"/DAY INCLUDI 

NG TAX" 

PRINT 

PRINT A$(X) r" BILL: " 

PRINT " W/OUT TAX {2 SPACES) 

100)/100 

PRINT " TAX IS {5 SPACES}:?" 

0)/l00 

PRINT" ADJ'TS{5 SPACES 3 : 5 " ; Al 

PRINT 

PRINT "[2 SPACES }*TOTAL*{ 3 SPACES):?" 

; INT(T3*100)/100 

IF N(X)=1 THEN 990 

PRINT"SPLIT ";N{X),'" WAYS t $ " ; INT{ T3/N 

(X)*100)/100 

PRINT 

GOSUB 290 

RETURN 

X=l 

GOSUB ,560 

GOTO 430 

X=2 

GOSUB 560 

GOTO 430 

X=3 

GOSUB 560 

GOTO 430 

GOSUB 200 

X=4 

PRINT "{5 SPACES) " r A? (X);" BILL" 

PRINT 

GOSUB 



110 

FOR K=l TO N(X) 
1=1 

IF N(X)=1 THEN 1200 
PRINT "FOR PERSON #" 
PRINT "INPUT CHARGE 
STANCE CALL (INPUT 
INPUT W(I) 
IF W(I)=0 THEN 1250 
1 = 1 + 1 
GOTO 1210 
GOSUB 200 

PRINT" PERSON #",-K;" 
FOR J=l TO I-l 
PRINT "CALL #";J;"{2 
PRINT 

PRINT "IS THIS 
INPUT C5 
IF C?="Y" THEN 
PRINT "TYPE IN 
INPUT W(J) 
PRINT 
NEXT J 
GOSUB 200 
GOSUB 220 
T=0 

FOR J=l TO I-l 
T=T+W(J) 
NEXT J 



FOR EACH LONG DI 
'0' WHEN DONE)" 



SPACES):?' 
CORRECT (Y/N)" 

1350 
CORRECTION" 



rW(J) 



78 COMPUTE! December 1983 



COMPUTE! 

Books 



AUTUMN 



19 8 3 




'14.95 

1SBN0-94Z386-1 1-6 

Machine Language For 
Beginners. Much com- 
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Machine Language For 
Beginners is a step-by-step 
introduction to the 
subtleties of machine 
code. Includes an 
assembler, a disassembler, 
and utilities, to help be- 
ginners write programs 
more quicl<ly and easily. 
Covers many popular 
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350 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



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tx usaa c^ TW VC-2C 




'12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 6-7 



COMPUTEI's Second 
Book Of VIC. This is just 
the book to follow the 
bestselling First Bool< of 
VIC; clear explanations of 
programming techniques, 
an extensive memory map, 
a mini-word processor, a 
system for creating sound 
effects, a custom character 
maker, a machine language 
assembler, and "Snake," 
an extraordinary all- 
machine language game. 



274 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



GOWOTH's RrsI Book of 
-COMMODORE— 



'12.95 

ISBN 0-94Z386-20-5 



COMPUTEi's First Book 
Of Commodore 64. An 

excellent resource for 
users of the 64. with 
something for everyone: 
BASIC programming 
techniques, a memory 
map, a machine language 
monitor, and information 
about writing games and 
using peripherals. Many 
ready-to-type-in programs 
and games. 



Programmer's 
Reference 



Guide 

to the 

TI-99/4A 






0»o e««TU«:n Tf VM^ !t ^ -M - 



'14.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 2-4 



Programmer's Reference 
Guide To The TI-99/4A. 

Useful for everyone from 
beginners to experienced 
programmers. Contains in- 
structions for program- 
ming in BASIC, plus more 
than 40 ready-to-type-in 
programs for this popular 
computer. Explanations 
and examples of variables, 
files, arrays, high-resolu- 
tion graphics, music, 
speech, editing and 
debugging, conserving 
memory, and more. 



264 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



312 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 




'12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-00-0 



COMPUTEi's First Book 
Of Atari. One of the most 
popular books for one of 
the most popular personal 
computers. Useful articles 
and programs include: "In- 
side Atari BASIC." "Adding 
A Voice Track To Atari Pro- 
grams," "Designing Your 
Own Atari Graphics 
Modes," and more. For be- 
ginning to advanced Ataji 
owners and users. 



184 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



COMPUTEtS FifST BOOK OF 

ATARI 
GRAPHICS 




12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-08-6 



COMPUTEI'S First Bool< 
Of Atari Graphics. Atari 
programmers interested in 
graphics and color will find 
this book indispensable. 
Includes sections on using 
Atari graphics, "painting" 
the screen in 256 colors, 
mixing graphics modes, 
making high resolution 
graphs and charts, redefin- 
ing character shapes, 
player/missile graphics, 
and much more. 



248 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 




•12.95 

ISBN0-94238G-06-X 



COMPUTE'S Second 
Bool< Of Atari. Previously 
unpublished articles and 
programs selected by the 
editors of COMPUTE! Mag- 
azine. An excellent 
resource for Atari users. 
Contains chapters about 
utilities, programming 
techniques, graphics and 
games, applications, and 
machine language. 



250 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



INSIDE ATARI DOS 



•19.95 

ISBN 0-942386-02-7 



Inside Atari DOS. An in- 
valuable programming 
tool for intermediate to ad- 
vanced Atari programmers 
who own a disk drive. 
Written by Bill Wilkinson, 
designer of Atari's Disk 
Operating System, this 
book provides a detailed 
source code listing. A com- 
prehensive guide to DOS 
structure. 



108 pages, paperback. 

Spirai bound for easy access to programs. 



MAPPING 
THEAERRI 




•14.95 

ISSN 0-942386-09-4 



The Atari BASIC 

SOURCE 
BOOK 



Mapping The Atari. A 

"treasure map" of ROM 
and RAM. This book sup- 
plies a comprehensive list- 
ing of memory locations 
and their functions. In ad- 
dition, many applications 
are suggested, complete 
with program listings. For 
beginning to advanced 
Atari owners and users. 



194 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



296 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy reference. 



•12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 5-9 



The Atari BASIC 
Sourceboolt. From the 
computer's point of view, 
each BASIC command is 
actually a machine 
language miniprogram. 
Authors Bill Wilkinson. 
Kathleen O'Brien, and Paul 
Laughton, the people who 
actually wrote Atari BASIC, 
have compiled a complete 
annotated source code 
listing and a wealth of 
information on the internal 
workings of BASIC. 




'12.95 

ISBN 0-94Z386-07-8 



COMPUTEI's First Book 
of VIC. The essential refer- 
ence guide for owners and 
users of Commodore VIC- 
20, the computer in more 
homes than any other. 
First Book of VIC features 
games, educationai pro- 
grams, programming tech- 
niques, home applica- 
tions, machine language, 
memory maps, and more. 



212 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



Br-- 



(. M*iHflr IWM I'-DrenT^ 



The 
Beginner's 

Guide 
To Buying 

Personai 
Computer 




3.95 



ISBN 0-942386-22-1 



The Beginner's Guide To 
Buying A Personal Com- 
puter. This useful hand- 
book is designed to teach 
the novice how to evaluate 
and select a personal com- 
puter. Written in plain 
English for prospective 
buyers of home, educa- 
tional, or small business 
computers. Comes com- 
plete with personal com- 
puter specification charts 
and a buyer's guide to 35 
computers. 



90 pages, paperback. 
Revised and updated 1983 edi 



tion. 



COMPUTETs FIRST BOOK OF 

VIC 
GAMES 




' et*i*v\v i««i< 



'12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 13-2 



COMPUTEI's First Book 
Of VIC Games. Two 

dozen great games for just 
$12.95. Each has been 
tested and debugged and 
is ready to type in. Con- 
tains a variety of action 
games, mazes, brain 
testers, dexterity games, 
and more. Helpful hints 
and suggestions explain 
how each game was put 
together, strategies for 
winning, and ideas for 
modifying the games. 



H 4QMPV1V l«M ^el«O.Qn 



201 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



lEveiy Kid's"^^ 

First Book 
of Robots and 



'4.95 




83 pages, paperback. 



ISBN 0-942386-05-1 

Every Kid's First Book Of 
Robots And Computers. 

This book uses turtle 
graphics to introduce kids 
to robots and computers. 
Includes exercises for com- 
puter graphics languages 
such as Atari PILOT. Addi- 
tional exercises allow 
readers to experiment 
with the Milton Bradley 
"Big Irak™." Children who 
don't have a computer can 
use the sturdy "Turtle 
Tiles^'^" bound into each 
book. 

Big Irak is a tractetnflik of the,Mlllonfttfl(i]i;y 

Company. 

Turtle Tilffs Is a Irademark of David D Thorrbuig 

and InnovtsiOn. Inc 



COMFUTErs HRST BOOK OF 

ATARI 
GAMES 

f tit m arm ly W jxrr tiM> %im3tr fc *it» 

noUdrQ Tw BH( fnm COHnrm MdOQirw cu 
rmv'vwt'bitaw-piJakfMd gotai Old 




"^n 



'12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 14-0 



COMPUTEIs First Book 
Of Atari Games. Here are 
fifteen commercial quality 
game programs, ready to 
type into an Atari. The 
book contains fast 
machine language games 
that require quick reflexes 
as well as brain testers 
that feature strategy and 
logic. As a bonus, many 
programming techniques 
are explained in depth, so 
Atari owners can adapt 
them to their own games. 



hqm^ftJIywnrtP B MHnilMqflJt^i* 



Home Energy 
Applications 

On Vour PcnontI Computer 



Ci^fWi tit-tef»'n 




232 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



243 pages, paperback. 

Spiral bound for easy access to programs. 



'14.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 10-8 



Home Energy Applica- 
tions On Your Persona) 
Computer. Written for 
homeowners who want to 
analyze energy costs. In- 
cludes many computer 
programs for adding up 
the costs and benefits of 
home improvements — 
weatherstripping, insula- 
tion, thermostat timers, 
air conditioning, storm 
windows, and so on. Pro- 
grams will run on all 
popular home computers. 



New Releases October-December 1983 



COMPUTEt's First Book Of Tl Games 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 7-5 

29 ready-to-type-in games, including mazes, chase games, thinking 
games, creative games, and many explanations of how the programs 
work. 

COMPUTEI's Second Book Of Atari GrAphlcs 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-28-0 

Dozens of easy-to-understand explanations of rainbow graphics, 
animation, player-missile graphics, and more — along with artists 
utilities and advanced techniques. 

Creating Arcade Games On The VIC 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-25-6 

Everything you need to know to write exciting fast-action games in 
BASIC on the VIC, from game design to techniques of animation, in- 
cluding complete example games, 

VIC Games For Kids 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-35-3 

30 games written just for kids {though adults will enjoy them too). Ac- 
tion games and games to teach math, geography, history — learning 
has never been more fun. 

COMPUTEI's First Book Of 64 Sound & Graphics 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-2 1-3 

Clear explanations to help you use all the 64's powerful sound and 
video features. Plus great programs for music synthesis, high-res art. 
and sprite and character design. 

COMPUTEI's Third Book Of Atari 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 8-3 

Continues the COMPUTE! tradition of useful and understandable infor- 
mation, with programs from games to a word processor. Plus utilities 
and reference tables. 

COMPUTEI's First Book Of Commodore 64 Games 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-34.5 

Packed full of games: Snake Escape, Oil Tycoon. Laser Gunner. Zuider 
Zee. Arcade-action machine language games for fast hands: strategy 
games for sharp minds. 



COMPUTEI's Reference Guide To 64 Graphics 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386-29-9 

A complete, step-by-step tutorial to programming graphics. You'll like 
the clear writing, the example programs, and the full-featured sprite, 
character, and screen editors. 

Programmer's Reference Guide To The Color Computer 
$12.95 

ISBN 0-942386- 1 9-1 

An essential reference. Every command in regular and extended BASIC 
is fully defined, with ideas and examples for using them. Plus chapters 
on planning programs. 

Creating Arcade Gamei On The 64 
$12.95 

ISBNO-942386-36-1 

The principles and techniques of fast-action game design, including 
custom characters, movement, animation, joysticks, sprites, and 
sound. With complete example game programs. 

Commodore 64 Games For Kids 
$12.95 

I5BN0-942386-37-X 

Dozens of games for kids of all ages, making this an instant library of 

educational software. Learning, creativity, and excitement. 

Things To Do In 4K Or Less 
$12.95 

ISBN0-942386-3B-8 

Many entertaining and intriguing programs for small-memory com- 
puters like the unexpanded VIC, Color Computer, and TI-99/4A, with 
tips and hints for your own 4K programs. 

Creating Arcade Games On The TImex/SlnclaIr 
$12.95 

ISBN 0.942380-26-4 

Features five ready-to-type-in games, along with the principles of 
game design. Also serves as an excellent introduction to BASIC pro- 
gramming on the Timex/Sinclair. 




Coming Soon (Early 1984) 



The VIC Tool Kit: Kernal 8. BASiC 

• Mapping The VIC 

• Mapping The 64 

• The 64 Tool Kit: Kernal S^BASiC 




• Creating Arcade Games On The TI-99/4A 

• Ail About The 64: Volume 1 

• Tl Games For Kids 

• The Anything Machine: T1-99/4A 



How To Order 

All orders must be prepaid, in U.S. funds (check, money order, or credit card). NC residents add 4% sales tax. 
Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 

Send prepaid orders (including $2 shipping/ Or call 

handling for each book) to: TOLL-FREE 

COMPUTE! Books 800-334-0868 

P.O. Box 5406 (9 1 9-275-9809 in NC) 

Greensboro, NC 27403 :^^^H between 8:30 AM and 4:30 PM, EST, Monday-Friday 

Commodofe 64 and WC 20 are Irademarki o( Commooom Bus.nesi Machines and'or Commodore Eleclronics. Ltd. Atari is a trodemork of Atoir, Inc. 7\-19 ts. a rrademafk of Texas Instruments. 

COMPUTE! Publicationsjnc,® 

One of the ABC Publishing Componies ^^^F 




1430 


PRINT "SERVICE: E3 SPACES}$" f INT{M(X} 




/N(X)*100)/100 


1440 


PRINT 


1450 


PRINT "LD CALLS: [2 SPACES]$";T 


1460 


PRINT 


1470 


PRINT"ADJ'TS :[3 SPACES 3 ?"; INT(A1/nC 




X)*100)/100 


1480 


PRINT 


1490 


T1=T+INT(M(X)/N(X)*100)/100 


1500 


T2=INTCT1*Z(X)*100)/100 


1510 


PRINT "TOTAL TAX: 5";T2 


J.520 


PRINT 


1530 


PRINT 


1540 


PRINT " TOTAL BILL: $ " ;Tl+T2+INT{ Al/ 




NCX)*100)/100 


1550 


GOSUB 2 50 


1560 


GOSUB 290 


1570 


NEXT K 


1580 


GOTO 430 


1590 


FOR F=l TO 3 


1600 


X=F 


1610 


GOSUB 560 


1620 


NEXT F 


1630 


GOTO 1110 


1640 


DATA 2,1,2,4 


1650 


DATA ELECTRIC, KWH, 5. 40,0, 350,1300, .0 




495, .0565, .0541 


1660 


DATA GAS.CCF, 4.05, 0,99999,99999, .495 




41,0,0 


1670 


DATA WATER, CCF, 3.26,0,500,99999, .144 




, .160,0 


1680 


DATA PHONE, 13. 50, .03 


1690 


END 



Program 2: Atari version 



100 
1 10 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 

180 

190 

2 00 

210 

220 

230 

240 
250 

260 
270 
280 

290 

300 

310 



GOTO 200 
A1=0: PRINT 
MENTS {+ OR 
INPUT A:A1= 
IF A=0 THEN 
GOTO 120 
GOSUB 



PRINT 

PRINT 

ONT" ) 

FOR I 

N 

PRINT ..,. ^ 

UT C«:BDSUB 

DIM LI C3) • 



180: B 
" tCLE 

H „ . pj 

: PRIN 

1 TO 



"INPUT BILLING ADJUST 
-, ' S' WHEN DONE) " 

Al+A 
150 

OSUB 190:RETURN 

AR: " : RETURN 

*<X*a-7,X*B);" BILLCC 

T : RETURN 

3:PRINT :NEXT I : RETUR 



R2 (3) , R3 43) 
(9) , C* ( 1 ) 
A«="ELECTRI 

iZ SPACESJP 
B*="KWHCCFC 
FOR 1=1 TO 
I: FOR 1=1 T 
READ A, B, C, 
M (I ) = A : Z '( I ) 
( I ) =E: R2 ( I ) 
NEXT I 
READ A,B;M< 
PRINT " C3 R 
IT" 

GOSUB 180:P 
CTRIC BILL" 
AS BILL" 
PRINT "■C3 R 
RINT "<:3 RI 
PRINT "-C3 R 



"INPUT C TO CONT INUE " ; : INP 

160:RETURN 
2(3),M(4),N(4),R1(3), 
, W < 5 ) , Z ( 4 ) , A t ( 4 ) , B * 



CeAS<:5 SPACESJWATER 
H0NEC3 SPACESJ" 

CF" 

4:ReAD X : N ( I > =X : NEXT 

O 3 

D , E , F , G 

= B:L1 (I)=C:L2(I)=D:R1 

= F: R3 ; I ) =G 

4 > =A: 2 (4) =B: GOSUB 160 

IGHTIUTILITY BILL AUD 

RINT "{3 RlGHTJl. ELE 
: PR I NT " iZ RI6HT>2. E 

IGHT>3. WATER BILL":P 
GHT>4. PHONE BILL" 
1GHT:S. ALL OF THE AB 



Atari Version Notes For ^ 
Utility Bill Audit 

Patrick Porrtsh, Programnriing Supervisor 

The Atari version (Program 2) of "Utility Bill 
Audit" is set up like the Microsoft version. 
The primary difference in the Atari version, 
of course, is its handling of strings. A$(X) 
and B$(X) were used to define the type of 
utility and its units of usage in the Microsoft 
version. Since the Atari doesn't allow string 
arrays, A$ and B$ must be defined as one 
long string of individual substrings repre- 
senting all utilities and their units. This is 
accomplished in lines 210 and 220. Thus, 
when a bill for a particular utility is to be 
checked, a corresponding portion of A$ and 
B$ will be accessed accordingly. 

As an example of this, look at the state- 
ment in line 170. If you were checking an 
electric bill, then X would equal 1 and the 
first eight characters in A$ or ELECTRIC 
would be PRINTed along with the word 
BILL. 

After removing entries for A$ and B$ 
from the DATA statements in lines 780 to 
810, the remainder of these entries are de- 
fined by the same variables as they are in the 
Microsoft version. Read over the discussion 
on these DATA statements in the article. 
Then, adjust the values contained therein 
according to your local utility rate schedules. 



OVE' 
INT 
320 PRINT 



PR INT 
PRINT 



RIGHT 16. EXIT' 



PR 



3 right:; CHOOSE an option 

330 INPUT P: IF (P<1)+(P>6) THEN 330 
340 ON P GOTO 540,550,560,570,760,32 


350 GOSUB 160:PRINT "C4 SPACES>";A*( 

X*S-7, X*8) ; " BILL";PRINT 
360 PRINT "PREVIOUS METER READING":! 

NPUT E1:PRINT 
370 PRINT "PRESENT METER READING": IN 

PUT E2:PRINT 
380 PRINT "INPUT DAYS IN THE BILLING 

PERIOD" : I NPUT D:BOSUB 180 
390 GOSUB 190:GOSUB 160:GOSUB 170:GO 

SUB 110:PRINT : U=E2-E 1 : Y=U/ D 
400 IF U>L2(X) THEN 440 
410 IF U>L1<X) THEN 430 
420 T=M ( X J +R1 ( X ) »U: GOTO 450 
4 30 T = M (X ) -t-Rl ( X) *L1 ( X ) +R2 ( X ) * ( U-L 1 (X 

) ) : GOTO 450 
440 T = M(X)+RI (X) *L1 CX)4-R2CX)»(L2iX)- 

Ll < X ) ) +R3 ( X ) * (U-L2 < X ) ) 
•45 T1=T*Z(X):T2=T+T1:T3=T2+A1:G0SUB 
160:6OSUB 170 
460 PRINT "USE FOR THE PERIOD IS ";I 

Decembei1983 COMPUni 83 




. . with a wing toad of Quality Software 
for tfie commodore 6a and ViC 20' 

Once you've compared our programs, their features and 
prices, you'll agree there's no competition in sigiit. YquI! also 

discover another important reason to go TOTI Customer 

Assistance After You Buy, . .Something nearly unknown in the 
low cost software field. 

some features 

Menu driven. Easy to use ■ Available on tape or disk ■ Com- 
patible With Most Column Expansion Hardware ■ Built- 
in ASCII Translation for Non Commodore Hardware ■ Color 
Variables for Easy r\/lodif ication ■ Machine language speed for 
Word Processing and Mailing List & Label software. 

and there are 5 uniQue programs to choose from 

1. WORD PROCESSING has the speed and versatility to produce 
documents, forms and letters in a straightforward approach that 
is easily and quickly learned 

2. MAILING LIST AND LABEL lets you organize your mailing 
lists, collection catalogs, menus, recipes and anything that de- 
mands listing or sorting. 

3. TOTL TIME MANAGER helps you plan schedules and analyze 
events and activities by persons, project catagory and date 
Ideal for project planning in the home or business 

4. RESEARCH ASSISTANT turns your computer into an ad- 
vanced, automated indexing and cross reference system. 
A must for the student, educator or the research professional. 

5. SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING is a set of straightforward 
accounting programs Frees the salesman, entrepreneur 
or service professional from time consuming record keeping 
tasks. 




Ask vour :teslpr about TOTL Software ■ 

onena in tne coupon for fuatier aetails | 

SOFTWARE INC ^'^^ otaering informattot) m 



1555 Third Avenue, Walnut Creek, CA 94596 

PLEASE SEND ME MORE INFORMATION ON TOTL SOFTWARE 
Name: 



Address: 



.Zip. 



00) / 1 ; 



B* (X*3-2, X*3) : 



470 
480 

4 90 
500 



510 
520 

5.30 
54 
550 
560 
570 

5 80 
5 90 

h0S 
610 



620 

63 
640 



660 
670 

6S0 
690 

7 00 



7 1 
720 

7 30 

740 

750 

7 60 

770 

7S0 

790 

B00 

B 10 
B20 



Al : 
INT 



t*;Ay 



60 
GO 
BO 



NT (U*! 
PRINT 

PRINT "USE/DAY IS " ; 1 NT ( Y « 1 00 ) / 1 
00;" " ; B* ( X*3-2, >;*3) ; " OR $"; 
PRINT INT(T2/D*10 0) 7100; "/DAY":P 
RINT "INCLUDING TAX":PRINT :PRIN 
T A$ ( X «a-7, X *B) ; " BILL:" 
PRINT " W/OUT TAX: *";INT(T»100) 
/I 00 -.PRINT ■' TAX IS-!:3 SPACES]: $ 
" ; INT (Tl* 100) / 100 
PRINT " ADJ'TSC3 SPACES}: %• 
PRINT :PRI,MT " *TOTAL* : *' 
(T3*100) / 100 
IF NfXl=l THEN 530 
PRINT : PRINT "SPLIT ";NCX);' 
S:*"; INT(T3/N<X3 *100) /I 00 
PRINT iGOSUB 170:RETURN 

SUB 350: GOTO 290 

SUB 350: GOTO 290 

SUB 350: GOTO 290 

160: X=4 ; PRINT "[4 SPACES]" 

B-7, X«8) ; " BILL" 

:SOSUB 110 

:FOR K=l TO N(X>:I=1:IF N( 

HEN 610 

FOR PERSON #" ; K; " , " ; 

"INPUT CHARGE FDR EACH LON 

ANCE CALL (INPUT '0' VgHEN 

CES>DONE) " 

D:W(I)=D:IF Wfl)=0 THEN 64 

GOTO 620 

i60:FOR J=i TO I-1:PRINT " 

N # " ; k : " , " ; 

"CALL tt";J;" : * " ; W i J J : PS I N 

NT "IS THIS CORRECT ! '/ / N ) " 

C*:IF C*="Y" THEN 680 

"TYPE IN CORRECT ION" : INPUT 

) =D 

:f'JEXT J 

16.0:GOSUB 170:T = 0:FDR .1=1 

J): NEXT J: PR I NT "SERVICE: 

CESJ«"; INTCMCX?/N:X>*10 0) / 

INT 

"LD CALLS: *";T: PRINT 

"ADJ'TS- : r3 SPACES ]■ « " ; I NT i 

) *100) / 100: PRINT 

NT < M ! X ) /N ; X ) * 100 ) / 1 00: T2= I 

Z ( X ) * 100) / 10 

"TOTAL TAX: *";T2:PRINT :P 

" TOTAL BILL: f ;T1+T2+INT 
X ) * 100) / 1 0f;): BOSUB 1 30: GDSU 
NEXT K:GOTO 290 
1 TO 3;X=F:G0SUB 350: NEXT 

570 

12 4 
. 40, , 350 , 1300, . ei495 , . 0565 



X = l 

X = 2 

X = 3 

GOSUB 

; A S ( X * 

PRINT 

PRINT 

X ) = 1 T 

PRINT 

PRINT 

G DIST 

{4 SPA 

I NPUT 



I - I + i : 

GOSUB 

PERSO 
P RINT 
T :PRI 
INPUT 
PRINT 

D: W ( J 
PRINT 
GOSUB 
TO I -1 
T=T+W ( 
■ 3 SPA 
1 1;! : P R 
PRINT 
P RINT 
A 1 / N f X 
T1=T-H 
N T < T 1 * 
PRINT 
RINT 
PRINT 
( A 1 / N ( 
B 19 0: 
FDR F = 
F : GOTO 
DATA 2 
DATA 5 
, .0541 
DATA 4 

DATA 3 

.. <^ 

DATA i 
END 



. 05, 0, 999 99, 99999, . 49541 , 
.26,0, 1000,99999, . 144, . 160 
3. 50, . 03 _ 



COMPUTE! 

The Resource, 




IMPROVE YOUR UFE 
WHILE VIMTCHlniG TV? 



Overcome annoying 
habits... build new and 
positive ones! 

Eight Expando-Vision™ subliminal 
programs are available to he(p you: 

1 . Weight control/exercise 

2. Control smoking/calm nerves 

3. Stress control/positive 
thinking 

4. Control drJnking/responslbility 

5. Athletic confidence/golf 

6. Study habits/ memory power 

7. Career/success motivation 

8. Sexual confidence 

Expando-Vision^i" feeds positive 
subliminal messages to your sub- 
conscious while you watch regular 
TV programs. Flashed at 1 130 of a 
secorid, the messages occur too fast 
for your eye to see. but your sub- 
conscious uses that information to 
reinforce your will to succeed. 
Subliminal messaging has been 
shown effective in over 20 years of 
clinical and university research. 

It is legal. The FCC limits commer- 
cial subliminal messages... but with 
Expando-Vision, you are person- 
ally at the controls in the privacy of 
your home. You can view the mes- 
sages in slow motion to see exactly 
what they are. 

it strengthens your will, but can- 
not compel you to do something 
against your will. Expando-Vision 

operates on well-estabfished 
psychological pnncples of positive 
reinforcement. 




Computer Hookup 

To use the system you need an inex- 
pensive home computer (VIC 20,® 
Commodore 64.® Atari 400® or 
Atari 800® ). You need the 
Expando-Vision Interfacing 
Device... S 89. 9 5 (a one time pur- 
chase that attaches easily to your 
computer) . . .and you need 
Expando-Vision programs. 
S39.95 each. [Add S3.00 shipping 
and handling. Mich, residents add 
4% sales tax). 

Credit Card Orders Call Toll Free 

T -800-543-7500 

Operator 828. 

Tell us which program(s| you would 
like and charge your purchase to 
Visa,® MasterCard,"^ American 
Express^ or Diner's Club.® Or 
request free brochure. Please 
use coupon, if paying by check or 
money order. Allow 4 to 6 weeks 
for delivery. 

Full cost refund if not completely 
satisfied within 30 days of receipt. 



Stlmuteeh, Inc., P.O. Box 2575. 
Dept, 3 01 A. E. Lansing. Ml 488. 



Phonf 



Signature 
Send me Subliminal Program Numbef(s| 

Gl n2n3D4D5a6a7CS 

® 39.95 ea Plus Cjinterface Device tit SS9 95 
ea Add S3 stiippingS handling, Michigan 
residents add 4% Mies tax TOTAL PRICE 

S Enclosed is check or money order 

Computer Type: '^VIC-20 Comm, 64 
GAtari 400. BOO. Specify GCart. HlDisk 
GTape I will use with cable, transmimng on 
Ch. n2 as □•? COther. Send GDealer info. 
GFREE brochure < lEncIosed is S3 for System 
Manual only. 
Dealer inquiries, orders call 5 1 7-332-77 1 7 




hJOTE TO BUYERS: CKvners of VIC 20' and 
Ccmmoaore 64' Computers can view 
ExpanctaVision'T"' with TV signals from a TV 
antenn.i |Ch 3 or 4 only|. cable TV (transmis- 
sions on Ch. 3 or 4). or from .tny vrdco cassette 
oi viilf'o clisk niaver A:ari 400 or BOO owners 
t.T • 'o Vision with TV antenna (Ch 

,? ■ .■ cle (fansmissions on Ch, 2 or 3) 

or .11 ly vi'.ieu casseKe or disk player Systems 
coTipiatible with other home computers are 
under developmerit .ind will he introdure^l 
soon 



Exp^ndQ- V!^(K> Ipat pefid:nrt) 15 a rra<lcfnat(( fof fTome cnmpuler tjehavror mo*r'c^tion syslemsownpf? dy Siimulwri. tnc .P O Box 
.ire rpnislered rademai-ks E7f CommortOfP Biivnen Mxnr\n Atsn 400 ^nt: flvjn BOO are feT'»"-t •r.,.]..,nj,i 1 ..,1 j„.v. m^ w.— "- 
1 800S^l-242t (InMKhHjsr, l-aOOS2l 24?3) 



EXPANDO-VISION 

Straight To The Mind's Eye 



?57S. Bas Unvng. Ml 46823 VIC ?0 anH Comrrwioff fc« 
inFnrrrjifo'' j^v^jf^D^? -v rfiovj! rh,^fqe CdH loJI tree 

I.: Sfifnurw:h Inr 19^3 



31R 



Gas Mileage 



Pon Blue 



Here's a valuable program if you're ecouoim/-itii>ided. 
You can mouilor your vehicle's, performauce with a hi- 
res graphics display of your odometer reading, gas 
mileage, standard deviation of mileage data, and refer- 
ence dates. Originally written for the Apple, versions 
for the Atari, 64, and VIC (with Super Expander) are 
included. A disk drive is required. 



"Gas Mileage," originally written for the Apple, 
is a simple but effective program that displays, in 
high-resolution (hi-res) graphics, the total cumula- 
tive average gas mileage for up to 200 (50 for VIC 
version) fill-ups. Also, mileage, gas mileage, 
standard deviation of gas mileage data, and refer- 
ence dates are displayed at the bottom of the 
screen. 

If you compulsively keep records of gas 
mileage of your car or cars, you probably have 
noticed that there is often significant variability. 
Many factors can cause this: whether you are 
getting a "total" fill, which gas station you are 
getting your gas from, what type of driving you 
have been doing, the mechanical condition of 
your car, and weather conditions. If you own a 
small economy car, you have probably experi- 
enced the frustration of seeing results ranging 
from 10 to 40 miles to the gallon. Such data is use- 
less to reveal whether or not changes you've made 
in your vehicle or driving habits are effective. If 
you own more than one vehicle, you might want 
to make a scientific comparison to determine 
which vehicle is giving you the best service. 

Operating The Program 



PRINTER OPTION 

(3) OPTION FOR CREATING A NEW DATA 
FILE FOR ANOTHER VEHICLE 

When you first run the program and the main 
menu is displayed, you'll have to choose option 3 
to create an initial data file. The program will 
branch to line 610, which asks you to INPUT 
CAR'S NAME:. The car's name (N$) becomes the 
data file's name. Any number of data files can be 
created and used in the program as long as no 
name is used twice. (This file naming technique 
can be valuable for other programs as it allows 
maximum use of the same program for different 
data files.) When using any N$ input string vari- 
able to equal your desired data files, you can save 
yourself some typing by using the following se- 
quence: "OPEN";N$:"READ OR WRITE";N$: 
"CLOSE";N$. 

Lines 620 - 700 create a data file that can be 
READ without causing an END OF DATA ERROR 
message. The Z variable used at line 680 will be 
used to tell the READ command how many DATA 
statements are to be read — in other words, how 
many entries have been made for mileage and 
distance. This technique is useful when the 
number of data entries is constantly changing. If 
you use the APPEND DOS command for adding 
new data to your data files, the Z variable can be 
corrected if you POSITION DOS to location zero 
and then WRITE in the value of Z and CLOSE the 
data file. If you are making multiple entries of 
new data to your data file, I recommend that you 
not use the APPEND command for writing in 
data files. 



Gas Mileage is menu-driven and designed for use Data OptJOnS 

with a disk drive. The main menu consists of three 
choices: 

(1) GAS MILEAGE DISPLAY 

(2) PROGRAM FOR THOSE WANTING A 



After you have run the program and created the 
data file, the next display on the screen will be 
CHOOSE YOUR PROGRAM OPTIONS. Lines 
200 - 260 allow you to select one of four program 



86 COMPOH! December 1983 




TDK Floppy Disks. 
Invaluable securily for Irreplaceable information. 



-n 



^TD«^ 







\ 



t^P 



©1932 TDK Electronics Corp. 



sis 



©TDK. 



rl02* 



Today, more and more companies are relying on convenient floppy disks to record, 
store and safeguard information. Irreplaceable information whicti is vital to ftieir business 
interests. It Is precisely ttie value placed on ttiis information that makes ttie floppy disk an 
invaluable tool for storage and security. And this is wfiere TDK floppy disks become invalu- 
able to you. TDK floppy disks are guaranteed 100% error-free at ttie time of manufacture 
and certified for double-density encoding. Furthermore, each track of every TDK floppy 
,^^^__^^^^^^— r». disk is tested to exceed industry standards... including 

ftiose o1 IBf^, Sfiugorf, ANSI, ECtvIA, ISO and JIS. Once you 
insert a quality TDK floppy disk into your computer system, 
you're guaranteed highly reilabie, ultra smoofti perform- 
ance. Ttiis is due to TDK's proprietary disk-burnishing tech- 
nique that provides optimum head-to-disk contact. 

TDK floppy disks are available in S'A and 8-inch sizes in 
the most popular formats. Each disk comes in its own pro- 
tective Tyvek-type envelope. For a copy of our brochure, 
"Some Straight Talk About Floppy Disks," write to: TDK Elec- 
tronics Corp., Computer Products Marketing Dept., 12 Harbor 
Park Drive, Port Washington. NY 11050, or call 516-625-0100. 



«1; 








I 



M2DXiS 96TPI 



^TDK. 

The heart of your system. 



ChaHeimeYO 



Make beautiful music. Everyone loves 
music. And anyone who has ever hunnmed 
a tune can write one, now. Scarborough has 
taken the universal language of music and 
developed a software program that makes it 
fun and easy to write songs for budding 
composers of any age. 

Even those who don't recognize a single 
note can be composing songs in 15 minutes. 
Simulated piano roll graphics and on-screen 
commands serve as a guide every step of 
the way — from scales and rhythm to more 
complex musical forms and theory. 

With Songwriter, composing songs is as 
simple as "do-re-mi." Write a song, change, 
delete or add a note, change tempo and 
teach the computer to repeat musical 
-motifs. Even-save compositions-to play-baGk- 
through the computer or your home stereo. 
For added fun, there is also a library of 28 
popular songs to listen to and experiment 
with, as well as a series of educational 
activities for adults and children. 

Songwriter is like a word processor for 
music that will bring the whole family back 
to the computer, again and again — because 
Songwriter encourages experimentation 
and makes the whole process fun. Isn't that 
why you bought a personal computer in the 
first place? 

Every kid has a song in his heart. (So does 
the "kid" in every parent!) Help yours 
express it with Songwriter. 

Available for Apple," Atarly® 

Commodore 64 ' and IBM-PC^ $39.95 




'^m^M"^ 




TheSottbon 

© Scarborough Systems, Inc., 25 North Broadway, Tarrytown, New York 10591, 1-800-882-8222 in New York: 1-914-332-4545. 



waealivhyi 



Be quick on the draw. PictureWriter is 

magic! Create any shape or pattern, 

instantly. Fill areas witin glowing colors and 
even hear pictures set to music. 

PictureWriter brings out the artist in any- 
one. With this program, your child can 
create his or her own picture gallery and 
watch the computer redraw the pictures iil<e 
magic on the screen, PictureWriter also 
includes a library of masterpieces by other 
"picture writers" that can be colored, edited 
and redrawn. 

Like all Scarborough programs, Picture- 
Writer encourages experimentation and 
continually challenges the child to explore 
new avenues. And all the while, Picture- 
Writer subtly develops the child's familiarity 
— with4he-f u ndamertals-o^step-by-step com- 
puter programming. 

Getting started is simple. The built-in 
tutorial zips the artist into the program 
quickly and keeps him or her creatively 
occupied for hours. 

The possibilities are endless with Picture- 
Writer In fact, children find it so captivating 
that parents will probably want to doodle 
with it, too. And why not? 

You can't stay an adult forever. 
Available for Apple ' $39.95 
(Soon, Atari®) 



Reproduced on Wabash disks. 

iple, IBM and Ataii-ar ^registered uaaemaxitS-Qf-Apole.CQiTiputerJnc. 
International Business Machines Corp. and Alarr, Inc. respectively. 
Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Limited. 



WSn, PicfureWritef-it'smagu: Creait 
^Ch oose f rom a 1 ibraf y of fmishefl art - 





You' il grow with us. 




options: 

(1) DISPLAY GAS MILEAGE 

(2) INPUT NEW DATA 

(3) CREATE BACKUP DATA FILE 

(4) RETURN TO MAIN MENU 

I used a GET X$ request at line 240 and then 
changed the X$ to an X variable number. The 
reason: If a letter is accidentally pressed, the pro- 
gram will crash and you will have to reload your 
data file. 

Since you do not yet have any gas mileage 
data to be displayed, we'll discuss option 1 last. 
Option 2, INPUT NEW DATA (lines 490 - 570), 
lets you input your mileage readings and the 
amount of gas used to fill the vehicle. The I variable 
is used as a data interval. Since data is to be added 
to the data file, the interval variable equals the 
total current number of DATA statements. The 
data interval and the Z variable (total number of 
DATA statements) are then increased by one. 

Since the variables used to represent current 
odometer reading and gas are dimensioned to 200 
variable statements each, you should be able to 
store data representing about 35,000 miles before 
you will have to increase the number of dimen- 
sioned variable statements- Your data will even- 
tually run into the hi-res screen as you run out of 
memory. You can then create new data files to 
contain your additional data, or delete parts of 
the program you find unnecessary. 

The screen displays the last stored mileage 
and asks you to INPUT CURRENT MILEAGE. To 
get your data file running, your first mileage is 
used as a starting location and stored as if you'd 
used no gas, regardless of what you had typed in. 
(Gas mileage calculations are actually started with 
your second data entry.) Next, you simply input 
the odometer reading at the time you filled up 
your vehicle. For example: 37324 miles, and gas 
used since last fill-up, 12.3 gallons. 

The next screen display (lines 500 - 560) per- 
mits correction of an entry before it is stored in 
the data file: 

SUB-MENU 

(1) TO END DATA INPUT & STORE DATA 

(2) TO RE-ENTER LAST DATA ENTRY 

(3) TO ENTER MORE DATA 

(4) TO ENTER REFERENCE DATE FOR 
FILL UP 

Option 2 allows you to correct a mistyped 
entry. Use option 3 to continue inputting data 
until you're finished. Option 1 ends data input 
and stores your data file on disk. Option 4 proc- 
esses a date for future reference and display. 
Keep your reference dates to a minimum to save 
memory. 

After the data has been stored in your data 
file, you are automatically sentback to the program 
options. After doing all that data entr)^, you should 

90 COMPUTE! December 1?83 



now use option 3, CREATE BACKUP DATA FILE. 

The Heart Of The Program 

When vou choose option 1, DISPLAY GAS 
MILEAGE (lines 270 - 480), the screen display 
asks you to INPUT ESTIMATED AVERAGE GAS 
MILEAGE. Your input (XG) is then acted on by 
lines 270 - 290 and line 440 in adjusting the hi-res 
screen position of the data that will be displayed. 
Depending on the individual characteristics of 
your vehicle, you might like to change the value 
of the XG variable to position your data display to 
suit your taste. 

The total cumulative average gas mileage is 
calculated for each input of current mileage and 
total gas used. The average gas mileage is plotted 
as a point on the hi-res screen. In addition, gas 
mileage and standard deviation are provided at 
the bottom of the screen. When a bell sounds, a 
new reference date is printed at the bottom of the 
screen. 

For those unfamiliar with standard deviation, 
it is a mathematical expression of the variability of 
data about a mean. The standard deviation can be 
used to clarify the meaning and the causes of 
events. The hi-res screen display does for you 
visually what science relies on statistical analysis 
to accomplish. 

Line 330 is used to increase the data interval 
by one, so that gas and current odometer readings 
can be translated and used to calculate gas 
mileage. X is the total distance traveled, and F is 
the total fuel used to travel that distance. MG 
represents the total average miles per gallon. Ml 
is the total cumulative sum of the squares of miles 
per gallon, and M2 is the sum of the miles per 
gallon. Using Ml, M2, and N (the total number of 
entries), the standard deviation is calculated. Lines 
350 - 370 carry out these functions. 

Line 390 displays at the bottom of the hi-res 
screen the following: mileage, miles per gallon 
(MG), and standard deviation (SD). Line 400 dis- 
plays the reference dates. 

Next, each total cumulative gas mileage is 
translated into a coordinate to be plotted on the 
hi-res screen at lines 440 - 480. The A variable 
represents this coordinate. The Y variable is used 
to position the next graphic plotting of gas mileage 
slightly to the right of the last gas mileage plotted. 
The gas mileage is multiplied by the constant pro- 
vided at lines 270 - 290, and the value subtracted 
from 600. This enhances graphic display of data 
and allows for normal graphic display of higher 
and lower gas mileage as would be expended in 
the upper-right graphic coordinate system. The 
hi-res plotting system is in the lower right of the 
normal graphic coordinate system. Lines 420 and 
430 can be changed to stop the erasure of the hi-res 
screen if your data exceeds the right side of the 



IF YOU OWN AN ATARI, 
YOLTU. WANT THESE BOOKS, 






THE BOOK OF ATARI 
SOFTWARE 1984 

If you're buying software, 
ihis book will save you 
many hours of searching 
and lots of money, too. 

The Book of Atari 
Software 1984 contains 
hundreds of incisive 
reviews — .not just listings 
— in areas such as Games, 
Business, Education and 
Word Processing. Each 
evaluation gives you ail 
the hard facts (such as 
price, hardware require- 
ments, language, etc). 
Plus ratings in categories 
like Ease of Use, Reliabil- 
ity and VaSue for Money. 

One of the smartest 
buys you'll ever make as 
an Atari owner 



ATARI GRAPHICS AND 
ARCADE GAME DESIGN 

Computer games have be- 
come very big business. 
And good game authors 
are reaping large 
rewards. 

If you want to begin to 
understand and create 
arcade games, this is the 
best place to start. 

Jeffrey Stanton, a 
master of 3-D graphics, 
takes you from game 
concept through player- 
missile and character set 
animation techniques at 
the machine language 
level. Stanton also covers 
BASIC language pro- 
gramming with machine 
language subroutines, 
custom display lists. 



GTIA color, and sound. 
Arcade game concepts 
like maze theory, scoring, 
explosions and bomb 
drops are covered in both 
single screen and scroll- 
ing games. 

THE ATARI USER'S 
ENCYCLOPEDIA 

If you're a computer 
owner, you're always 
going to have questions. 
The best place to get 
answers is from The Atari 
User's Encyclopedia — 
the ultimate source book. 
St presents hard to find 
information and organizes 
it alphabetically in an 
easy-to-use, results- 
oriented way. You' SI find 
out everything you need 



to'know about DOS, 
BASIC, programming, 
user's groups, software 
and peripherals (including 
a complete listing of 
manufacturers). 

This book is as indis- 
pensable to your Atari 
as the power cord. 

Material covers all 
models except 2600 
(VCS) and 5200. 



TIPS ON BUYING 
SOFTWARE 

Send for your free 64 
page booklet, "Tips on 
Buying Software." You'll 
learn how to evaluate 
your needs and find out 
what's available. Plus 
much more. 



^E c^OOK "^MPANY tt O # 

A Division of . Arrays. Inc. J ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 




Avrtildble ai LQmpuief stoix-^ i-vvvvv.' i-n'ip or direcily from Tht' Book 
Company, 



The Book of Atari Software 1984 




Atari Graphics and Arcade Game 
Design 

The Atari tJser's Encyclopedia 



Tips on Buying Software 




$19.95 



$16.95 



$13.95 



N/C 



/Mail to: THE BOOK COMPANY. Dept.cOM, 11223 S, Hindry Ayenue. Los 
/Angeles. CA 90045. Or call toll free in California 800/441-2345, ext. 518, 
/Outside California in the continental U.S. call 800/556-1234, ext. 518. 



<J N:i;ne 



1 



Visa, MasterCard. Check or Money Order accepted. 



Ma V,-,., 
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Si:.injtlltt 



"^ Totiil Amount HnLiosied S 



Ciiliforniii nisidtnts .idd 6% sales lax. 



y^ 



Fost.ige will be paid by The Book Comp^my. 



3 



AT<ifi 2600 and 5200 are regisiereri trddemiirks of A^an Inc . a division of Warner Communicaiions. Jnc 



640 PRINT Mj "OPEN" J N«i"'S DATA" ? "(2) INPUT NEW DATA" 

650 PRINT D«J "DELETE-fN^-'S DATA" 220 ? "(3) CREATE BACKUP DATA FILE" 

660 PRINT D«5 "OPEN"}N«'"S DATA" 230 7 "(4) RETURN TO MAIN MENU" 

670 PRINT D«) "WRITE" }N*"'S DATA" 240 POSITION 31,10:GET tt 1 , X : ? " 

6S0 PRINT Zi IF Z - THEN GOTO 700 tCLEARJ" 

690 FDR I - TO Z» PRINT DtDi PRINT 245 X = X-A5C ( " " > : I F X<0 OR X>4 THEN 

G(I)s PRINT A«a>i NEXT X=0 

700 PRINT D«5"CLOSE"5N*"'S DATA" 246 POKE 752,0 

710 IF BU - 1 THEN BU - 0: RETURN 250 ON X GOTO 270,485,730,50 

720 GOTO 200 260 GOTO 200 

730 HOME 270 ? " {CLEAR> " : POS I T I ON 2,10:"^ " I NP 
740 BU« - "BACKUP "iBU - liUB* - N«lN* - UT ESTIMATED AVERAGE 6AS MILEAGE 

BU» + UB»: BOSUB 620 ! ": INPUT XG 

750 N« » UB«; SOTO 200 2S0 IF XG> = 20 THEN XG = 20 

760 HOME ! PRINT "PRINTER OPTIQNBi " 2V0 IF XG<20 THEN XG = 30 

770 PRINT ! PRINT "(1) PRINT MILEAGE A 300 I =- 1 : X = : N = ; M 1 =0 : M2 = : F=0 ; Y = 

ND GAS MILEAGE DATA" 305 IF PR = OR PR = 2 THEN CLOSE #3: DP 
780 PRINT "(2) PRINT HI-RES BRAPHICS " EN #3,a,0,"Ei" 

310 IF PR=1 OR PR=3 THEN CLOSE tt3:DP 
790 PRINT "t3) PRINT BOTH OPTIONS 1 AN EN #3,B,0,"P:" 

D 2" 315 BRAPHICS 8: COLOR l:POKE 752,1 

S00 PRINT "t4) TURN PRINTER OFF" 320 IF <PR = 2 OR PR = 3) AND I = Z THEN C 
B10 VTAB 1: HTAB 18: GET X*; X = VAL C LOSE #3: OPEN #3 . 3 , , " P : " : GOSUB 9 

X*> 30 

820 IF X > GOTO B40 330 1 = 1 + 1: IF I = Z + 1 THEN POKE 656, 2: P 
B30 GOTO 760 DKE 657,0:? "PRESS ANY KEY TO CO 

840 PRX - Xs IF X - 4 THEN PR7. - NT INUE " ; : GET # 1 , X : GRAPH I CS 0:GaT 

850 VTAB 10!A« » "PRINTER OPTION INITI Q 200 

ALIZED." 340 B=G ( I) : D=D < I ) -Dl : D1=D< I ) : IF G(I> 
860 HTAB (20 - LEN (A*) / 2): INVERSE =0 THEN 310 

; PRINT A* ! NORMAL 350 X = X+D : F = F + G : MG = X /F : MG= 100*MG : l>16 = 
870 FOR X = 1 TO 2000: NEXT I NT ( MG) : M6 = MB/ 1 00 

GOTO 50 360 MP = D/G: M1=M1+ iMP*MP) : N = N+1 : M2 = MP 

+ M2;M3 = M2/N:M4 = M1/N: M5 = h3- 2: SS= ( 



Program 2: Gas Mileage — Atari 



M4-ri5) 



1 OPEN #1,4,0, "K:" 365 if SS>0 THEN SD=SS-0.5 

2 BOSUB 900 370 SD= 1 00 * SD : SD= I NT ( SD } : SD = SD / 1 00 

5 DIM X* ( 1 ) , D (200) , G (200) . A (200) , N* ( 380 POKE 656,0:POKE 657 

15) ,FILE*( 15) ,B(200) ,C(200> ,BU*(1S 390 ? #3 ; " M I LE AGE= " ; D ( I ) , " MG= " ; MB . " S 

) , UB$ ( 15) , A4 ( 192) D=";SD 

6 GRAPHICS 0:POKE 752,1 400 ip a ( I ) >0 THEN POKE 656,1:P0KE 6 
10 POSITION 14,10:7 "GAS MILEABE" 57 a . -7 #3 - '■ D ATE - " • A { T ) • " / " ■ R ( T ) ■ 
30 POSITION 7,23:? "PRESS ANY KEY TO " / " - C ( I 7 -• f 5 BP^CfS- 

.0 POKf'v^"";''^''^: *k^.,. ^^^ PLO; 3;9:159:DrSStO^0,159 

!^ ^ ^ l,^'.''-^ "<CLEftRJ":7 "MENU:" 420 Y = Y + 2 : I F Y >3 1 9 THEN y = 0:IF PR = 2 

t% I =■ i ^^2 MILEAGE DISPLAY" qr pR = 3 -pHEN CLOSE #3=QPEN #3,8. 

Mr-'L L^"'"'"''' ^°'' ^"°^^ "''''"'^ 0,"P=" = GOSUB 930= CLOSE «3:6RAPHI 

NG ACll SPACES>PRINTER OPTION" ^S 8 

80 ? :? "(3) OPTION FOR CREATING A N 430 ip y=0 THEN BRAPHICS 8:P0KE 752, 

EW DATAC8 SPACES3FILE FOR ANOTHER 1 ' 

VEHICLE" 440 fl=xG*MG 

90 POSITION 7,0:GET #1,X:? ":CLEAR>" 450 a=500-A 

95 X=X-ASC<"0") : IF X<0 OR X >3 THEN X 4^0 IF A<0 THEN A=0 

465 IF A>159 THEN A=159 

470 PLOT Y,A 

100 ON X GOTO 120,760,610 430 ^qjO 320 



96 POKE 7 



1 1 GOTO 50 

120 7 "{CLEARS":? :POSITIDN 2.10 



485 TRAP 500 

TK,.-,,-r r.„r..r. . , ^ k. ^ " ^ "^ ^ l^l-.-? "LAST STORED MILEAGE: ":D< 

,-« -^•rl^lll^^, ono^= ";:INPUT N* j , , -. ,^ "CURRENT M I LE AGE " ; = I NPUT 

^-^ ' "'?'-^5^;:i^°^'^'°'^ 2,10:7 "COM X:D(1-H1)=X:? :? "GAS USED"; 



PUTER IS LOADING DATA 
140 FILEt="D: " : FILE* (3) =N* 



492 INPUT X: D { I+l ) =X: 1=1+1 : Z=I 

170 FOR 1 = TO Z:INPUT #2 , Y : D ( I ) =Y : I 5^0 , .^ .. ( 1 , j^ ' nAjA INPUT & BT 

NPUT #2,Y:6CI)=Y:INPUT «2,Y:A(I) OREDATA" 

,=™ ^ll^^^^^ tt2,Y:B(I)=Y 520 ? "(2) TO RE-ENTER LAST DATA ENT 
180 INPUT #2, Y: C ( I) =Y: NEXT I rY„ -.■. 

190 CLOSE #2: TRAP 40000 530 -^ "(3) TO ENTER MORE DATA":":' 

200 POKE 752,1:7 " ^ CLE AR} " : POS I T I ON 540 IF L = THEN "^ "(4) TO ENTER REFE 
2,10:7 "CHOOSE YOUR PROGRAM OPTI RENCE DATE FOR FILL<:6 SPACESJUP" 

ONS" 550 POSITION 13,14:6ET «1,X:? : POKE 
210 ? :? "<1) DISPLAY YOUR MILEABE"; 752,0 

94 COMPUTEI December1983 



555 X=X-ASC t "0" ) : IF X<0 OR X >4 THEN 

X = 
560 ON X EOTQ 620,590,600,580 
570 60T0 500 
580 ? " CCLEARJ " : ? "INPUT COMPLETE DA 

TE" : PDSI TIOIM 2,5 
585 ? "EXAMPLE: 12,3,1983 IS DEC. 3 

rd 19B3." : POSITION 2,10:? "DATE:" 

; : INPUT A, B, C: A (I > =A: B ( I ) =B: C ( I) 

=C:GOTO 500 
590 LA=1 : POSITION 2,3:GDTD 490 
600 ? ■■ fCLEARD ■■ : GOTO 490 
610 ■^ ; ■^ :? "INPUT CAR'S NAME:";:IWP 

UT N* 
6 15 IF LEW(N*)>6 THEN ? 'NAME TOO LO 

NG" : 6DTn 610 
616 Z=0 
,617 TRAP 390 

620 FILE*="D: " : FILES (3) =N* 
630 ? " tCLEAR> ": POSITION 2,10:? "COM 

PUTER IS THINKING" 
640 OPEN #2, 8,0, FILE* 
630 ? tt2,Z:IF Z=0 THEN 700 
690 FOR 1=0 TO Z:? #2,D<I):? #2,B(I) 

:7 #2,A(I):? tt2,B^I):? #2,C<I):N 

EXT I 
700 CLOSE #2: TRAP 40000 
710 IF EU=1 THEN BU=0:RETURN 
720 GOTO 200 
730 ? "iCLEARJ" 
740 BU*="BU";BU=1:'JB* = N*:N* = BU*:N«(3 

)=UB*:TRAP 7S5:G0SUB 620 
750 N$=UB*:60T0 200 
755 CLOSE #2:TRAP 40000:7 "INVALID F 

ILE NAME":FOR 1=1 TO 500;NEXT I: 

GOTO 200 
760 POKE 752,1:? "<:CLEAR>":? " PR I NTE 

R OPTIONS: " 
770 ? :? "(1) PRINT MILEAGE AND GAS 

MILEAGE DATA"; 
780 ? " (2) PRINT HI-RES GRAPHICS" 
790 ? " (3) PRINT BOTH OPTIONS 1 AND 

- 2 " 
800 ? "(4) TURN PRINTER OFF" 
810 POSITION 20,1:GET #1,X 
815 X=X-ASC("0") 
820 IF X>0 AND X<5 THEN 840 
830 GOTO 760 

840 PR=X:1F X=4 THEN PR=0 
850 A*="PRINTER OPTIONS INITIALIZED. 

860 POSITION ( 20-LEN ( A*) /2) , 10: ? At 

870 FOR X=l TO 500:NEXT X 

880 SOTO 50 

B90 CLOSE #2: TRAP 40000:? "INVALID F 

ILE NAME":FOR 1=1 TO 500:NEXT I: 

GOTO 50 
900 FDR B=l TO 61:READ N:POKE 1535+B 

,N:NEXT B:RETURN 
910 DATA 104,104,141,21,6,104,141,20 

,6, 104, 141 , 27, 6, 104, 14 1 , 26, 6, 160 

, 193, 173, 255, 255, 136, 24 0, 35, 141, 

255, 255, 238 
920 DATA 26,6,240,21,173,20,6,56,233 

,40, 141, 20, 6, 144, 4, 24, 76, 19, 6, 20 

6,21,6,76,19,6, 238, 27, 6, 76, 33, 6, 

96 
930 DM=PEEK(8B)+PEEK(89) *256:DM=DM+4 

0*191 
940 LPRINT CHR« (27) ; " A" ; CHRS (8) : FDR 

X=DM TO DM+39 
9 50 A« = CHR« (0) : AS < 192) =CHR* (0) : A* (2) 

= A* 



960 W = USR £ 1536, X, ADR (A*) >: LPRINT CHR 

t (27) ; "K" ; CHR* ( 192) ; CHR$ (0) ; AS 
970 NEXT X:RETURN 

Program 3: Gas Mileage — 64 

5 PRINT" fCLR) {11 right} {13 D0WN}GAS MILEA 

GE PROGRAM" 
10 GOSUB4000 
20 DIMD(200), 0(200) 
25 PRINT" {8 UP}"; 

30 PRINT" {CLr} " :PRINT"MAIN MENU":PRINT 
40 PRINT "(l)GAS MILEAGE DISPLAY" : PRINT 

60 PRINT" (2 )CREATE A NEW FILE": PRINT 

61 PRINT"(3)ENTER NEW DATA IN FILE": PRINT 

62 PRINT"(4)EXIT PROGRAM" 

70 GETX$:IFX5=""THEN70 

71 X=VAL(X5) : PRINT" {CLR }" 
80 ONXGOTO120,610,652,800 
110 GOTO30 

120 PRINT"{CLR}":PRINT"1NPUT CAR'S NAME;" 

: INPUTN? 
130 PRINT" {CLR] " :PRINT"COMPUTER IS LOADIN 

G" 
140 B$="0:"+N$+",S,R" 
150 OPEN3,8,3,B$ 
170 INPUT#3,Z:IF Z=0 THEN 181 

180 FORI=0TOZ:INPUT#3,D(I),G(I) :NEXTI 

181 CL0SE3 

190 PRINT" {CLR}" 

200 PRXNT"CHOOSE YOUR OPTIONS" : PRINT : PRIN 
T 

210 PRINT" (DDISPLAY GAS MILEAGE" :PRINT 

211 PRINT" { 2) INPUT NEW DATA": PRINT 
220 PRINT" (3)CREATE BACKUP FILE": PRINT 
230 PRINT" {4) RETURN TO MAIN MENU" 

240 GET X?:IFX$=""THEN240 

241 X=VAL(X$) : PRINT" (CLRI" 
250 ONXGOTO270,490,730,30 
260 GOTO200 

270 PRINT"ESTIMATED GAS MILEAGE" : INPUTXG : 
X=FRE(0) :PRINT"{CLR}" 

271 PRINT"INSTRUCTIONS ON GRAPH: " :PRINT 

272 PRINT"HORIZONTAL:" 

273 PRINT"# OF DATA POINTS" : PRINT :PRINT: P 
RINT 

274 PRINT"VERTICAL; " 



Notes For VIC-20 
And 64 Versions of 
Gas Mileage 



The VIC an(d 64 versions of "Gas Mileage" 
are very similar to the Atari an(i Apple ver- 
sions. However, they do not offer the printer 
option found in the Atari and Apple versions. 
The VIC version requires the Super Expander 
cartridge to plot the graph. 



December 1983 COMPUTl! 95 



275 PRINT"ACTUAL GAS MILEAGE" : PRINT : PRINT 
.■PRINT 

276 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY TO LEAVE GRAPHICS 

277 FORJ=1TO1000:NEXTJ 
280 IFXG>=20THENXG=20 
290 IFXG<20THENXG=30 

295 P0KE53272,PEEKC 53272 )OR8:POKE53265,PE 
EK(53265)OR32 

296 SYS49710 

300 I=-1:X=0:N=0:M1=0:M2=0:F=0:Y=0 

330 1=1+1 :IFI=Z+1THEN381 

340 G=G(I) :D=D(I)-D1:D1=D(I) : IFG=0THEN330 

3 50 X=X+D:F=F+G:MG=X/F:MG=INT(100*MG)/100 

360 MP=D/G:M1=M1+(MP*MP) :N=N+1 :M2=MP+M2 

361 M3=M2/N:M4=M1/N:M5=M3T2:SS=M4-M5 

362 IFSS>0THENSD=SQR(SS) 
370 SD=INT(100*SD)/100 

380 GOTO420 

381 IFPEEKC197)=64THEN381 

382 POKE53272,21:POKE53265,27 

383 FORJ=lTO30:NEXTJ:PRINT"lCLR] " 

390 PRINT"MILEAGE=";D(1-1) 

391 PRINT"MG=";MG 

392 PRINT"SD=";SD 

393 FORJ=1TO10; PRINT :NEXTJ 

394 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEYl" 
396 IFPEEK(197)=64THEN396 
400 GOTO480 

420 Y=Y+10:IFY>319THENY=0 

430 IFY=0THENSYS49710 

440 A={XG*MG) 

450 A=500-A 

460 IFA<0THENA=0 

465 IFA>199THENA=199 

470 Y=INT{Y+.5) :A=INT(A+.5) : POKE53240, A: P 
OKE53241,0 

471 POKE53242,Y:IFY>25 5THENPOKE53243,l:PO 
KE53242,Y-256 

472 IFY<255THENPOKE53243,0 

473 SYS49408 
475 GOTO330 

480 POKE19B,0:POKE5327 2,21;POKE53 26 5,27:G 
OTO190 

490 PRINT"{CLR} ":I=Z: 1= I+l : Z=I 

491 PRINT"LAST MILEAGE WAS; "; D( l-l ): PRINT 

492 PRINT"CURRENT READING :": INPUTD( I ) 

493 PRINT"GAS USED" : INPUTGC I ) 

494 PRINT" {CLR}" 

495 IF 1=1 THEN G(l)=0 

500 PRINT"SUB-MENU" :PRINT:PRINT 

510 PRINT"(1)T0 END DATA INPUT":PRINT 

520 PRINT"(2)RE-ENTER LAST DATA": PRINT 

530 PRINT" (3)ENTER MORE DATA": PRINT 

550 GETX$:IFX9=""THEN550 

551 X=VAL{X$) : PRINT 
560 ONXGOTO654,590,600 
570 GOTO500 

590 1=1-1 :Z=I:GOTO490 

600 PRINT" {CLr] ":aOTO490 

610 PRINT:PRINT"INPUT CAR'S NAME : " ; INPUTN 

$ 
630 PRINT"{CLr3";PRINT"C0MPUTER IS THINKI 

NG" 
640 Z=0 

650 0PEN2 , 8 , 2 , N$ + " , S , W" : PRINT# 2 , Z : CL0SE2 

651 0PEN15, 8, 15, "10" ;CL0SE15 jGOTO40 

652 PRINT" PRINT CAR'S NAME:" 

653 INPUTN5:PRINT"{CLR}" 

654 PRINT" {CLR} ":PRINT"PLEASE WAIT" 

96 COMPUTE! December 1983 



660 A5="@0:"+N5+",S,W" 

670 0PEN1,8,9,A? 

680 PRINT#1,Z:IFZ=0THEN700 

690 FORI=0TOZ:PRINT#1,D(I) : PRINT* 1 , G ( I ) : 

EXT I 
700 CLOSEl 

710 IFBU=1THENBU=0: RETURN 
720 GOTO190 
7 30 PRINT" { CLR 3" 
740 BUS = " BACKUP ":BU=1:UB$=N$:N$=BU?-I-UB$ J 

OSUB654 
750 N?=UB$:GOTO190 
760 GOTO30 
800 END 
4000 1=49403 

4020 READ A:CK=CK+A:IF A=256 THEN 4040 
4030 POKE I, A: 1=1+1 : GOTO 4020 
4040 IFCK<>61125THENPRINT"ERROR IN DATA 

TATEMENTS":STOP 
4050 RETUFtN 

49408 DATA 173,250,207,141,212,207,173 
49416 DATA 251,207,141,213,207,173,248 
49424 DATA 207,141,214,207,173,249,207 
49432 DATA 141,215,207,173.215,207,74 
49440 DATA 141,217,207,173,214,207,106 
49448 DATA 141,216,207,173,217,207,74 
49456 DATA 141,217,207,173,216,207,106 
49464 DATA 141,216,207,173,217,207,74 
49472 DATA 141,217,207,173,216,207,106 
49480 DATA 141,216,207,173,213,207,74 
49488 DATA 141,219,207,173,212,207,106 
49496 DATA 141,210,207,173,219,207,74 
49504 DATA 141,219,207,173,218,207,106 
49512 DATA 141,218,207,173,219,207,74 
49520 DATA 141,219,207,173,218,207,106 
49528 DATA 141,218,207,173,214,207,41 
49536 DATA 7,141,220,207,173,216,207 
49544 DATA 10,46,217,207,10,46,217 
49552 DATA 207,10,141,210,207,46,217 
49560 DATA 207,173,217,207,141,211,207 
49568 DATA 173,210,207,10,46,217,207 
49576 DATA 10,46,217,207,109,210,207 
49584 DATA 141,216,207,173,211,207,109 
49592 DATA 217,207,141,217,207,173,216 
49600 DATA 207,10,46,217,207,10,46 
49608 DATA 217,207,10,46,217,207,141 
49616 DATA 216,207,173,218,207,10,46 
49624 DATA 219,207,10,46,219,207,10 
49632 DATA 46,219,207,141,218,207,24 
49640 DATA 173,216,207,109,218,207,141 
49648 DATA 208,207,173,217,207,109,219 
49656 DATA 207,141,209,207,24,173,220 
49664 DATA 207,109,208,207,141,208,207 
49672 DATA 169,0,109,209,207,141,209 

49680 DATA 207,24,169,32,109,209,207 

49688 DATA 141,209,207,173,208,207,133 

49696 DATA 251,173,209,207,133,252,173 

49704 DATA 212,207,41,7,141,225,207 

49712 DATA 56,169,7,237,225,207,141 

49720 DATA 225,207,169,0,141,206,207 

49728 DATA 56,173,225,207,46,206,207 

49736 DATA 206,225,207,16,245,160,0 

49744 DATA 177,251,13,206,207,145,251 

49752 DATA 96,169,147,32,210,255,169 

49760 DATA 0,162,0,157,0,32,157 

49768 DATA 0,33,157,0,34,157,0 

49776 DATA 35,157,0,36,157,0,37 

49784 DATA 157,0,38,157,0,39,157 

49792 DATA 0,40,157,0,41,157,0 

49800 DATA 42,157,0,43,157,0,44 



49808 


DATA 


49816 


DATA 


49824 


DATA 


49832 


DATA 


49840 


DATA 


49848 


DATA 


49856 


DATA 


49864 


DATA 


49872 


DATA 


49880 


DATA 


49888 


DATA 


49896 


DATA 



;PRINT 



157,0,45,157,0,46,157 

0,47,157,0,48,157,0 

49,157,0,50,157,0,51 

157,0,52,157,0,53, 157 

0,54,157,0,55,157,0 

56,157,0,57, 157,0,58 

157,0,59,157,0,60,157 

0,61,157,0,62,157,0 

63,2 32,208,15 7,169,1,162 

0,157,0,4,157,0.5 

157,0,6, 157,0,7,232 

208,241,96,256 

Program 4: 

Gas Mileage — ^ For VIC With Super Expander 

20 
25 
30 
40 
60 
61 

62 

70 

71 

80 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 
170 
180 
181 
190 
200 

210 
211 
220 
230 
240 
241 
250 
260 
270 

271 
272 
273 

274 
275 

276 

277 
280 
290 
300 

330 

340 
350 
360 
361 
362 
370 



DIMD(50),G(50) 

PRINT" I 8 up}"; 

PRINT" {CLR3 ":PRINT"MAIN MENU" 

PRINT" (l)GAS MILEAGE DISPLAY" 

PRINT" (2)CREATE A NEW FILE":PRINT 

PRINT" (3) ENTER NEW DATA IN {5 SPACES }FI 

LE" ; PRINT 

PRINT" (4)EX1T PROGRAM" 

GETX$ : IFX$=" "THEN70 

X=VAL ( X$ ): PRINT " { CLR } " 

ONXGOTO120, 610, 652, 6030 

GOTO 30 

PRINT" {CLR} ":PRINT"INPUT CAR'S NAME:" 

: INPUTN? 

PRINT" EcLR} ": PRINT "COMPUTER IS LOADIN 

G" 

B?="0: "+NS+",S,R" 

OPEN3,B,3,B? 

INPUT* 3 , Z : IFZ=0THEN181 

FORI=0TOZ: INPUT#3 , D(I ) ,G (I ) :NEXTI 

CLOSES 

PRINT" {CLR}" 

PRINT "CHOOSE YOUR OPTIONS" : PRINT : PRIN 

T 

PRINT" (l)DISPLAY GAS MILEAGE" 

PRINT" (2) INPUT NEW DATA": PRINT 

PRINT"(3)CREATE BACKUP FILE": PRINT 

PRINT" (4) RETURN TO MAIN MENU" 

GET X$:IFX$=""THEN240 

X=VAL(X$) : PRINT" fCLR]" 

ONXGOTO270,490,730, 30 

GOTO200 

PRINT"ESTIMATED GAS MILEAGE" 

X=FRE(0) : PRINT" E CLR}" 

PRINT"INSTRUCTI0NS ON GRAPH: 

PRINT " HORI ZONTAL : " 

PRINT"# OF DATA POINTS" : PRINT : PRINT: P 

RINT 

PRINT"VERTICAL: " 

PRINT"ACTUAL GAS MILEAGE" : PRINT : PRINT 

: PRINT 

PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO LEAVE 

{3 SPACES}GRAPHICS" 

FORJ=1TO4000:NEXTJ 

IFXG > =20THENXG=20 

IFXG<20THENXG=30 

PRINT" {CLR} " : I=-l :X=0 :N=0:Ml=0:M2=0 :F 

=0:Y=0 

1=1+1 : IFI=Z+1THEN381 

G=G{I) :D=D(I)-D1;D1=D(I) : IFG=0THEN330 

X=X+D:F=F+G:MG=X/F:MG=INT(100*MG)/100 

MP=d/G:M1=M1+(MP*MP) :N=N+1 :M2=MP+M2 

M3=H2/N:M4=M1/N:M5=M3T2:SS=M4-M5 

I FSS > 0THENSD=SQR ( SS ) 

SD=INT(100*SD)/100 



iINPUTXG; 



; PRINT 



380 GOTO420 

381 IFPEEK(197 )=64THEN381 

382 GRAPHIC0 

383 FORJ=1TO30:NEXTJ:PRINT" EcLR} " 

390 PRINT"MILEAGE=" ;D(I-1) 

391 PRINT"MG=";MG 

392 PRINT"SD=";SD 

393 FORJ=1TO10: PRINT :NEXTJ 

394 print"press any KEYI" 
396 ifpeek{197)=64then396 

400 GOTO4B0 

420 Y=Y+40:IFY>1023THENY=0 

430 IFY=0THEN : GRAPHICS : COLORl 1,6,0,0 

431 GRAPHIC 3: COLORl 1,6, 0,0 
440 A=XG*MG 

450 A=500-A 

460 IFA<0THENA=0 

465 IFA>1023THENA=1023 

470 Y=INT(Y) :A=1NT(A+150) :P0INT6,Y,A 

475 GOTO330 

480 POKE198,0:GRAPHIC0:POKE36879, 190:GOTO 

190 

490 PRINT" {CLR]":I=Z: I=I+1;Z=I 

491 PRINT"LAST MILEAGE WAS: " ?D( I-l ): PRINT 

492 PRINT"CURRENT READING: ": INPUTD ( I ) 

493 PRINT"GAS USED": {7 SPACES) INPUTG{ I ) 

494 PRINT" {CLR}" 

500 PRINT "SUB-MENU": PRINT: PRINT 
510 PRINT" (1)T0 END DATA INPUT": PRINT 
520 PRINT" (2) RE-ENTER LAST DATA": PRINT 
530 PRINT"(3)ENTER MORE DATA":PRINT 

550 GETX$:IFX$=""THEN550 

551 X=VAL(X$) : PRINT 
560 ONXGOTO654,590,600 
570 GOTO500 

590 1=1-1 :Z=I:GOTO490 

600 PRINT" {CLR3":GOTO490 

610 PRINT: PRINT" INPUT CAR'S NAME : " : INPUTN 

$ 

630 PRINT" {CLR}": PRINT "COMPUTER IS THINKI 

NG" 
640 Z=0 

650 0PEN2,8,2,N$+",S,W":PRINT#2,Z:CL0SE2 

651 0PEN15,8,15, "10" :CL0SE15 :GOTO40 

652 PRINT"PRINT CAR'S NAME:" 

653 INPUTN?: PRINT" {CLR}" 

654 PRINT" {CLR} ":PRINT"PLEASE WAIT" 
660 A$ = "(a0:"+N?+",S,W" 

670 OPENl,8,9,A$ 

680 PRINT#1,Z:IFZ=0THENGOTO700 

690 FORI=0TOZ:PRINT#1,D(I) :PRINT#1 , G( I ) :N 

EXTI 
700 CLOSEl 

710 IFBU=1THENBU=0: RETURN 
720 GOTO190 
730 PRINT" I CLR]" 
740 BU?="BACKUP":BU=1:UB?=N$:N$=BU$+UB$:G 

OSUB654 
750 N?=UB$:GOTO190 
760 GOTO30 
6000 OPEN15,8,15 
6010 INPUT#15,A$,B$,C$,D?:PRINTAS?b5;C?;D 

? 
6020 CL0SE15 
6030 END © 



COMPUTE! Books 



December 1983 COMPUTE! 97 



Nightflyer 



David J. Bohike 



Yon have just assumed con- 
trol of a light plane in the 
dead of night, and all you 
can see is your ghnving in- 
strument panel and the 
faint runway lights in the 
distance. Will you be able 
to safely land the plane? 
Yes, but you'll need pin- 
point control and some 
tricky maneuvering. Writ- 
ten for the Atari (joystick 
required), and Apple version 
(joystick or paddles) is included 




Succcssfidhj ln)iding your aircraft takes careful iiavii^atioii 
"Nightflyer," Atari version. 



"Nightflyer" is a flight simulation game in which 
you control your joystick to land your plane. It's 
night and all you can see are your instrument 
panel and the distant lights of the runway. 

To begin, you will need a joystick in Slot 1 of 
the Atari. The instructions will ask you to pull the 
joystick down for a Standard start or push it up 
for a Random beginning. The Standard start will 
position your plane on the glide path 20000 feet 
from the runway with an altitude of 1200 feet. 
The Random start will be more difficult as both 
distance and altitude will be randomly assigned. 

98 COMPUTI! December 1983 



Reading The 
Instrument Panel 

For a safe landing, you'll 
have to quickly and ac- 
curately interpret your 
instrumentation. The 
dial on the left center of 
the screen shows your 
velocity. Straight up is 
zero, and the marker at 
90 degrees right is the 
80 mph indicator. If 
your velocity dips below 80 mph before you touch 
down, the plane will stall and crash. 

Below the velocity dial is a distance dial with 
a distance (DS) digit readout. After touchdown, 
this readout will reset to indicate the distance to 
the end of the runway. 

On the right center of the screen is your glide 
path dial. You are on the glide path when the 
orange line is in between the two markers. Below 
this dial, on the lower right, is an altitude dial 
with a digital readout (AL) right underneath. Your 
altitude must remain above 30 feet before you 
reach the end of the runway, or else you'll crash 
into the runway lights. 

There are three other digital readouts on the 



CO 



Wf CO 



COMPUTER 





AN D 



TM 



Attention Applet IBNi; and Radio S/iacfcr 

If you thought analog Usm%0£> w»m^ nrkf S» stronger than any other, 

joysticks were only for ricf Ife Vlft? tft/i €» it moves smoother, cor- 

co^SX"' joystick just for you. ^^^.'^t^. 

Sure WICO's custom analog potentiom- 
eter is designed to give you arcade thrills, 
arcade excitement, arcade fever with your 
home computer-but there's more. 

It can make your home computer 
more "business" like. Use it for graphics, 
editing, and use it to relax. 

WICO's analog joystick was engi- 
neered for perfection. It's bigger and 




Its arcade size handle can be set for spring 

return to center or float free. The choice 

is yours. You're in command. Make your 

home computer a complete computer. 

With WICO. 

Apple,* IBM; and Radio Shack" are trademarks 
respectively o1 Apple Computers, Inc., International 
Business Machines, and Tandy Corporation. 

ic 1983 Wico Corporation. 
WICO is a registered trademark of 
Wico Corporation. 




<^ ;^ cr „ . 



o^JrofS^ 



o <^- o '^ c3 ^ 
c '- c: *- o '^ o ^ <^ ^ o ^ c_j "^ o 

^ o ^ tT •- ^ '-<-'-'- '-'-''^^ "-o ^ ^ 



'-• . o 



Q 






. o ".. o ;r o .t: o "r; o -, 

, <-^ , 'O ^ o . ^ o , ., V_> r-T, — ' 















iHEis a u » X j< :; -;:3 -^ 

FOB THE AftCAOE'-"' '" '~ 
,THE HOME. 












^Vr.^:^: 









7 



her 2049er,'" yd 

-gendary mounty. ^'^""SHW' '""ack the 
(US Yukon Yohan'" througl^^^idoned uranium 
mine — all ten levels of it — grabbing buried treasure and 
avoiding deadly radioactive mutants along tlie way. 

Well, that was only the beginning! ^ " 

YukonYohan has escaped to th|j 

is after him! Only this time. Boib's nlrt'. 
bucks, so he's taken a job as a fireman to fund 

the chase. And guess whrch villain has torched a i 
skyscraper to trap Bounty Bob? 

You guessed it — Yukon Yohan! . 

Scraper Caper" has all the action, adventure 

excitement that can be packed into a ROM cartrid 

it features a mind boggling number of rounds, difflcuity adjustment, 

high score table, demo mode and spectacular sound and graphic effects. 

Miner2049eris a gamer's gold mine, butyou've got to beatScraper Caper 
to get to the top! Scraper Caper is available from your local dealer for the 
ATARI * 5200 Supersystem" and ail ATARI Home Comouteia. 




Suggested Retail $49.95 



JWVj. 





^DSmMMS 



14640 Keswick Ave.. Van Nuys, CA 91405 (213)782-6861 



'Miner 2049ef, "Scraper Caper", "Bounty Bob" and "Yukon Yohan" 
5200 Sopereyslem" are regiseered irademarie of Alari, he. , 



5 trademarte of Big Five Software. "ATARI " and ATARI 



bottom of your panel. The delta vcIocitv(dV) digit 214 if pr=i then 300 

indicates the rate in mph at which your' velocity is l\l I^^^I^ki^jhH'' lle^'''^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

changing (5 to -5) each second. The delta altitude 218 ki = X:Gosub 920 

gauge (dA) tells your rate of descent or ascent 220 Ai = T*f=i/D*SH:A2=( (t*a)/(d + rl))«sh 

(-25 to 25) in feet per second. On touchdown, 230 RF=T*Rw/Dtsw: li=(sw-rf)/2:Ri=li + 

your rate of descent cannot exceed — 4 feet per ^^ 

-^ J , ,- .„ ,, 'i 240 RR=( (T«RW) / (D + RL> ) «SW: L2= (SW-RR) 

second or your landing gear will collapse. There /2: R2=l2 + rr 

is also a time gauge (T) to indicate how long you 248 if d<4000 then gosub 900: goto 400 

have been at the controls. 250 gosub 900 

260 GOTO 400 

After Touchdown 300 gosub 920 

Once you touch down, you must stop the plane ^^^ Ai = 80^A2= ( (Tt a) /d) *sh: if a2< i th 

before you reach the end of the runway. For the 315 if S?rf then rf=rf+i=if rf>158 t 
quickest stop, make sure the dV gauge is at the hen rf=i58 

minimum ( — 5). Your stick has four feather con- ^16 if a>rf then rf=rf-i:if rf<rr th 

trols. Push it up or down to increase or decrease ,„^ ^*^ RF=rr+4 

.si„ fj w Ui J N n 1 u .• 1 1 r, ^20 Ll= (SW-RF) /2! R1=L1 +RF 

your rate of descent (altitude). Push the stick left 3.5 rr= ( <t*rw) / <d) ) *sw: L2= (sw-rr) /2- 
or right to decrease or increase your velocity. R2 = l2+rr 



When you successfully land, you'll be given ^-*3 gobub 900 



a score to evaluate your flight. This score is'based '^^ ^^ a>d/i0 then b*= ■■ ai t i tude too 

on the time it took you to land the plane; your ,,, T\r;Arr = i;l^.\^1'^l^^'iV;^. 

ability to hold It on the glide path; and the distance peek(18) *65536)/60:td=ti-ti 

to the end of the runway once you've stopped. If ^03 x=stick (0) : i f x = 15 then 450 

the plane is above or below the glide path, points ^^'^ *^°''"° '<-^'»00 

are deducted rrom your score; so it is possible to 

accumulate a negative score. 407 vd = vd+ 1 i (3oto"440 

It may take you several flights to become 409 vd = vd-i : rc=rc-v/40: goto 440 

adjusted to the control and instrumentation— ^|f ^!°"!^°~! ' S^I^'^tYi'.'*^' '^'-''^° ''''^' 
but with some practice you'll soon be flying for a 

high score. Scores in excess of 2500 are excep- "^ - v / 4 

tional. 4 13 RC = RC-V/40: GOTO 440 



405 VD=VD+ 1 : RC=RC-V/40: BDTO 440 

406 VD = VD+ 1 : RC = RC + V/40: GOTO 440 



411 VD=VD-1:GDT0 440 

412 IF X=9 OR X=5 OR X=13 THEN RC=RC 



Program 1: Nightflyer — Atari version 



414 RC=RC+V/40: GOTO 440 

420 X=STICK < 1 ) : IF X = 10 OR X = 14 OR X = 
6 THEN VD=VD+1:IF VD>5 THEN VD=5 

7 HS=0»DI« B»(35) 422 IF X=9 OR X=5 OR X=13 THEN VD=VD 

a GRAPHICS 7:SETCaLDR 2,0,0:POKE 752 -liIF VD<-5 THEN VD=-5 

jl 440 IF VD<-5 THEN VD=-5 

9 DEG sGQSUB 800 442 IF VD>5 THEN VD=5 

50 SH = a0t SW=160; RL = 4000:RW = 60 444 IF R025 THEN RC = 25 

52 T=2:REM T is dist pilot to scrn 446 IF RC<-25 THEN RC=-25 

54 FS=66/45:REM ft/sec 450 IF A=0 THEN 452 

90 KI=30: VZ=0. 85: DZ=a3, 3: AZ=5: XV=15! 451 A=A+RC:IF A>1B00 THEN A= 1 300 

YV=30: BX=0: XD=15: YD=60: XA=147: YA= 452 AD= ( D ) * . 06 : I F PR=1 THEN 460 

60 453 IF ABS ( A-AD) < 30 THEN GP=0:GOTO 4 

100 D=15000+RND (0) « 15000 60 

102 A=900+RND ( 1 ) *900 454 GP=- ( A-AD ) / 30 

103 IF ST=0 THEN D=20000 : A= 1 200 455 IF GP>8 THEN GP=8 
105 TX=D/150 456 IF GP<-a THEN GP=-8 
110 POKE 13,0:POKE 19,0:POKE 20,0 459 CR=CR-5 

130 RC = 0: V = 200; PR = 0: CR = 460 D V = F5 * V * TD : D = D-D V 

140 BD=0:BA=0 470 V=V+VD:IF V>300 THEN V=300 

150 RL=4000: RW=60 471 IF A<0 THEN A=0:FOR 1=1 TO 70:SD 

200 SOUND 0, 100-RC. 8, 6: POKE 77,0 UND 0, 2 1 , 8 , 1 4 : NEX T I:SETCOLOR 2, 

201 SOUND 1 , 250-V/2, 2, 2 13,4 

208 IF PR=0 AND D<4000 AND A>1000 TH 472 IF A>0 THEN 480 

EN B*=" Al ti tude too high for saf 473 IF RC<-4 THEN BS= " E>: c essi ve dim 

e 1 anding" : GOTO 500 b rate (-4) CRASHED ": GOTO 500 

210 IF A>1 AND V<B0 THEN B«="Velocit 475 V=V+VD-3 : RC=0 : 1 F V< 1 THEN 600 

y below stall level (80)":GOTO 5 480 COLOR 0;PLOT 15,60:DRAWTD XD,YD 

00 481 COLOR 1 : I=D/DZ-90: GOSUB 999:PL0T 

211 IF A<30 AND PR = THEN B*="Altitu 15,60:DRAWTO X + 1 5 , Y+60: XD= X + 1 5 : 
de below minimum (30)":GOTO 500 YD=Y+60 

212 IF D< 1 AND PR=0 THEN D=4000:PR=1 482 COLOR 0:PLOT 1 47 , 60 : DRAWTO XA,YA 
iSETCDLOR 2,0,4 483 COLOR 1 : I =A / AZ -90 : GOSUB 999:PL0T 

213 IF D< 1 THEN B«="Cra5hed at the e 1 47 , 60 : DRAWTO X + 1 47 , Y + 60 : X A= X + 1 
nd o-f runway. "jGOTO 500 47:YA = Y + 60 

102 COMPUTE! December 19B3 



tH« 



^VfiP^'^'^V. 





^'^f^oicer 




y/f 






""'''° mk «tt ^* 



^^V^ ^r The ATARI sesouict 



484 COLOR 0:PLOT 15,30:DRftWTO XV, YV 870 IF STICK(0)=14 THEN ST=l:GOTD 88 
435 COLOR 2: I=V/VZ-90: GDSUB 999:PL0T 

15, 30: DRAWTD X + 1 5 . Y+30 : X V= X+ 1 5 : 872 IF STICK(0)=13 THEN ST=0:GOTD 88 
YV = Y + 313 

487 COLOR 0:PLOT 1 42 , 30+G X : DRftWTO 15 374 POKE 705 , RND ( )* 255 : POKE 704, RND 
2, 30+GX (0) *255 

488 COLOR 1 : PLOT 1 43 , GP + 30 : DR AWTD 15 B7S SOUND , RND ( ) * 255 , 1 , 2 : FOR 1 = 1 
1 , 6P+30: GX=GP TO 20:NEXT I 

490 POKE 656,2:P0KE 6S7,3:PRINT INT( 876 FOR 1=1 TO 100:NEXT I : GOTO 870 
D);" "; 880 POKE 656,0: POKE 657, 3: PRINT " 

491 POKE 657,33: IF A< 1 00 THEN PRINT t34 SPACES }";: SOUND , . , 
"E3";" "; 88 1 POKE 656,0: POKE 657,2 
PRINT INT<A);" "; 882 7 " <: 3 SPACES>Dst6 SPACESJdV 
POKE 657,13:PRINT INT(VD);" " : £5 SPACESJTi5 SPACESJdA 
POKE 657,25:PRINT INT<RC):" "; {6 SPACES3A1"; 
POKE 657,19:PRINT INT(TI>; 899 RETURN 
GOTO 200 900 REM 

SETCOLOR 4, 5, 4: SETCOLDR 2,5,4 901 IF LK27 THEN Ll=27 

POKE 656,0:POKE 657,3:PRINT " 902 IF L2<27 THEN L2=27 

{34 SPACES3 ";: SOUND 0,0, «,0 903 IF L25135 THEN L2=135 

POKE 656,0:POKE 657,4:PRINT B*; 904 IF R2>135 THEN R2=i35 

GOTO 650 905 IF RK27 THEN Rl=27 

SETCOLOR 4, 1 I , 4: SETCOLOR 2,11,4 906 IF Rl>135 THEN Rl = 135 

PT= (TX-TI ) * 1 + D/2 + CR+1000 907 IF Al>65 THEN Al=65 

IF PTJHS THEN HS= I NT ( PT ) : POKE 20 908 IF A2>65 THEN A2 = 65 

9, INT (HS/256) : POKE 208 , HS- I NT ( HS 910 COLOR 1:IF PR= 1 THEN 914 

/256)*256 912 PLOT L1,A1:DRAWT0 R1,A1 

POKE 65 6, 0: POK E 657,4 914 PLOT L2,A2:DRAWT0 R2,A2 

PRINT •■ m=l'i' i :i=m ■'; INT (PT> ; " 915 COLOR 2:PL0T L1,A1:DRAWT0 L2,A2: 
<:3 spaces:" plot R1,A1:DRAWT0 R2.A2 

650 POKE 6S6,3:P0KE 657,15;PRINT " P 918 RETURN 

ress FIRE "; 920 COLOR 0:PLOT Ll,Ai:DRAWTD Rl,Ai: 

660 IF STRIG(0>=0 THEN RUN PLOT L2,A2:DRAWTO R2,A2 

661 SETCOLOR , RND < ) * 1 5 , 4 : FOR 1 = 1 T 922 PLOT L 1 ,' A 1 : DRA WTO L2,'a2:PLOT R1, 
50:NEXT I:IF STRIG(0)=0 THEN R A1:DRAWT0 R2,A2:RETURN " ' 

UN 999 X=10«COS{ I ) : Y=10*S1N( I ) *0.9: RETU 

662 SOUND 0, RND (0) t255, 1 0, 2 RN 
664 POKE 656. 3: POKE 657. 15: PRINT "WE 

I: SOUND 0,0,0,0 

666 GOTO 650 Translation by Kevin Martin, Programming Assistant 

800 POKE 656,1: POKE 657.2 1 HOME : HQR2 : POKE 49233,0: POKE 492 

802 7 "tF}{6 M>iG> {F:f4 M>{G> CF> 36,0: FOR I = 1 TO 100: HCOLQR- INT 
<3 M>fG> {F) t4 nZiGy CFl !:6 M> ( RND (1) * B) : HPLDT 140,80 TO INT 
^G: ■■ ( RND tl) • 280), INT ( RND (1) » 

803 ? ■■tV><6 SPACES3 -CB: t V ]■ 160): NEXT I 

44 spacesj<;b> <:v>c3 spaces: {b> 2 poke 799,0: poke soo.o: for i - 770 to 
{VJ{4 spaces: {Bi tv:<6 spaces:- 795; read m: poke i,M: next i 

^B' " 3 data 172,1,3,174,1,3,169,4,32,168,2 



492 


493 


494 


498 


499 


500 


505 


510 


550 


600 


602 


606 


610 


615 



Program 2: Nightf Iyer — Apple Version 



52, 173,48, 192,232,208,253, 136,208, 
239, 206, 0, 3, 208, 231 , 96 



804 7 ■'{:g:-^6 n:{f:- cb: <:4 n: <f: {G] 
£3 NJfp; iG'i iA N:tF: tB3{:6 n; 

<^y"; 4 clear' 

806 HS=PEEK (209) *256+PeEK ( 203) s HOME 

318 POKE 656,0:POKE 657, 3: PRINT "Nig '7 HS « 0: DIM B*(35) 

ht F\yeri9 SPACESJHlgh Score ";H 8 HSR 

S; 9 DEB - .017452406: BDBUB 800 

820 R=ll 50 SH - 160: SW - 280: RL - 4000: RW - 60 

822 FOR 1=0 TO 360 STEP 5 S2 T - 2: REM T IS DIST PILOT TO SCRN 

824 X = R*COS( I) : Y = R*SIN(I) *0,9 54 FS - 66 / 45: REM FT/SEC 

825 COLOR 2:PL0T X + 1 5 , Y + 60 : PLOT X + 14 90 LD - 0:KI " aO:VZ - 0.B5:DZ - 100:AZ 
7,Y + 60 . 5:xv - 30:VV - SO:GX ~ 0:XD - 3 

826 COLOR 1:PLDT X + 1 5 , Y + 30 : PLOT X + 14 o; YD - 120:XA - 250: YA * 120 
7, Y + 30 100 D - 15000 + RND (1) ♦ 15000 

828 NEXT I 102 A - 900 + RND <1) * 900 

832 COLOR l:PLOT 15,30:DRAWTO 26,30 lo3 IF ST ■ THEN D ■ 20000:A "= 1200 

833 COLOR 2: PLOT 15,30:DRAWTO 15,20 105 TX » D / 150 

834 PLOT 137, 30: DRAWTD 140,30:PLQT 1 130 RC - 0: V - 200:PR - 0:CR - 
54,30:DRAWTO 157,30 I40 BD ■ O: BA » 

836 PLOT 15, 60: DRAWTD 15, 50: PLOT 147 150 RL «• 4000:RW - 60 

,60:DRAWTO 147,50 200 REM 

860 POKE 656,0: POKE 657,3 208 IF PR - AND D < 4000 AND A > 100 
862 PRINT "Random < D[> or Standard <E q THEN B* >- "ALTITUDE TOO HIGH FOR 

> START ?'■; SAFE LANDING": GOTO 500 

104 COMPUTE! December 1983 



fflE FINAL1)A1S 






ve a loMg m(^ to go before 
' " ^if you ever do. 



igon hold 
ope of 



SAIGON: THK FINAL DAYS 



By Jyym Pearson, Robyn Pearson & Norman Sailer 
Gritty realism and historic fact blend to form a unique adventuring experience 
that plunges you into a controversial chapter of recent history. 
Visit your local dealer today, or call us for your copy! /T >>^ 

JXM4dventure 

^^^^ii^ INTERNATIONAL 



800-327-7172 



Available for your 16K TRS-SO Model 1 or 3, in either tape or disk lorroat, ior 

only $24.95. 

The Atari tap« veisioti (needs 16K) is $24.95. 

The Apple version has great full-color hi-res graphics for $34.95. 



A DIVISION OF SCalT kDaMS IWC 




BOX 3435 • LONGWOOD, FL 32750 
(30S) 862-6917 

Photo by Paul Gnipp" 



Apple Version Notes 
For Nightf Iyer 

Kevin Martin. Editorial Programmer 

The Apple version of "Nightflyer" requires 
either game paddles or a joystick. If you are 
using paddles, control the plane's altitude 
(delta altitude or dA) by turning paddle 1. 
Likewise, control the plane's velocity (delta 
velocity or dV) by rotating paddle 0. On the 
other hand, if you use a joystick, follow the 
directions provided with the Atari version. 

Landing the plane successfully takes 
practice and is quite challenging. Be sure to 
carefully read the details in the article on 
landing and scoring. To score the most 
points, you must touch down safely and 
stop the plane before you reach the end of 
the runway. Your overall score is based on 
the time of flight, your ability to hold the 
plane on the glide path, and the distance 
you are from the end of the runway when 
the plane stops. 

The program sets up a crash sequence 
on the second high-resolution graphics page 
(line 1). The text and second high-resolution 
screen are first cleared. Then, using two 
POKEs, program control is transferred to the 
blank text screen so that you don't see what 
is being plotted. Later on, if you crash, the 
program quickly flips between the two high- 
resolution pages to simulate the crash (lines 
520-526). 

The sound routines for Nightflyer are 
POKEd into memory in line 2. The program 
stores the frequency of the sound in location 
769 and its length in location 768. This routine 
produces the random notes at the beginning 
and end of each play. It also provides the 
crash sound (line 515) and the sound that is 
heard when the plane touches down. 



210 IF A > 1 AND V < 80 THEN B« - "VEL 
OCITY BELDW STALL LEVEL (BO)": GOTO 
500 

211 IF A < 30 AND PR - THEN B* - "AL 
TITUDE BELOW MINIMUM (30>": QOTO 5 
00 

212 IF D < 1 AND PR - THEN D - 4000: 
PR - 1 

213 IF D < 1 THEN B* - "CRASHED AT THE 

END OF RUNWAY.": GOTO 500 

214 IF PR - 1 THEN 300 

215 X - INT (D / 1000): IF X < 4 THEN 

218 

216 IF X > - KI THEN 400 
21B KI - X: GQSUB 920 

220 A1-T*A/D» BH:A2 = ( (T ♦ A) / 



(SW - RF) 



BDSUfi 900: BDTO 



/ D) * sh: if 



LI + RF 
SW:L2 - (SW 



(D + RL) ) * SH 
230 RF - T * RW / D * SW:L1 

/ 2:R1 - LI + RF 
240 RR - ( (T ♦ RW> / (D + RL) ) * SW:L2 - 

(SM - RR) / 2:R2 - L2 + RR 
24B IF D < 400O THEN 

400 
250 Q05UB 900 
260 GOTO 400 
300 GOSUB 920 
310 Al - 160:A2 * <<T » A) 

A2 < 1 THEN A2 - 1 

315 IF A < RF THEN RF = RF + 1: IF RF > 
27B THEN RF = 278 

316 IF A > RF THEN RF = RF - 1: IF RF < 
RR THEN RF = RR + 7 

320 LI = (SW - RF) / 2:R1 
325 RR - ( (T * RW) / (D> ) « 

- RR) / 2:R2 - L2 + RR 
330 BOSUB 900 

350 IF A > D / 10 THEN B» - "ALTITUDE 

TOO HIGH FOR SAFE LANDING": BDTO 5 

00 
400 Tl - TI:TI = TI + l:TD - TI - Tl 
403 X - PDL C0):Y - PDL (1): IF Y > 5 

AND Y < 200 AND X > SO AND X < 2 

00 THEN 450 

405 IF X > 200 AND Y > 200 THEN VD - V 
D + 1:RC - RC - V / 40: GOTO 440 

406 IF X > 200 AND Y < 50 THEN VD = VD 

+ i:RC - RC + V / 40: bdtd 440 

407 IF X > 200 AND Y > 50 AND Y < 200 THEN 
VD - VD + l: GOTO 440 

409 IF X < 50 AND Y > 200 THEN VD ■> VD 

- l:RC « RC - V / 40: GOTO 440 

410 IF X < 50 AND Y < 50 THEN VD - VD - 
IIRC - RC + V / 40: GOTO 440 

411 IF X < 50 AND Y > 50 AND Y < 200 THEN 
VD - VD - l: SOTO 440 

413 IF X > 50 AND X < 200 AND Y > 200 THEN 
RC - RC - V / 40: BOTO 440 

414 IF X > 50 AND X < 200 AND Y < 50 THEN 
RC - RC + V / 40: SOTO 440 

440 IF VD < - 5 THEN VD - - 5 

442 IF VD > 5 THEN VD - 5 

444 IF RC > 25 THEN RC - 25 

446 IF RC < - 25 THEN RC - - 25 

450 IF A - THEN 452 

451 A - A + RC: IF A > IBOO THEN A - IS 

00 

452 AD - (D) * 0.06: IF PR - 1 THEN 460 

453 IF ABS (A - AD) < 30 THEN BP - 0: 

GOTO 460 

454 GP - - (A - AD) / 30 

455 IF GP > 12 THEN 6P - 12 

456 IF GP < - 12 THEN GP - - 12 

459 CR = CR - 5 

460 DV - FS * V * TD:D =- D - DV 

470 V - V + VD: IF V > 300 THEN V - 300 

471 IF A < THEN A - 

472 IF A > O THEN 4B0 

473 IF RC < - 4 THEN B* - "EXCESSIVE 
CLIMB RATE (-4) CRASHED": GOTO 500 

475 V - V + VD - 3:RC - O: IF V < 1 THEN 

600 

476 IF LD - THEN LD - 1 : FOR I - 1 TO 
10: POKE 76B, i: POKE 769,1: CALL 7 
70: NEXT 

480 HCOLOR- 0: HPLOT 30,120 TO XD.YD 

481 HCOLOR- 3:1 - D / D2 - 90: BOSUB 9 



106 COMPUH! December 1983 



4B2 
463 



4B4 
465 



467 

4BB 

490 

491 

492 
493 
494 
498 
499 
500 
505 

510 
515 

520 
525 

526 
550 
600 
602 

606 

610 
615 
650 

655 

660 
661 

662 

664 



666 
800 
802 



B03 
804 

806 

SIS 

820 
822 

S24 



99: HPLOT 30,120 TQ 
:XD - X + 30:YD - Y 
HCOLQR- O: HPLOT 250 
HCOLOR- 3:1 - A / AZ 
99: HPLOT 250,120 TO 
20: XA ■ X + 250: YA - 
HCOLOR- O: HPLOT 30, 
HCOLOR- 3: 1 - V / VZ 
99: HPLOT 30,80 TO X 
V - X + 30: YV - Y + 
HCOLQR- O: HPLOT 241 

9,80 + ax 

HCOLOR- 3: HPLOT 241 
9,BP + bo:gx - BP 
VTAB 23: HTAB 5: PR I 



HTAB 31: IF A < 100 THEN INVERSE 
: PRINT "•"!: NORMAL : PRINT " "I 
PRINT INT (A);" "I 

INT (VD)|" "I 
INT (RC)J" "( 
INT (TI)| 



X + 30, Y + 120 


825 


+ 120 




, 120 TO XA.YA 


826 


- 90: QOSUB 9 




X + 250, Y + I 


828 


Y + 120 


832 


80 TO XV, YV 


833 


- 90: aosuB 9 


834 


*■ 30, Y + 80: X 




BO 


836 


,80 + GX TO 25 






860 


,GP + 80 TO 25 


B62 


NT INT (D)I" 





X + 30, Y + 120: HPLOT 



X + 30,Y + 80: HPLOT 



HTAB 15: PRINT 

HTAB 24: PRINT 

HTAB 19: PRINT 

GOTO 200 

REM 

VTAB 21: HTAB 3: 



PRINT 



VTAB 21: HTAB 4: PRINT B*l 
FOR I - 1 TO 10: POKE 76B, 1: POKE 
769, 10: CALL 770: NEXT 
FOR I - 1 TO 50 

POKE 49234,0: POKE 49237,0: POKE 4 
9236,0: POKE 49235,0 
NEXT I 
GOTO 650 
REM 
PT - <TX - TI) * 10 + D / 2 + CR + 
1000 

IF PT > HS THEN HS - INT (PT): POKE 
800, INT (HS / 256): POKE 799, HS - 

INT (HS / 256) * 256 
VTAB 21: HTAB 4 
PRINT "SCORE "I INT (PT) ; " 
VTAB 24: HTAB 13: PRINT "PRESS BUT 
TON 0"! 

POKE 769, RND (1) * 254 -r 1: POKE 
768,3: CALL 770 

IF PEEK ( - 16287) > 127 THEN 4 
FDR I - 1 TO 250: NEXT I: IF PEEK 
( - 16287) > 127 THEN 4 
POKE 769, RND (1) * 254 + 1: POKE 
76B,3: CALL 770 

HTAB 13: INVERSE : PRINT "PRESS BU 
TTON 0"i: NORMAL : FOR I - 1 TO 25 
O: NEXT I 
GOTO 650 
VTAB 22: HTAB 4 

PRINT "/ "J CHR* (92)!"/^ " 

I CHR* (92)!"/ "I CHR* (92)!"/ — 

— "I CHR* (92)!"/ "! CHR* (92 

) 

HTAB 4: PRINT " ! ! ! ! ! ! 

I I j I II 

HTAB 4: PRINT CHR* (92) I " /" 

I CHR* (92) J" /"I CHR* (92)1" — 

-/"I CHR* <92)J" /"I CHR* (92) J 

.. /"I 

HS = PEEK (800) * 256 + PEEK (799 

) 

VTAB 21: HTAB 4: PRINT "NIGHT FLYE 

R HIGH SCORE "SHSJ 

R = 19 

FOR I = TO 360 STEP 3 
X = R * COS (I * DEG):Y = R « SIN 

(I ♦ DEG) ♦ .9 



870 

872 

875 

B76 
880 

881 
882 

899 
900 
901 
902 
903 
904 
905 
906 
907 
908 
910 
912 
914 
915 

918 
920 

922 

999 



HCDLDR= 3: HPLOT 

X + 250, Y + 120 

HCOLOR= 3: HPLOT 

X + 250, Y + 80 

NEXT I 

HCOLOR- 3: HPLOT 30,80 TO 47,80 

HCQLOR= 3: HPLOT 30,80 TO 30,63 

HPLOT 232, SO TO 240,80: HPLDT 260, 

80 TO 268,80 

HPLOT 30,12O TO 30, 102: HPLDT 250, 

120 TO 250, 102 

VTAB 21: HTAB 3 

PRINT "RANDOM <"i: INVERSE : PRINT 

"U"5: NORMAL : PRINT "> OR STANDAR 

D <"i: INVERSE : PRINT "D";: NORMAL 

: PRINT "> START ? "; 

IF PDL (1) < 50 THEN ST = 1: GOTO 

880 

IF PDL (1) > 210 THEN ST = 0: GOTO 

880 

POKE 769, RND (1) # 254 + 1: POKE 

768,3: CALL 770 

GOTO 870 

VTAB 21: HTAB 3: PRINT " 



VTAB 21 
PRINT " 

AL"; 
RETURN 
REM 
IF LI 
IF L2 
IF L2 
IF R2 
IF Rl 
IF Rl 
IF Al 
IF A2 



HTAB 4 
DS 



DV 



DA 



50 THEN LI = 50 
50 THEN L2 = 50 



230 THEN L2 = 230 

230 THEN R2 = 230 

SO THEN Rl = 50 

230 THEN Rl = 230 

160 THEN Al = 160 

160 THEN A2 = 160 
HCaLDR= 3: IF PR = 1 THEN 914 
HPLOT Ll.Al TO R1,A1 
HPLOT L2,A2 TO R2,A2 
HCOLOR= 3: HPLOT Ll.Al TO L2,A2 
R1,A1 TO R2,A2 
RETURN 

HCOLQR^ 0: HPLOT Ll.Al 
L2,A2 TO R2,A2 
HPLOT Ll.Al TO L2,A2: 
R2,A2: RETURN 
X = 17 « COS (I ♦ DEG):Y = 17 * SIN 
(I » DEG) ♦ .9; RETURN i 



: HPLOT 

TO Rl.Al: HPLOT 
HPLOT Rl.Al TO 







MEMOREX 






FLEXIBLE DISCS 






WE WILL NOT BE UNDER- 






SOLOn Call Free (800)235-4137 






for prices and iniormation. Dealer 


^M 


^ 


inquiries inviled and COD's 
accepted. 




I 
^ 


PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. 

San Luis Obispo. CA 

93401, In Cal. call ^^_ 

(800} 592-5935 or nST 

(805)543-1037 h^HH 



Deceinber 1983 COMPUTE! 107 



Space Thief 



Steve I ow 



The survival of two iicighboring space civilizations 
depends on their ability to siniiggle power pods, but 
they must cross through the uiegabarrier . Tiiis two- 
player game ini'olves both an offetisive and defensit>e 
strategy. Written for the Atari, a 64 version is included. 
Two joysticks are required. 



For eons the Alpha and Zeta civilizations have 
coexisted with a mutual trade agreement. Each 
uses an energy station dependent upon a combi- 
nation of power pods from botli sides. An un- 
declared war has negated this treaty. 

To maintain your energy base, pods must be 
smuggled from the adjoining nation and deposited 
at your station for processing. Load the pods by 
docking your cargo ship next to them and pressing 
the joystick trigger. The pods can be destroyed 
when the ship carrying them either strikes the 
megabarrier or is shot by an enemy ship. Your 
cargo ships are unharmed by shots from a laser 
cannon. Pass pods through the correct power 
plant to unload. 

As starship commander, you must also de- 
fend your native pods from capture. For this de- 
fensive necessity, your cargo ship has been 
equipped with a unidirectional laser cannon. 

Making transportation difficult is the 
megabarrier, a barricade which constantly re- 
locates but always leaves an area open. You may 
pass through the opening without interference; 
however, crashing into the barrier returns your 
ship to its starting location. 

The game is won by accruing points. You 
receive two points for blasting your opponent 
and five points for depositing pods at your power 
station. The game terminates when the last pod 
from either civilization is deposited safely or lost. 
Replay is iniHalized by pressing START. 

108 COMPirrei Decembei 19B3 




P/rji/er 1 has captured the opponent's pod in "Space Thief. " 
Atari version. 

Program 1: Space Thief — Atari Version 

150 DIM UD ( 15) , RL ( 15) 

160 GRAPHICS 17:SETCQL0R 0,2,10:SETC 

OLDR 4,8,3 
170 POSITION 4,7:? #6;"SPACE THIEF" 
200 FDR DEL=1 TD 750;NEXT DEL 
210 GRAPHICS 17: SCREEN=PEEK (SB) +256* 

PEEK (89) 
220 SETCOLOR , 2 , 1 : SETCDLOR 1,3,8:3 

ETCOLOR 2, 12, 6: SETCDLDR 3,3,4:3E 

TCDLDR 4,8,3 
230 REM Check for i n i t i 1 az at i on 
240 CHSET= (PEEK ( 106) -9) *256 
250 IF PEEK (CHSET + 10)=24 THEN POKE 5 

59,0:BaTa 300 
260 POKE 559, 34: POSITION 6,10:7 #6;" 

PLEASE" : pas IT ION 7,13:? »6;"WAXT 

270 FOR DEL=1 TO 750:NEXT DEL 

280 POSITION 6,10:? #6;"-C6 SPACES}": 

POSITION 7,13:? #6; "€4 SPACE3J" 
290 POKE 559,0:GOSUB 1600 
300 POKE 756, PEEK ( 106) -8 





Itlllinii;[|llt; 




WOULD YOU SHELL OUT 
$1000 TO MATCH WITS 
WITH THIS?. 



suspended:' The wit- 
ness:' planetfale:' 

ENCHANTER;^' and INFIDEE- 
has become an instant best- 



Meet your match. Meet Infocom games: 
perhaps the best reason in software 
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In fact, people have been known to 
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solely for the purpose of playing our 
games. And they haven't been disap- 
pointed. Because Infocom 's prose stim- 
ulates your imagination to a degree 
nothing else in software approaches. 
Instead of putting funny little creatures 
on your screen, we put you inside our 
stories. And we confront you with start- 
lingly realistic environments alive with 
situations, personalities, and logical 
puzzles the like of which you won't find 
elsewhere. The secret? We've found the 
way to plug our prose right into your 
imagination, and catapult you into a 
whole new dimension. 

If you think such an extraordinary 
experience is worth having, you're 
not alone. Everything we've ever (i^^f 
written-ZORK" I, II, and III, '^^ 

deadline:* starcross:' 



seller. For the simple reason that Infocom 
offers you something as rare and valu- 
able as anything in software— real 
entertainment. 

At last, you can fritter away your eve- 
nings playing a computer game without 
feeling like you're frittering away your 
computer investment. 

Step up to Infocom. All words. No 
pictures. The secret reaches of your 
mind are beckoning. A whole new 
dimension is in there waiting for you. 

(For more information on Infocom 
games contact: Infocom, Inc., PO. 
Box 855, Garden City, NY 11530.) 

inpocom 

The next dimension. 

Kor VDur; Applf 1 1 . Atari. Cgmmodore 64 . CPAl 8: UbIC Hainbuw, DKC RT-H . 
IliM. MS-DOS 2.0, NEC APC, NEC PCSnoO. Osbiimi.-. Tl Professional, 
Tl II'.I'IA, TKSSO i\r.xlfl I, TKS-80 Miidd III. 






It looks like Santa may just miss Christmas this 
year. Since the exciting games from MMG 
Mtcro Software (for the ATARI, APPLE and 
COMMODORE systems) have arrived, he hasn't 
been able to tear himself away from his 
terminal long enough to fill his sacks. He's 
playing FINAL FLIGHT!~a thrilling flight 
simulator set in a descending aircraft 
surrounded by tricky weather conditions with 
full instrumentation and many options. To play 
this and other thrilling games from ^ 

MMG Micro Software, you need , * 

a combination of 



skill, sfralegy and speed. So ask Santa for MMG 
Micro Software games this year. On second 
thought, maybe you'd better go out and buy 
them yourself— it looks like it could be a long 
wait. 



COMMODORE is a registered trad 
COMMODORE BusineM Machines, Inc. 

ATARI Is a registered trademark of ATARI, Inc. 

APPI£ is a registered trademark nf APPLE Computers, Inc. 



MMG Games Packages are available at your local 

dealer or direct from MHG Micro Software, 

Just send check or money order to: 

P.O. Box 131 

Marlboro, NJ 07746 

Or for MasterCard, Visa, and C.O.D, deliveries 

caU: 

(201) 431-3472 

Please add $3.00 for postage and handling. New 
Jersey residents add 6% sales tax. 




Great Games torn MMG! 




HNAL FUGHT! 

Imagine yourself at ihe conlrcls of a small, single engine plane, 
10,000 feet in the air, on your final appnoach to thie runway and 
safety. You're running low on fuel, but your instruments show 
thai you're on the glide path, and lined up with the mnway. it's a 
beautiful, sunny day, and you can see the airport in the distance, 
across the grassy fields. But the crosswind is tricky, there are other planes in the air, and it will 
take all your skill to land safely. You're coming down now. and the runway is getting closer. A bit 
left, OK, now lower Ihe power, fine, now put down the landing flaps. Pull Ihe nose up a bit more, 
you're a little low. Watch Ihe power! Don't stall! OK. Here comes the runway. Your pulse 
quickens, and finally you hear Ihe squeal of your tires on the pavement. You're down, but watch 
it, you're pulling right! Brakes! Brakes! Left more! OK, you've stopped, you've landed safely. 
Good job! 

The first real-time flight and landing simulator for the ATARI and COMMODORE is now available 
from MMG Micro Software. Written entirely in machine language, there are four levels of 
difficulty, and you may choose clear or foggy weather, with or without insirumenls, and with or 
without the real-time view from the cockpit. Multiple screen updates per second give a realistic 
feel of nying. Disk or tape available for COMMODORE and ATARI. 
24K $29.95 




TIMBER! 



^^ 



TIMBER! is an action-packed arcade style game with multiple 
levels of play and difnculty. You're Blackjack Daniels, the 
greatest lumberjack that ever set foot into an ATARI computer! 
Imagine yourself in the deep dark forest chopping down trees for 
the Upland Losing Corporation. Your boss has sent you on a 
very important mission and your job depends on the successful complelion of that mission. You 
are to clear the forest, chopping down trees into cords so that the logging trucks may easily 
transport them to the mill. 

But things aren't as rosy as you thought they might be. You've noticed several forest creatures 
looking at you as you're trying to meet your losing deadline. Some of Ihem are downright un- 
friendly looking! You quickly realize that you will be short of your quota of trees in this area, and 
you'll need lo move on to a new woodland area to gel enough trees downed. But. everywhere you 
lurn, you see snakes, bears, and other forest creatures. To top everything off, your ax is getting 
dull and you're finding oul that you must hit the "sweet" part of the tree lo make it fall. 
Time is njnning oul! You must race on lo meet Ihe deadline. You quickly enter a mole hole as a 
snake is about lo strike and find out that it comes out in another part of the forest, in fact, there 
are mole holes all around you and by jumping into them, you find shortcuts to other parts of the 
forest. 

You can't swim and Ihe river is flowing rapidly You know that your only way to get to Ihe trees 
on the other side of the river is lo cross the bridge, You look around. Oh! Here comes a bear. You 
quickly cross the bridge and you're lemporarily saved from the bear. 
By Ihe v^ay, I'm the boss now and 1 need someone to perform ao emergency mission for me. Will 
you be brave enough lo try it? TIMBER! is all machine language. Requires JOK RAM, a disk drive 
and 1 joystick. Disk only for ATARI. 
40 K $29.9S 



^^^ 




THE ABRAXAS ADVENTURE SERIES No. 1: 

Assault On The Astral Rift 

Flwt Program of the New ABRAXAS Series 

.Adventure enthusiasts, take heart! The uldmate adventure series 
has anivHi, from MMG Micro Software. ASSAULT ON THE 
ASTRAL RIFT is the first in the new ABRAXAS Adventure series 
and you'll not soon lire of its many challenges. It's a multiplayer 
adventure, also playable by a single player, with graphics and 
music unlike any seen or heard before. Imagine, really being able lo read minds, lo think in totally 
foreign languag^, and lo wfflk together toward the ultimate goal of saving our universe. Imagine an 
adventure game different with each play. Isn't this why you bought your computer? 
You are a member of a small, select band of people with a crucial secret, charged with the respon- 
sibility of maintaining the universe as we know it. One of your group has discovered the existence of 
alternate universes, populated by creatures known on Earth only by our legends. Far worse was Ihe 
discovery that some of Ihem have leartied lo travel between die many universes, and, in doing so, 
have weakened the fabric of our universe. They must be slopped, and you and your comrades are 
the only ones who can do it! 

Your qijest begins in a huge stone castle recently converted to a hotel The guests left abruptly when 
strange occurrences began, but you know the real nature of these strange events. Time is cracial, and 
you'll, have to begin your journey now. The lime holes have begun to open, ihe fir^t sign of the 
weakening of the fabric (rf our universe! 

This firel program in the ABRAXAS Adventure Series, ASSAULT ON THE ASTRAL RIFT, requires 
48K and 1 disk drive. Available on disk onlv for ATARI, 
; S39.95 




^!ft 



Phoenk Lair 

PHOENIX LAIR is an arcade style game comprised of 10 boards 
and 10 speed levels. II is unlike any game on Ihe market today 
Multiple strategies, an interlude jousting challenge between 
boards, bright and lively colors and music add lo the already 
superb play of this completely unique and different game. Game 
Play: The game begins at board one and advances lo higher boards after successful complehon. 
Many obstacles are encountered on the various boards as points are accumulated. At the beginn- 
ing of each board, the TUaena must leave its lair in search of enemy eggs. The Phoenbi flight is 
controlled in height by the joystick button, and in direction by the joystick itself. After successfully 
destroying at least six of these eggs the Phoenix must return to the far right side of its lair. Points 
are awarded based on ihe total number of eggs deslroyed and the lime in which it look lo com- 
plete the mission. A fast mission will result in additional bonus points. You begin with 5 lives and 
gain additional lives at boards 7, 9 and 10. PHOENIX LAIR is all machine language^ Requires 40K 
RAM. a disk drive and 1 
40K $29.95 



joystick. Disk only available forCOMMODORE and ATARI, 




Rat Race 



available for Cg ^ 



RAT RACE is an action packed arcade-style game with multiple 
levels of difficulty and challenge. Colorful graphics and superb 
music enhance Ihe excitement of the game. 
Picture yourself in a fast food restaurant. The restaurant is so 
busy that as soon as food is prepared, Ihe chef just throws it 
wherever he has rccm. The restaurant is obviously very messy and in much confusion! Your job 
is lo gather Ihe food for the orders and place it into the proper bin on lop of the screen. The 
french fries go into the french fry bin. the hamburgers into their own bin, and so on. 
Sounds simple, doesn't it? Just gather the food and put it into the appropriate bin. But you know 
better than that, don't you? There are a few minor problems. Since the food is all over Ihe place, 
some of the local rats have found the restaurant a very altradive place to hang out for lunch, 
since it is always so sloppy! Generally, they restrict their activities to certain areas of Ihe screen, 
but they're so fast, it's a race for your life, ff they bite you. you'll begin again with one fewer life. 
The excitement mounts as Ihe degree of difficulty builds. After you've cleared a few boanls, 
you'll see the infamous super rat, who races anywhere with only one thing in mind— to gel you! 
R-i^T RACE is all machine language. Requires 40K RAM, 1 disk drive and 1 joystick. Disk only for 
ATARf. 
40K $29.95 



Programs That Teach from MMG 

Asteroid Mmers 

ASTEROID MfNERS-A UNIQUE GAME TUTORIAL-is truly 
that. A 32K game written in BASIC with numerous machine 
language subroutines, it has 3 levels of difficulty. At the easiest 
level, it's a race against lime: at the hardest, strategy and speed 
are both critical. Can you beat the high score before time nrns 
out? Get the valuable asteroids, but avoid Ihe duds. Above all, BE CAREFUL! One mistake, and 
well...ASTEROID MINERS comes with a 50-page book which completely explains every line of 
the program. The source codes for the BASIC and assembly language programs are included, and 
fully explained. See how these advanced functions are implemented in a woriiing game! You'll 
learn machine language routines lo relocate the character set, zero the player-missile graphics 
area of memory, move players, and lo put a countdown timer on the screen. Use Ihese routines 
in your own programs! Every aspect of the program is desaibed in detail, from redefining 
character sets, to creating multicolored and muftifunctionai players, lo multiprocfissing using the 
vertical blank interrupt. Music, extensive sound and color graphics-in short, a complete tutorial 
on the advanced functions YOU can use with your ATARI! Disk or tape for ATARI only, 
32K $34,95 

MMG CAREER COUNSELOR 

A unique and fascinating way lo explore the important world of 
careers. Take the first steps toward discovering the careers that 
are right for you. It is designed to be used at home, in schools, or 
in libraries by a wide variety of people. The "Career Search' 
technique used in Ihe program provides a combination of educi 
lion, fun, and a sense of adventure, making it as valuable for adults as it is for students. 
You enter your likes and dislikes concerning inleresis, abilities, nature of work and other goals 
through a set of easy to use menus and displays. The program vkill generate a list of careers 
which satisfies your preferences. Through repeated use of the "Career Search" process you gain 
valuable, life-fong insights into your career goals and Ihe hundreds of careers stored by the pro- 
gram 

The prc^ram afso features a "Career Dictionary," which is another source of clear, concise infor- 
mation. This feature allows you to quickly and easily obtain descriplions of all the desired 
careers. Disk only available for ATARI. 
32K $59,95 - Expanded APPLE version available on disk on!y requires 48K $129.95 





310 

320 
33 

340 

350 



360 
370 
380 



390 

400 

4 1 ei 



420 

4 30 
440 



450 
460 

470 



430 



4 90 



50 

51 

52 

5 

54 

55 

56 



570 



58 
59 



60 
61 
62 



63 
64 
65 
66 

67 
68 



69 
70 
71 



XP 
BU 

TR 

SC 

RE 

e 

FO 



GO 
PO 
PO 
6, 
" w 
IF 
9, 
RE 
RE 
ck 
o-f 
IF 
43 
RE 
IF 

XT 

ST 
PO 
47 
IF 

+ 2 
S 



Ll=l:XPL2=lB:YPLi=ll:YPL2=YPLl 

MP1=YSCR+4:BUMP2=YSCR+4:E=0 

S1=0:TRS2=0:PU1=0:PU2=0:SC1=0: 

2 = 

M The power pads 3 sc'eens edg 



TRX=0 TD 19 STEP 
>:PDSITION TRX. 



D 

EXT TRY:NEXT 
UB 1460 
ITION 4,0;'^ 
ITION 2,0:? 
: ? # 6 ; " k '■ 
: P D B I T I N 
B=0 THEN 



19:FDR TRY= 
TRY: ? #6; "IT 



TRX 



■^ «6; "SPACE THIEF" 
? #6; " J " : POSITION 1 
POSITION 3,23:? #6; 
16, 23: ? #6; "w" 
GOSUB 990:B=l:POKe 1 



POKE 559,34 



^lEGXH MnXM BODY OF PROGRRM 



Checl; 
d up .!< 
g ame 
P U 1 = 2 1 



for # o-f power pods pi 
therefore [ RIGHT > end 

OR PU2=21 THEN GOSUE 1 



? Time to move mega-barrier 
PEEK<19)>=2 THEN FOR ERS=2 TO 
:POKE SCREEN+XSCR+20*ERS, 0: NE 
ERS:GOSUB 990: POKE 19,0 
= STICK <0) : STi=STICK ( 1 ) 
E 3CREEN + 463, 1 19: POKE SCREEN-i- 
, il9:REM The Power stations 
ST0O1S THEN POKE SCREEN + XPLl 
*YPLl,0!lF TRS1=241 THEN POKE 
REEN+XPL] +2 0* (YPLl+1 ) , 



IF 

537 

0: R 

t r a 

XPL 

T0) 

REM 

IF 

IF 

IF 

IF 

REM 

PDK 

RSI 

* ; Y 

REM 

si D 

IF 

IF 

N Z 

= 24 

IF 

REM 

IF 

Rs; 

RSI 

4 

GOT 

PDK 

REM 

IF 

537 

GOT 

IF 

14 
D 
GOT 
TRS 
REM 
1 . 2 



3T0O15 OR ST 
60, 30: POKE 53 
EM Moving sou 
c t mode' 
1 = X P L 1 + R L ( S T 



Kee 
XPLl 
XPLl 
YPLl 
YPLl 

POK 
E SC 
= 241 
PL1 + 

Che 
n 

XPLl 
YPLl 
AP = 
1 TH 
TRBl 

Ena 
XPLl 
= PEE 
= 241 



p it in t 
:;■ 1 7 THEN 
<2 THEN X 
<3 THEN Y 
> 2 1 THEN 
E player 
REEN+XPLl 
THEN POK 
1 ; , 24 1 
c k -for me 

<>XSCR TH 
<=YSCR OR 
: HIT=6: GD 
EN PU1=PU 
=241 THEN 
b 1 e p ewer 
=1S AND S 
K (5CREEN + 
THEN BUM 



1<>15 THEN POKE 
76 1 , 164: POKE 77 , 
nd £c disable 'at 

) : YPL1=YPL 1 +UD <S 

he borders 

XPL1=1S 

PL1 = 1 

PL 1=2 

YPL1=22 

1 to SC r een 

-t-20*YPLl , 42: IF T 

E SCREEM+XPLl+20 

ga-barrier colli 

EN 60 

YPLl > = BUMP1 THE 
SUB 1090: IF TRSl 
1+1 : TRSi=0 

66 

pod pick-up 
TRIG (0) =0 THEN T 
19+20*YPL1 / : IF T 
PI=YSCR+3: GOTO 6 



1t2 COMPUTE 



6 60 

E SCREE N+i 
Dr op ping 

XPL1=3 AND 

61,0: GOTO 

D 7 20 

TR31=241 T 

60:FOR W=l 

, W+10, 10, W 

7 1 ei ' 

1=0:PUI=PU 
* *P1 ayer 
Mill get 

! December 1983 



9 + 2 

o-f f 

YP 

680 

HEN 
4 T 
: NE 

1 + 1 
1 Ji 
to 



* Y P L 1 , 

p ow . pod 
LI =22 THEN POKE 



3C1 =5C 1 +5 : GOSUB 
STEP -2:SDUN 
XT W: GOTO 700 



Dved first, now P 
shoot first t * 



720 

730 
740 
750 



760 

770 
7B0 
790 
800 
810 



320 
8 30 



840 
850 



860 

870 
880 
3 90 
9 00 



IF 
IF 
IF 
IF 



9 10 
920 
930 

940 

9 50 
960 
970 
930 
99 

1000 

10 10 

1020 

1030 
1 4 

10 5 
1 6 
1 7 
1080 



IF STRIBM)=0 AND XPL2<>1 THEN M 
X=XPL2-1 : MY=YPL2: BOSUB 1330 
POKE 5 3761,0 

REM And now for player 2 to move 
IF 3T1015 THEN POKE SCREEN + XPL2 
+ 20tYPL2, 0: IF TRS2 = 241 THEN POKE 

SCREEN+XPL2+20* (YPL2+1 ) ,0 
XPL2=XPL2 + RL <ST1 ) : YPL2 = YPL2 + UD (S 
Tl ) 

XPL2>17 THEN XPL2=18 

XPL2<2 THEN XPL2=1 

YPL2<3 THEN YPL2=2 

YPL2>21 THEN YPL2=22 
POKE SCREEN + XPL2 + 20«YPL2, 43: IF T 
RS2=241 THEN POKE SCREEN+ XFL2+20 
* ( YPL2+1 ) , 241 
IF XPL2<>XBCR THEN 340 
IF YPL2<=YBCR OR YPL2>=BUMP2 THE 
N ZAP=1: HIT=6:G0SUB 1090:IF TRS2 
=241 THEN PU2=PU2+1 : TRS2=0 
IF TRS2=241 THEN 880 

IF XPL2=1 AND STRIG<1)=0 THEN TR 
S2 = PEEK (SCREEN + 20*YPL2) : IF TRS2 = 
241 THEN BUMP2=YSCR+3: GOTO 870 
GOTO 880 

POKE SCREEN+20»YPL2, 
IF XPL2=16 AND YPL2=22 THEN 900 
GOTO 930 

IF TRS2=241 THEN SC2=BC2+5 : GOSUB 
1460:FOR W=14 TO STEP -2:SaUN 
D , W+10, 10, W: NEXT l'J:GOTO 920 
GOTO 930 
TRS2=0:PU2=PU2+1 
IF BTRI6(0)=0 AND 
MX = XPH + 1 : MY = YPL1 : 
GOTO 420 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM The Mega-barrier 



X P L 1< 
jDSUB 



18 THEN 
1200 



ENDMOIM BODY OF PROGRRM 



1090 
1100 

1110 
1120 



1 1 30 

114 
1150 

1 160 
1170 

1180 



- - .._-,_. . „ window 

XSCR=INT(RND(0)*16+2):YSCR=INT(R 
ND <0) * 16 + 2) 

IF XSCR=XPL1 OR XSCR=XPL2 THEN 

990 

FOR Ai=2 TO YSCR:POKE SCREEN+XB 

CR+20*A1 , 172: NEXT fil 

FDR A2=YSCR+4 TO 22:P0KE SCREEN 

+XSCR+20*A2, 172: NEXT A2 

BUMPl=YSCR+4:BUMP2=YSCR+4 

IF TRB1=241 THEN BUMP 1 =BUMP 1 - 1 

IF TRS2=241 THEN BUMP2=BUhP2- 1 

RETURN 

REM E>: plosion soLind 

REM Notice r.**t makes sound diff 

erent for coliisions with wall 

vs. being shot 

DUR=6: PITCH=20 

75, HIT, 15: I CR=0 . 79+DUR / 



SOUND 

100 

y 1 = 1 5 : 
SOUND 



V2=15: V3=15 

0, PITCH, HIT , VI : SOUND 2, PI 
TCH+20, HIT, V2: SOUND 3,PITCH+50, 
HIT, V3 

V1=V1 * ICR: V2=V2* ; ICR+0. 05) : V3=V 

3» ( ICR+0. 03) 

IF V3>4 THEN 1120 

FOR B=0 TO 3:S0UND S,0,0,0:NEXT 

S:IF HIT=6 THEN POKE 19,2 
IF HIT=8 THEN RETURN 
IF ZAP=0 THEN XPL1=1 : YPLi=10: RE 
TURN 
IF ZAP=1 THEN XPL2=1 8: YPL2=10: R 



TURN YOUR HOME INTO THE 
HOTTEST ARCADE IN TOWN 



O'RI LEY'S 
MINE" 

You're a mad 
Irishman digging 
your way through 
an abandoned mine 
filled with oil, 
cool, gold, rubies, 
diamonds— and 
hungry creatures. 
YouTi need the luck 
of the Irish to sur- 
vive, but with so 
much at stake, it's 
a chance you're 
willing to take. 




MOON 
SHUTTLE- 

Your screen ex- 
plodes with life- 
threatening action 
as you pilot your 
Moon Shuttle 
through outer space 
in this home version 
of the Nichibutsu* 
favorite. Awaiting you 
is The Prince of Dark- 
ness and his forces, 
which mysteriously 
multiplyl 




MOONSHUniE • avoibbls lor Amri', 
Rodio Sha^k Colof-, Commodore 64^, 
coming Toot lor Appl*^ 



POOYAN" 

One of the 
biggest arcade ' 
game hits from 
Konami is a game 
of fast action in 
life-and-deoth en- 
counters. You battle o 
pack of hungry wolves 
eager to catch your de- 
fenseless piglets. You'll 
need quick reflexes and 
o good arm in the new 
arcade hit from Datasoft, 




POOVAN ■ ovoilabfe for Atori ', Radio 
Shock Color-, Apple', coming SQor for 
Commodore 6^* 



ZAXXON'" 

Zaxxon has oil the 
unique color graphics, 
super sound and unprece- 
dented 3-dimensional 
effects that mode it the 
star of the arcades. 
Maneuver your ship 
through the stale-of- 
the-art defenses of the 
floating fortress to 
come face-to-face 
with the deadly 
Zaxxon Robot. This 
is the official home 
version of the 
Segos arcade hit. 



Our reputation as one of the premier game manufacturers 

assures you of the highest quality attainable in action, strategy 

and graphics. For the hottest titles in entertainment, keep your eye on the leader— DATASOFT. 

You'll Find The Best In Home Computer Software 

from ipB ® 




ZAXXON • Q-^ailabfe ior Atori', Apple', 
Radiio Shock Color*" 



Pooyan" is o trodemark of Konomi Industries Company, Ltd. 
O'Riley's Mine^ ond Datasoft^ are registered trademarks 
of Dolosoft Inc. 



Da%)n 



!^ n9S3DATASOR INC. 
Moon Shuttle" is a registered trademark of Nichibutsu, USA. 
ZAXJCON ' and Sego^ ore trademarks otSego Enterprises, Inc. 



9421 Winnetka Avenue, Chatsworth. CA 9131 1 



(213) 701-5161 



1190 


ET 

RE 


1200 


PO 
RN 


1210 
1220 


H = 

IF 
M Y 


1230 


PD 




SC 
EN 




N 


1240 

1250 
1260 


IF 

+ 2 
GO 
PD 



1370 

1380 
13961 



1400 
1410 
1420 



14 
14 

14 
14 

14 
14 
14 



3 
40 
50 

70 
3 
70 



1500 



15 
15 
15 

15 



10 
20 
30 
40 



155 



15 

15 
15 
15 
16 



OK 



1270 


XP 


1280 


RE 


12 9 


PD 




IF 


1300 


GO 


1310 
1320 
1330 


RE 
RE 
PD 
N 


1340 


H = 


1350 


IF 

MY 


1360 


PO 




SC 




N 



URN 

N Shooting subr pi 1 

KE 53761,0: IF M )( = 1 9 THEN RETU 

PEEK ( SCREEN+MX+20*MY) : I F H=17 
THEN RETURN 

H = 43 THEN POriE SCREEN-f-M X +20* 
, 0: HIT=8: GOTO 1260 
KE SCREEN+MX+20*MY, 46: H=PEEK ( 
REEN+ <MX+1) +20*MY) : IF H=44 TH 

POKE SCREEN+MX+2 0*MY,0:RETUR 

H=43 THEN POKE 3CRE tN+ ( M X + 1 ) 
0*MY , 0: H I T=B: GOTO 12 60 
TD 1290 

KE SCREEN + M:<+20*i1Y, 0: SC1=SC1 + 
BQBUB 1460: IF TRS2=241 THEN P 
E 5CREEN + XPL2 + 20* ( MY+ 1 ) , 0: TRS 
0: PU2-FL;2+1 

L2=1B: YPL2=l 1 : GOSUB 1090 
TURN 
KE SCREEN+MX+20*HY, 0: MX=Ma+ I : 

MX=19 THEN RETURN 
TO 1200 
TURN 

M Shooting subr 'for pi 2 
KE 5376 1,0: IF NX=0 THEN RETUR 

PEEK (SCREEN + riX + 20*MY J : IF H=17 
THEN RETURN 

H = 42 THEN POKE SCREEN + M X + 20 * 
, 0: HI T=B: BQTO 1390 
KE BCREEN + MX + 20tt1Y, 46: H = PEEK ( 
REEN+ (MX-1) +20*MY ) : IF H=3 THE 
POKE SCREEN+MX+20*MY, 0: RETURN 



POKE SCREEN+ (MX-1) 
= B:GOTD 1390 



IF H=42 THEN 

+ 2£1*|>1Y,0:HIT = 

GOTO 1420 

POKE SCREEN+MX+20*MY, 0: SC2=SC2+ 

2:60SUB 1460: IF TRS1=241 THEN P 

DKE SCREEN + XPLl+20* (MY+1 ) , 0: TRS 

1=0: PU1=PU1+1 

XPL1 = 1 : YPL1 = 1 1 : GOSUB 1090 

RETURN 

POKE SCREEN+MX+20«MY, 0: MX=MX-1: 

I-F MX=0 THEN RETURN 



GOTO 1330 
RETURN 

REM Score printer 
POSITION 6,1:7 4J6 ; S 
12,1:? t»6; SC2: RETUR 
REM To -Replay' pus 
FDR 1=0 TD 20:C=INT 
POKE 7 12, C: FOR DEL = 
DEL: POKE 53760, C:P 
8: NEXT I 

POKE 7 12, 13 1; REM Re 
color 4,8,3 
POSITION 5,7:7 #6;" 
IF SC1>H5C THEN HSC 
IF SC2>HSC THEN HSC 
POSITION 2,12:7 tt6; 
- " ; HSC 

FOR DEL = 1 TO 100: iME 
53761 , 

60 IF PEEK (53279) < >6 T 

70 GOTO 160 

30 REM mii***^■.]m*J■.■k*^:,^r 

9 REM Internal char s 

00 FOR 1=0 TD 1023: POK 

EK (57344 + 1 ;: SOUND Hi 



CI : POSIT ICN 
r-i 

h "ancnc 

i256*RND (0) ) 
1 TD 25: NEXT 
0^^E 5376 1,16 

store to Set 

GAME OVER" 

= SC1 

= SC2 

"HIGH SCORE 

XT DEL : POKE 

HEN 1560 



e t to RDM 

E CHSET+I,PE 

, PEEK (CH3ET+ 





I ) , 1 


1610 


REM C 


1620 


FOR N 


1630 


FOR I 




,10,8 


16 4 


POKE 


1650 


NEXT 


1660 


DATA 




235 


1670 


DATA 




0,90 


16 80 


DATA 


1690 


DATA 


17 


DATA 


1710 


DATA 


17 20 


REM * 




rout 


17 30 


U D ( 5 ; 




1 : UD ( 




D ( 14) 


1740 


RL(5) 




1 : RL ( 




R L ( 1 4 


1750 


RETUR 



, 3: NEXT I 

ustom character -formation 

UM=0 TO 5:READ LDC 

=0 TO 7: READ BN: SOUND 0,SN 

CHSET+ (L0C*8) +1, BN 

I: NEXT NUM: SOUND 0,0,0,0 

55, 24, 24, 24, 24, 60, 12 6, 255, 

42, 90, 60, 126, 213, 17 1 , 126, 6 

4 3, 7, 12, 28, 254, 25 4, 28, 12,7 

44, 24, 0, 24, 0,0, 24, 0, 24 

46, 0.0,0, 16, 56, 16,0,0 

4 9, 0, 0, 0, 36, 60, 0, 0, 

* RL ?-: UD Are -for joystick 

i n e 

= 1 : UD (6> =-1 : UD {7> =0: UD (9) = 

10)=-1:UD(11)=0:UD(13)=1:U 

=-1 : UD ( 15) =0 

=1:RL(6>=1:RL(7)=1:RL(9)=- 

10) =-1 : RL { 11 > =-1 ; RL ( 13) =0: 

) =0: RL ( 15) =0 

N 




"Space Thief." 64 vcr^iou. 

Program 2: Space Thief — 64 Version 

Translation by Gregg Peele, Assistant ProgramnnJng Supervisor 

40 GOSUB60000:GOSUB15851;GOSUB49131: POKES 

3248+16, (PEEK(53248+16)AND254) 
45 GOSUB51179 

50 RESTORE :SYS491 52: PRINT" tCLR)"? :POKE532 
81,0; POKE53280 , : POKE53272 , 28 :GOSUB900 
100 H=842:Y=845:C=B43:P=850:POKE836,2 
200 R= C RND ( ) * 20 ) +10 : POKEH , R: U= { RND ( ) * 1 5 

)+4:POKEY,U:POKEP,160:SYS50530: 
300 FORT=1TO60 : POKEl 304, PEEK ( 862 ) +48 : POKE 

1 304+54272, 1:P0KE1 343+54272,1 
310 POKE1343,PEEK(860)+48 
320 IFPEEK(860) >=30RPEEK(862 ) >=3THENT=60 : 

NEXT:GOTO2000 
350 NEXT:POKEP,32:SYS50530:GOTO200 
900 FORT=1024 TO 1264STEP40 : READY: POKET+5 

4272, 1:P0KET,Y:NEXT 
910 FORT=1063 TO 1303STEP40 : READY: POKET+5 

4272, 1:P0KET,Y: NEXT: RETURN 
1000 DATA 144,140,129,153,133,146,178 
1100 DATA 144,140,129,153,133,146,177 



1M COMPUTE! December 1983 



^m 



>;g«rs&??»J 








oanumi. 

FHEHUimESOFAUIY-OOK 

AND m won BE ABLE 

TO TAKE Wm EYES OFF IT 



Oh sure— it might lool< silly now. But wait'll it's hurtling toward you, 
threatening to destroy your perfect game. You'll take it seriously then. 
And bowling shoes won't be your only worry. You'll also have to 
watch for diabolical beer bottles, evil pin sweeps and vicious gum spots. 

Sound strange? 

Sure. But battling such weird objects is exactly 
what makes Alley-Oops so original. And so incred- 
ibly fun to play. 

Alley-Oops is real arcade stuff. In fact, it's a 
challenge just to get to the next level of play. And 
there are 8 levels, the last one being the nearly impossible Challenge 
Round. 

There are all kinds of ways to play Alley-Oops— try to mount up 
points, score a perfect game or reach that highest level. Whichever 
way you choose, you'll have endless fun playing Alley-Oops. 

Just remember— don't take the bowling shoes lightly. After years 
of being kicked around bowling alleys, they're out to get even. 



*f. 



w 











1F% 

To survive Allej'-Oops, 
voull have to contend 
"with diabolical beer 
tjoltles. evil pin sets, 
and vicious gum spols, 



Alley-Oops'''^— A new arcade game from Artworx® Designed by Jeffrey Godish and Brian Harkins; programmed by 
Leonard Bertoni and David Pompea. For the Commodore 64 and Atari (16K) computers. Cassette/diskette $29.95. 
Artworx Software Co., Inc., 150 North Main St., Fairport, N.Y. 14450. For a free catalog of Artworx software write or 
call 800-828-6573. 




^A\ni\YiV 
So you can play. 



Atari and Ctimmndaie 64 
arr nrgittrrrd Iradfuiarlia. 



2000 if peekc860) >=3thensys50712 :print" 
{clr}{wht3{9 rightIright player wins 

":GOTO2020 

SYS50712 rPRINT" [CLR] {wHT} {9 RIGHT]LE 

FT PLAYER WINS" 

POKE53272, 21 ;POKE53248+21,0: PRINT" 

{9 RIGHT} {2 down} PLAY AGAIN Y OR N" 

H=PEEK(197) :IFH<>2SANDH<>39THEN2030 

IFH=25THEN50 

SYS2048 
1=15872 :C1=0: PRINT "C CLR} ENTERING SP 
RITE DATA" 

READ A: IF A=256 THEN 15867 
POKE I,A:C1=C1+A:I=I+1:G0T0 15858 
IF C1O30458THENPRINT" [CLR}ERR0R DA 
TA STATEMENTS ( 15872-16383 )": END 
RETURN 

DATA 2,170,128,10,170,160,42 
DATA 170,168,63,255,252,42,0 
DATA 168,63,255,252,42,170,168 
DATA 10,170,160,2,170,128,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,2,170,128,10,170,160 
DATA 42,170,168,63,255,252,42 
DATA 0,168,63,255,252,42,170 
DATA 168,10,170,160,2,170,128 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,80,0,0,168 
DATA 0,1,84,0,1,182,0 
DATA 1,84,0,0,168,0,0 
DATA 80,0,0,0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 



2010 
2020 

2030 

2040 
2050 
15851 

15858 
15865 

15867 

15868 
15872 
15879 
15886 
15893 

15900 
15907 
15914 
15921 
15928 
15935 
15942 
15949 
15956 
15963 
15970 
15977 
15984 
15991 
15998 
16005 
16012 
16019 
16025 
16033 
16040 
16047 
16054 
16061 
16068 

16075 
16082 
16089 
16096 
16103 
16110 
16117 
16124 
16131 
16138 
16145 
16152 
16159 
16166 
16173 
16180 
16187 
16194 
16201 
16208 
16215 
16222 
16229 
16236 



DATA 0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0 
DATA 168,0,1 



0,0,0 

0,0,0 

0,0,0 

0,0,0 

80,0,0 

84,0,1,182 



DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 
DATA 



0,1,84, 
0,80,0, 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
10,170, 
255,252 
252,42, 
2,170,1 
40,0,0, 
160,42, 
0,170,0 
0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 
128,10, 
63,255, 
255,252 
160,2,1 
0,40, 0, 
170,160 
160,0,1 



0,0,168, 

0,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,2,170,1 

160,42,1 

,42,0,16 

170,168, 

28,0,40, 

170,0,10 

170,168, 

,0,0,0,0 

,0,0,0 

,0,2,170 

170,160, 

252,42,0 

,42,170, 

70,128,0 

0,170,0, 

,42,170, 

70,0,0,0 







28 

70,168,63 

8,63,255 

10,170,160 

0,0 

,170 

10,170,160 



42,170,168 

,168,63 

168, 10,170 

,40,0 

10 

168,10, 170 

,0 



16243 
16250 
16257 
16264 
16271 
16278 
16285 
16292 
16299 
16306 
16313 
16320 
16327 
16334 
16341 
16348 
16355 
16362 
16369 
16376 
16383 
49131 

49138 

49145 
49146 



49147 
49152 
49159 
49166 
49173 
49180 
49187 
49194 
49201 
49208 
49215 
49222 
49229 
49236 
49243 
49250 
49257 
49264 
49271 
49278 
49285 
49292 
49299 
49306 
49313 
49320 
49327 
49334 
49341 
49348 
49355 
49362 
49369 
49376 
49383 
49390 
49397 
49404 
49411 
49413 
49425 
49432 



DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,255 

DATA 255,255,255,255,255,63,0 

DATA 252,15,195,240,195,255,195 

DATA 240,255,15,252,60,63,63 

DATA 0,252,15,195,240,255,255 

DATA 255,255,255,255,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255,63 

DATA 0,252,15,195,240,195,255 

DATA 195,240,255,15,252,60,63 

DATA 63,0,252,15,195,240,255 

DATA 255,255,255,255,255,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,256 

1=491 5 2 : C2=0 : PRINT " { CLR } ENTERING MA 

CHINE LANGUAGE" 

READ A: IF A=256 THEN 49146 

POKE I,A:C2=C2+A:I=I+I:GOTO 49138 

IFC2<>205982 THENPRINT" [CLR} ERROR I 

N DATA STATEMENTS LINES (49152-5072 

0) :END 

RETURN 

DATA 169,0,141,92,3,141,94 

DATA 3,169,48,13,21,208,141 

DATA 21,208,169,229,141,200,207 

DATA 141,204,207,169,34,141,198 

DATA 207,169,0,141,199,207,169 

DATA 55,141,202,207,169,1,141 

DATA 203,207,169,5,141,43,208 

DATA 169,7,141,44,208,169,254 

DATA 141,252,7,141,253,7,169 

DATA 12,13,21,208,141,21,208 

DATA 169,250,141,250,7,169,251 

DATA 141,251,7,169,2,141,41 

DATA 208,141,42,200,169,0,141 

DATA 216,207,169,15,141,28,208 

DATA 169,50,141,0,208,169,120 

DATA 141,1,208,169,15,141,2 

DATA 208,169,2,13,16,208,141 

DATA 16,208,169,50,141,224,207 

DATA 169,0,141,225,207,169,15 
DATA 141,226,207,169,1,141,227 
DATA 207,169,3,13,21,208,141 
DATA 21,208,169,248,141,248,7 
DATA 169,1,141,39,208,169,2 
DATA 169,249,141,249,7,169,120 
DATA 141,3,208,120,169,184,141 
DATA 20,3,169,192,141,21,3 
DATA 88,96,162,0,32,215,192 
DATA 162,1,32,215,192,32,134 
DATA 194,32,103,195,32,65,196 
DATA 32,152,195,32,203,197,32 
DATA 22,197,76,49,234,238,37 
DATA 208,189,0,220,41,15,157 
DATA 228,207,56,169,15,253,228 
DATA 207,157,232,207,238,38,208 
DATA 160,0,200,152,221,232,207 
DATA 208,249,224,1,208,2,162 
DATA 2,152,10,168,185,10,193 
DATA 72,185,9,193,72,96,132 
DATA 194,88,194,92,194,132,194 
DATA 100,194,104,194,111,194,132 
DATA 194,96,194,125,194,118,194 



116 COMPUTE! December 1983 



USTEN! ITS THE VOICE OF 
YOUn COMPUTER... 
TEACHING YOUR FAMILY 




CHATTSH8S 



CHATrm 



10M7 ASK: 



• A challenging game 

• Talks on your Atari computer 

• Colorful graphics and music 

• Teaches spelling at all levels 
from age 6 to adult 



"^ Your home computer can- be a wonderful teacher — with the right software. 

Software that taps the computer's power to challenge, to correct, to encourage, to entertain . . 
CHATTERBEE is the right software for teaching youngsters and adults to spell. 



, and to SPEAK. 



WB GAME: 



— automatically puts player at appropriate level of diffi- 
culty in response to players performance. 

— teaches correct spelling when player cannot spell 
the word. 

— retests player on missed words in later rounds. 

-^ rewards good spelling with high score, advancement 
to higher [eve!. 

— makes learning fun. 

Hear Chatterbee today, wherever 
software is sold. To order direct from 
TRONIX. send a check or money order, 
or call to order C.O.D. Add $2.00 for 
shipping and handling. California resi- 
dents add 6% sates tax (6-1/2% if you 
reside in L.A. County). 



TH€ WORDS: 



-2500 spelling words at 25 levels of difficulty covering 
grades 1-12 and college-level. 

- seierted in accordance with current educationai standards. 
■ each word spoken aloud and used In a spoken sentence. 



For Atari computers (40K RAM) 
and Connmoclore 64, 

Suggested retail price: $39.95 



Dealer inquiries welcome. 



WE VOICE: 



— specialized version of the Software Automatic Mouth 
(S.A.M.) by Don't Ask built into CHATTERBEE. 

— talks on any Atari Computer, without any separate 
speech synthesizer. 

— CHATTERBEE's voice has no effect on the video display. 



BZ95 South La Cier.ega Blvd.. [nglevvood. CA 90301 
(213) H15-05Z9 



ATAKJ is a trademark of Atari, tnc. COMMODORE 64 is 4 tudrmark ot Commodore Bu^lntts MjkCMntv Inc. 



Space Thief Notes For 
64 Version 



The 64 version of "Space Thief" uses an in- 
terrupt-driven ML routine which controls 
the position of all sprites and any collisions 
between them, BASIC is used to provide 
random numbers for the barrier's position 
and to keep score for both players. Points are 
accumulated in this version when you collect 
pods by touching your opponent's base and 
transporting the pods back to your own base. 
One point is awarded for each pod returned. 
The first player to attain three points wins. 
Sound easy? There are hazards. If you 
are blasted by the opposing player or touch 
the barrier, you lose your cargo and are re- 
turned to your starting position. If you are 
touching your base, your opponent cannot 
collect or deposit a pod. Obviously, though, 
you will never get any points, either. The 
best plan is to use a combination of offensive 
and defensive strategies. Two joysticks are 
required. 



49439 DATA 132,194,169,50,221,1,208 

49446 DATA 176,12,189,1,208,56,189 

49453 DATA 1,208,233,1,157,1,208 

49460 DATA 96,169,229,221,1,208,144 

49467 DATA 12,189,1,208,24,189,1 

49474 DATA 208,105,1,157,1,208,96 

49491 DATA 56,189,224,207,233,56,157 

49488 DATA 228,207,189,225,207,233,1 

49495 DATA 29,228,207,144,13,169,56 

49502 DATA 157,224,207,169,1,157,225 

49509 DATA 207,76,122,193,24,189,224 

49516 DATA 207,105,1,157,224,207,189 

49523 DATA 225,207,105,0,157,225,207 

49530 DATA 56,189,224,207,233,0,157 

49537 DATA 228,207,189,225,207,233,1 

49544 DATA 29,228,207,144,19,224,2 

49551 DATA 240,34,173,16,208,9,1 

49558 DATA 141,16,208,189,224,207,157 

49565 DATA 0,208,96,224,2,240,30 

49572 DATA 173,16,208,41,254,141,16 

49579 DATA 208,189,224,207,157,0,208 

49586 DATA 96,173,16,208,9,2,141 

49593 DATA 16,208,189,224,207,157,0 

49600 DATA 208,96,173,16,208,41,253 

49607 DATA 141,16,208,189,224,207,157 

49614 DATA 0,208,96,56,189,224,207 

49621 DATA 233,34,157,228,207,189,225 

49628 DATA 207,233,0,29,228,207,176 

49635 DATA 13,169,33,157,224,207,169 

49642 DATA 0,157,225,207,76,2,194 

49649 DATA 56,189,224,207,233,1,157 

49656 DATA 224,207,189,225,207,233,0 

49663 DATA 157,225,207,56,189,224,207 

49670 DATA 233,0,157,228,207,189,225 

49677 DATA 207,233,1,29,228,207,144 

118 COMPUH! December 1983 



49684 DATA 19,224,2,240,34,173,16 
49691 DATA 208,9,1,141,16,208,189 
49698 DATA 224,207,157,0,208,96,224 
49705 DATA 2,240,30,173,16,208,41 
49712 DATA 254,141,16,208,189,224,207 
49719 DATA 157,0,208,96,173,16,203 
49726 DATA 9,2,141,16,208,189,224 
49733 DATA 207,157,0,208,96,173,16 
49740 DATA 208,41,253,141,16,208,189 
49747 DATA 224,207,157,0,208,96,32 
49754 DATA 33,193,96,32,53,193,96 
49761 DATA 32,73,193,96,32,209,193 
49768 DATA 96,32,33,193,32,209,193 
49775 DATA 96,32,53,193,32,209,193 
49782 DATA 96,32,53,193,32,73,193 
49789 DATA 96,32,33,193,32,73,193 
49796 DATA 96,96,56,173,190,207,233 
49803 DATA 0,141,160,207,173,191,207 
49810 DATA 233,1,13,160,207,176,17 
49817 DATA 173,16,203,41,251,141,16 
49824 DATA 208,173,190,207,141,4,208 
49831 DATA 76,184,194,173,190,207,141 
49838 DATA 4,208,169,4,13,16,208 
49845 DATA 141,16,208,173,192,207,141 
49852 DATA 5,208,56,173,194,207,233 
49859 DATA 0,141,162,207,173,195,207 
49866 DATA 233,1,13,162,207,176,17 
49873 DATA 173,16,208,41,247,141,16 
49880 DATA 208,173,194,207,141,6,208 
49887 DATA 76,240,194,173,194,207,141 

49894 DATA 6,208,169,8,13,16,208 
49901 DATA 141,16,208,173,196,207,141 
49908 DATA 7,208,56,173,198,207,233 
49915 DATA 0,141,164,207,173,199,207 
49922 DATA 233,1,13,164,207,176,17 
49929 DATA 173,16,208,41,239,141,16 
49936 DATA 208,173,198,207,141,8,208 
49943 DATA 76,40,195,173,198,207,141 
49950 DATA 8,208,169,16,13,16,208 
49957 DATA 141,16,208,173,200,207,141 
49964 DATA 9,208,56,173,202,207,233 
49971 DATA 0,141,166,207,173,203,207 
49978 DATA 233,1,13,166,207,176,17 
49905 DATA 173,16,208,41,223,141,16 
49992 DATA 208,173,202,207,141,10,208 
49999 DATA 76,96,195,173,202,207,141 
50006 DATA 10,208,159,32,13,16,208 
50013 DATA 141,16,208,173,204,207,141 
50020 DATA 11,208,96,173,0,220,41 
50027 DATA 16,208,17,173,216,207,208 
50034 DATA 12,173,68,3,41,4,208 
50041 DATA 5,169,1,141,216,207,173 
50048 DATA 1,220,41,16,208,17,173 
50055 DATA 218,207,208,12,173,68,3 
50062 DATA 41,8,208,5,169,1,141 
50069 DATA 218,207,96,173,216,207,208 
50076 DATA 47,24,173,224,207,105,20 
50083 DATA 141,190,207,173,225,207,105 
50090 DATA 0,141,191,207,173,1,208 
50097 DATA 141,192,207,173,68,3,41 
50104 DATA 1,240,6,32,234,196,32 
50111 DATA 35,197,173,21,208,41,251 
50118 DATA 141,21,208,76,59,196,173 
50125 DATA 21,208,9,4,141,21,208 
50132 DATA 56,173,190,207,233,65,141 
50139 DATA 62,3,173,191,207,233,1 
50146 DATA 13,62,3,176,70,173,68 
50153 DATA 3,41,1,240,9,32,234 
50160 DATA 196,32,35,197,76,45,196 
50167 DATA 173,64,3,41,6,201,6 




The ultimate 
current event. 



Edison, the kinetic 
android, leads a frus- 
trating life. 

All he wants to do 
is build his circuit 
boards and go with the 
flow. But things keep 
getting in the way. 

Nohms-a nega- 
tive influence- bug 
him constantly. They're 
harmless, but only 
from a distance. 

Flash, the light- 
ning dolt, disconnects 
everything in his path 
Which can be frustrat- 
ing after a hard day 
on the circuit. 

And the cunning 
Killerwatt is out to fry 
poor Edison's brains. 
But our hero simply 
solders on. 
. Compute's Gazette calls 
Juice! "a knockout... the graphics are 
top-notch and the play action is fun for five 
minutes as well as five months" 

Try Juice! yourself. You'll 
get a charge out of it, 



Developed by Arti Haroutunian 
Available for your Co,Tt,-nodore 64- 
and Atari Home Compuier. 



M\Cf>- 



ommodore 64/18 a'tradeiriark of Commodo/eE 
ijegis^ered tr^dematk^L^ri. Inc 





k^iLisl 



8295 South La Cienega Blvd. 
Inglewood.CA 90301 (213) 215-0529^ 



50174 


DATA 


50181 


DATA 


50188 


DATA 


50195 


DATA 


50202 


DATA 


50209 


DATA 


50216 


DATA 


50223 


DATA 


50230 


DATA 


50237 


DATA 


50244 


DATA 


50251 


DATA 


50258 


DATA 


50265 


DATA 


50272 


DATA 


50279 


DATA 


50286 


DATA 


50293 


DATA 


50300 


DATA 


50307 


DATA 


50314 


DATA 


50321 


DATA 


50328 


DATA 


50335 


DATA 


50342 


DATA 


50349 


DATA 


50356 


DATA 


50363 


DATA 


50370 


DATA 


50377 


DATA 


50384 


DATA 


50391 


DATA 


50398 


DATA 


50405 


DATA 


50412 


DATA 



208,9,32,234,196,32,68 

197,76,45,196,173,68,3 

41,4,240,6,32,234,196 

76,45,196,24,173,190,207 

105,4,141,190,207,173,191 

207,105,0,141,191,207,169 

1,141,216,207,96,169,0 

141,216,207,173,21,208,41 

251,141,21,208,96,169,0 

141,216,207,96,173,218,207 

208,47,56,173,226,20 7,233 

20, 141 , 194, 207, 173, 227, 207 

233,0,141,195,207,173,3 

208,141, 196,207, 173,68,3 

41,2,240,6,32,234,196 

32,60,197,173,21,208,41 

247,141,21,208,76,228,196 

173,21,208,9,8,141,21 

208,56,17 3,194,207,23 3,30 

141, 66, 3, 173, 195, 207, 233 

0,13,66,3,144,70,173 

68,3,41,2,240,9,32 

2 34,196,3 2,68, 197,76,214 

196,173,64,3,41,9,201 

9,208,9,32,234,196,32 

35,197,76,214,196,173,68 

3,41,8,240,6,32,234 

196,76,214,196,56,173,194 

207,2 33,4,141,194,207,17 3 

195,207,233,0,141,195,207 

169,1,141,218,207,96,169 

0,141,218,207,173,21,208 

41,247,141,21,208,96,169 

0,141,218,207,96,160,24 

169,0,153,0,212,136,208 



BASIC USERS, 

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POWER OF YOUR ATARI 




WITH THE NEW 
TIGER GRAPHICS SOFTWARE 

If you found that most graphic software was restrictive or 
not challenging enougti.grabon to Tiger Graphics and let 
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The Tiger Graphic software allows you to bridge the gap 
between font generators and graphic terminals. The fonts 
are generated automatically from the programmable 
brushes, producing memory efficient displays. You will be 
able to create rnore impressive and challenging graphics. 
What's more, no knowledge of fonts is required. 

Tiger Graphics comes complete with easy to follow 
instructions, and is loaded with the foiiowing features: 
• Display List Interrupt Editor • Scrolling Display • Pro- 
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50419 DATA 250,169,15,141,24,212,169 
50426 DATA 17,141,5,212,169,248,141 
50433 DATA 6,212,169,100,141,0,212 
50440 DATA 141,1,212,169,129,141,4 
50447 DATA 212,169,128,141,4,212,96 
50454 DATA 173,30,208,141,64,3,173 
50461 DATA 31,208,141,68,3,96,169 
50468 DATA 50,141,224,207,169,0,141 
50475 DATA 225,207,173,224,207,141,0 
50482 DATA 208,173,225,207,17 3,16,208 
50489 DATA 41,254,141,16,208,169,248 
50496 DATA 141,248,7,96,169,30,141 
50503 DATA 226,207,169,1,141,227,207 
50510 DATA 173,226,207,141,2,208,169 
50517 DATA 2,13,16,208,141,16,208 
50524 DATA 169,249,141,249,7,96,169 
50531 DATA 0,133,251,169,4,133,252 
50538 DATA 162,0,142,78,3,173,82 
50545 DATA 3,141,75,3,232,172,74 
50552 DATA 3,173,75,3,145,251,138 
50559 DATA 205,77,3,144,21,169,32 
50566 DATA 141,75,3,238,78,3,173 
50573 DATA 78,3,201,6,144,6,173 
50580 DATA 82,3,141,75,3,24,169 
50587 DATA 212,101,252,133,252,172,74 
50594 DATA 3,169,7,145,251,56,165 
50601 DATA 252,233,212,133,252,24,165 
50608 DATA 251,105,40,133,251,165,252 
50615 DATA 105,0,133,252,56,165,251 
50622 DATA 233,232,133,2,165,252,233 
50629 DATA 7,5,2,208,171,96,173 
50636 DATA 64,3,41,51,201,18,208 
50643 DATA 5,169,253,141,249,7,173 
50650 DATA 64,3,41,51,201,34,208 
50657 DATA 15,173,249,7,201,253,208 
50664 DATA 8,169,249,141,249,7,238 
50671 DATA 92,3,173,64,3,41,51 
50678 DATA 201,33,208,5,169,252,141 
50685 DATA 248,7,173,64,3,41,51 
50692 DATA 201,17,208,15,173,248,7 
50699 DATA 201,252,208,8,159,248,141 
50706 DATA 248,7,238,94,3,96,120 
50713 DATA 169,49,141,20,3,169,234 
50720 DATA 141,21,3,88,96,256 
51179 I=51200:C3=0:PRINT"{cLR]MOVING CHAR 

ACTERS" 
51186 READ A: IF A=256 THEN 51194 

51193 POKE I,A:C3=C3+A:I=I+l:GOTO 51186 

51194 IF C308822THEN PRINT"ERROR IN DATA 

STATEMENTS LINES ( 51200-51256 ) " : END 

51195 SYS51200:RETURN 

51200 DATA 120,173,14,220,41,254,141 
51207 DATA 14,220,165,1,41,251,133 
51214 DATA 1,169,208,133,252,169,48 
51221 DATA 133,254,169,0,133,251,133 
51228 DATA 253,168,162,8,177,251,145 
51235 DATA 253,200,208,249,230,252,230 
51242 DATA 254,202,208,242,165,1,9 
51249 DATA 4,133,1,173,14,220,9 
51256 DATA 1,141,14,220,88,96,256 
60000 F0RT=1T014:READ Z :NEXT: RETURN © 



COMPUTE! 

The Resource. 




Your ship has 
just come in. 



Aboard the S.S. Slipshod 
things are getting a little 
out of hand. 

It seems that the 
navigator mistook an 
iceberg for Pittsburgh 
With predictable results. 

Soon, every state- 
room on the ship will 
have an ocean view. 

But never fear, 
'cause Captain Clutch 
is here. 

He'll stoke the 
boilers to keep the 
game afloat, lead the 
passengers to the life- 
boats and rescue a ' 
few bars of gold 
along the way. 

Why, you ask, 
doesn't the coura- 
geous Captain simply 
, pocket the gold and row 
off into the sunset? 

sort Of ,hing,Tars why''''" - ' ^"^^ '^^' 

By the way, how long 
can you tread water? 



Developed by Steve Morris 
Available on diskette 
for your Commodore 64 ■ 



Xf^^ 






8295 South La Cienega Blvd. 
^ewood„CA 90301 {213)^5-05^9^ 



CHOPPEROIDS 



L, L Beh 



You're a chopperoid pilot on a tife-and-death mission: 
Navigate through the deadly asteroid field to reach a 
disintegrating satellite with nine scientists on board. 
You must transport them one at a time back through 
the asteroid field to the safety of the heliport. Written 
for the Atari, a joystick or trackball is required. This 
game is entirely in machine language for speed and 
smooth motion. 



When I saw what an improvement a small machine 
language routine made in my BASIC "Closeout" 
game (COMPUTE!, March 1983), I set out to learn 
machine language in earnest. I read all the books 
on machine language programming I could get 
my hands on, then bought an Atari Assembler 
Editor cartridge. "Chopperoids" is my first game 
written completely in machine language. 

Rescue The Scientists 

The problems involved in cleaning up chemical 
waste dumps have caused such a public outcry 
that all future chemical research has been banished 
to space. One chemical company has placed its 
research facilities on a satellite in geosynchronous 
orbit just beyond a dense asteroid field. The 
rationale was that the asteroids would provide a 
natural security system to prevent other com- 
panies from pilfering top-secret company for- 
mulas. However, an experiment on the satellite 
has gotten out of control and gallons of a potent 
solvent have leaked out. This chemical is so strong 
that it's causing the satellite itself to dissolve. Nine 
scientists are trapped on board, and you must 
take to your chopperoid and brave the asteroid 
field to save them. 

Playing The Game 

You will be creating a boot tape or boot disk for 
this game. To begin, remove BASIC or any other 

122 COMPUTi! December 1983 



cartridges from your Atari. For cassette, put the 
tape in the recorder, then turn on the computer 
while holding down the START key. When the 
Atari beeps, press play on the recorder. For disk, 
power up the disk drive, insert the boot disk, 
then turn on the computer. When the game is 
loaded, you will see a title screen for a few seconds 
while the game initializes. 

Press the SELECT key to choose one of three 
levels of play. The higher the level, the more as- 
teroids you must dodge. Press the START key to 
energize the first of your three chopperoids. It 
will appear in blue on the heliport at the bottom 
center of the screen, while your remaining chop- 
peroids stand by in the lower-left corner. Man- 
euver the chopperoid with a joystick plugged into 
port 1. You have full control in any direction. If 
you have a trackball, you may find it to be a better 
controller for this game than a joystick. 

Your goal is to navigate through the asteroid 
field to the landing pad of the satellite at the top 
left of the screen. Collision with an asteroid will 
force you to make a crash landing and switch to a 
new chopperoid. When you have landed, one of 
the stranded scientists will run out and board 
your chopperoid, which then turns red. You must 
deliver your passenger safely through the asteroid 
field to the heliport at the bottom of the screen. 
When you land at the heliport, the rescued scien- 
tist will alight from your chopperoid and run into 
the base station, leaving your chopperoid ready 
for another mission. You get 50 points for each 
scientist rescued and a 250-point bonus for rescu- 
ing all nine. 

Fortunately for you as the chopperoid pilot, 
your craft is not defenseless. Use the fire button 
to blast any asteroids that come too close to vour 
chopperoid. You will be awarded extra points for 
each disintegrated asteroid based on its size and 
speed. But you can't spend too much time blasting 



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models of Atari Computers with cassette 
or disk. When you want the information, 
there it is on your screen. 



The MicroFiler will also work with a 
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After your kids have destroyed the uni- 
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asteroids because all the while the research satel- 
lite is melting away. You have only a matter of 
minutes before it's all gone. 

When all nine scientists have been rescued, 
the game begins again with a new satellite. There's 
no rest for the weary chopperoid pilot. If you fail 
to rescue all nine scientists before the satellite 
completely melts away, or if you crash all three 
chopperoids before rescuing all the scientists, the 
game ends. If you've managed to beat the high 
score, your total will replace the current high 
value. 

The game can be restarted at any time by 
pressing the START key. The SYSTEM RESET 
key will only take you back to the title screen, so 
you must turn off the computer when you are 
finished playing. 

Program Development 

In writing Chopperoids, I am deeply indebted to 
John Palevich for his program "Shoot," which 
appeared in COMPUTE! (September 1981). This 
program provided significant insight into creating 
self-booting machine language games. 

Chopperoids makes use of Atari's Display 
List Interrupts (DLls) and Vertical Blank Interrupts 
(VBIs). The DLl is used to move and change the 
color of the asteroids, and to check for collisions. 
In level 3 there can be up to 27 asteroids on the 
screen at once in all different colors. The VBl is 
used to update the score, check the remaining 
time, create the game sounds, and change the 
speed and shape of the asteroids flying across the 
screen. During the main loop of the program, the 
joystick is read, the helicoper is moved, and the 
satellite is "melted." 

Typing In The Program 

Since Chopperoids is written entirely in machine 
language, it cannot be typed in directly like a pro- 
gram in BASIC. You must use the MLX: Machine 
Language Editor found elsewhere in this issue. 
Be sure to read and understand the MLX article 
before attempting to enter Chopperoids. 

When you run MLX, it will ask you several 
questions. Here are the proper answers for 
Chopperoids: 

starting address: 3584 

ending address: 6122 

run/init address: 3606 

You should then select the option to create a boot 
disk or boot tape. Follow the instructions provided 
by the MLX program and enter the Chopperoids 
data. MLX will prevent any typing errors. 

Chopperoids 

3584:000,021,226,013,022,014,040 
3590:169,226,141,231,002,133, 140 
3596: 014, 169, 013, 141, 232, 002, 071 
3602:133,015,169,022,133,010,244 

124 COMPUTl! December 1983 




"Chopperoids" is a fast-action iiuichiiif laii^uii;^e game for 
the Atari. 



3608:169,014,133,011,024,096,215 
3614:000,020,000,014,008,014,086 
3620:024,096,169,060,141,002,016 

3626:211,169,022,133,010,169,244 
3632:014,133,011,096,076,193,059 
3638:018,112,112,112,070,000,222 
3644:024,006,006,240,112,240, 176 
3650:112,240,112,240,112,240,098 
3656:112,240,112,240,112,240, 104 
3662:112,240,112,240,112,006,132 
3668:065,025,014,032,091,067, 122 
3674:093,032,049,057,056,051, 172 
3680:032,067,079,077,080,085,004 
3686:084,069,032,032,032,067, 162 
3692:072,079,080,080,069,242, 218 
3698:239,233,228,032,076,069,223 
3704:086,069,076,032,036,037,200 
3710:038,032,032,032,037,037,078 
3716:037,041,041,041,039,03 7, 112 
3722:040,032,032,032,033,033,084 
3 728:03 3,032,032,032,083,084,184 
3734:065,082,084,047,083,069,068 
3 740:076,069,067,084,041,041,02 2 
3 746:041,041,03 5,035,077,069,204 
3 752:078,032,076,069,070,084,065 
3 758:032,032,032,032,072,073,191 
3764:071,072,032,032,083,067,025 
3770:079,082,069,032,136,024,096 
3 776:058,088,154,248,184,074,230 
3 782:218,104,230,170,232,042, 170 
3788:070,024,138,200,090,184, 142 
3794:182,216,072,106, 166,234, 162 
3800:040,120,218,248,000,000,074 
3806 : 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000, 222 
3812:000,000,000,000,000,000, 228 
3818:000,000,000,000,000,000, 234 

3824:000,000,000,000,000,000,240 
3830 : 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000, 246 

3836:000,000,000,000,000,000,2 52 
3842:000, 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000, 002 
3848:000,000,000,000,000,000,008 
3854:000,000,000,000,000,000,014 
3860:000,000,000,000,000,000, 020 
3866 : 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000, 026 
3872:000,000,000,000,000,000,032 



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Alari 8S0. THE SOURCE, and CompuServe DemoPak are tfadsmafks 
ot Alari. Inc. Readws Diqest and ComouServe 
. Microbits IS not attiilaled wil'i AUri. Readers Digest or CompuServe 



^If!2iiisffi"! 



,-9016 






3878: 
3884! 
3890! 
3896: 

3902; 

3908i 
3914i 
3920! 
3926: 
3932: 
3938: 
3944: 
3950: 
3956: 
3962; 
3968: 
3974: 
3980: 
3986: 
3992; 
3998: 
4004: 
4010: 
4016: 
4022: 
4028: 
4034; 
4040: 
4046: 
4052: 
4058: 
4064: 

4070: 
4076: 
4082; 
4088; 
4094: 
4100: 
4106: 
4112: 
4118: 
4124: 
4130: 
4136: 
4142; 
4148; 
4154: 
4160: 
4166: 
4172: 
4178: 
4184: 
4190: 
4196; 
4202: 
4208: 
4214; 
4220: 
4226; 
4232: 
4238: 
4244; 
4250: 
4256; 
4262; 
4268: 

126 COMPUTE! December 1983 



000 


,000 


,000,000 


,000 


,000, 


000 


,000 


,000,000 


,000 


,000, 


000 


,000 


,000,000 


,000 


,028, 


062 


,247 


,095,126 


,060 


,024, 


:000 


,030 


,124,223 


,247 


,110, 


062 


,028 


,000, 240 


,222 


,123, 


255 


,239 


,118,028 


,000 


,000, 


024 


,060 


,118,108 


,056 


,000, 


000 


,000 


,056,108 


,126 


,054, 


028 


,000 


,000,016 


,056 


,108, 


060 


,024 


,000,000 


,001 


,005, 


000 


,000 


,255,005 


,000 


,000, 


001 


,010 


,024,000 


,255 


,010, 


024 


,000 


,002,015 


,008 


,000, 


254 


,015 


,008,000 


,002 


,020, 


032 


,000 


,255,020 


,040 


,000, 


003 


,025 


,016,000 


,254 


,025, 


016 


,000 


,000,021 


,004 


,014, 


153 


245 


014,000 


,000 


,010, 


004 


142 


025,245 


,014 


,000, 


000 


021 


004,012 


042 


,050, 


012 


000 


000,010 


004 


044, 


010 


050 


012,000 


000 


042, 


000, 


020 


042,062 


020 


000, 


000 


020 


008,020 


042 


062, 


020 


000 


000,084 


016, 


040, 


084 


124 


040,000 


000 


040, 


016 


040 


084,124 


040 


000, 


000 


168, 


032,048 


084 


076, 


048, 


000- 


000,080 


032, 


052, 


080, 


076, 


048,000 


000, 


168, 


032, 


113, 


152,175 


112, 


000, 


000 


080 


032,112 


153 


,175, 


112 


000 


000,031 


004 


,078, 


091 


121 


015,010 


007 


006, 


006 


031 


031,025 


025 


255, 


255 


204 


204,051 


051 


204, 


204 


255 


007,029 


049 


101, 


075 


213 


137,255 


255 


145, 


137 


213 


171,145 


137 


255, 


224 


184 


140,166 


210 


171, 


145 


255 


255,137 


213 


075, 


101 


049, 


029,007 


255 


145, 


171, 


210 


166,140 


184 


224, 


000, 


000, 


000,000 


000 


000, 


000, 


255, 


023,043 


003, 


042, 


022, 


002, 


041,021 


001, 


000, 


000, 


104, 


000,000 


104, 


000, 


000, 


000, 


072,106, 


000, 


072, 


106, 


000, 


000,042, 


000, 


008, 


024, 


008, 


004,008, 


008, 


008, 


008, 


008, 


012,008, 


016, 


008, 


008, 


008, 


008,072, 


138, 


072, 


166, 


128, 


173,012, 


208, 


041, 


014, 


240, 


008,133, 


129, 


141, 


030, 


208, 


076,171, 


016, 


173, 


008, 


208, 


041,002, 


240, 


022, 


169, 


000, 


157,190, 


014, 


157, 


220, 


014, 


189,250, 


014, 


024, 


101, 


130, 


133,130, 


141, 


030, 


208, 


076, 


171,016, 


173, 


008, 


208, 


041, 


004,240, 


022, 


169, 


000, 


157, 


200,014, 


157, 


230, 


014, 


189, 


004,015, 


024, 


101, 


130, 


133, 


130,141, 


030, 


208, 


076, 


171, 


016,173, 


008, 


208, 



038 


4274 


044 


4280: 


078 


4286: 


158 


4292: 


028 


4298: 


231 


4304: 


202 


4310: 


190 


4316; 


174 


4322: 


044 


4328: 


188 


4334: 


108 


4340: 


154 


4346: 


165 


4352: 


165 


4358: 


219 


4364: 


201 


4370: 


195 


4376: 


056 


4382; 


070 


4388: 


031 


4394: 


234 


4400: 


028 


4406: 


072 


4412: 


078 


4418: 


092 


4424: 


226 


4430: 


248 


4436: 


102 


4442: 


168 


4448: 


078 


4454: 


040 


4460: 


014 


4466: 


205 


4472: 


236 


4478: 


109 


4484: 


199 


4490: 


137 


4496: 


066 


4502: 


050 


4508; 


093 


4514: 


084 


4520: 


108 


4526; 


111 


4532: 


046 


4538: 


162 


4544: 


145 


4550; 


016 


4556: 


064 


4562: 


232 


4568: 


142 


4574: 


148 


4580: 


144 


4586: 


060 


4592: 


003 


4598: 


018 


4604: 


127 


4610: 


043 


4616: 


073 


4622; 


033 


4628: 


026 


4634; 


064 


4640; 


144 


4646: 


251 


4652; 


170 


4658: 


056 


4664: 



:041 


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,169 


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:189 


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,101 


,130, 


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,208 


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125 


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141 


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169, 


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198, 


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244, 


230,139, 


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153, 


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014, 


189, 


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153, 


004, 



143 

208 

151 

046 

113 

160 

159 

100 

054 

220 

194 

202 

178 

248 

229 

248 

250 

045 

088 

029 

167 

033 

171 

054 

188 

227 

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054 

149 

090 

241 

029 

142 
038 
022 
189 
124 
020 
229 
172 
004 
063 
080 
032 
144 
055 
085 
105 
224 
115 
148 
078 
246 
203 
006 
■104 
163 
181 
132 
234 
145 
175 
068 
059 
215 
248 



ATARI COMPUTER OWNERS: 



Pick the positively 

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printer-port peripheral 

package, from 




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built a parallel printer-port right into its new AT88 PD model. Now you can add a quality disk drive 

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The AT88 SI PD'" disk drive operates in both single density (88K bytes formatted) and double 

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for more information 



^w9%#B 



PEFQOM QATA 

CORPORATION 



Expanding Your Peripheral Vision 

DRIVES ' NETWORKS * SOFTWARE 

11220 Pagemill Road. Dallas, Texas 75243 (214) 340-5800 
1-800-527-1222 



Atari is a reoistered trademark o( Atari. Inc. 



AT83 SI PD is a trademark of Percom Data Corporation. 
Prices subject lo cliange wittiout notice. 



COPYRIGHT PERCOM DATA CORPORATION 19B3. 



4670:015 


,230,139 


,076 


,142 


,018 


,170 


5066:019,024,105,002 


,197,019 


,056 


4676:165 


, 131,201 


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5072:208,252,162,060 


, 169,000 


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4682:169 


,000,133 


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5078:157,255,023,202 


,208,250 


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4688:076 


,142,018 


,164 


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,192 


,044 


5084:169,081,141,079 


,024,162 


, 108 


4694:009 


,240,075 


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, 102 


5090:006,189,117,014 


,032,167 


, 239 


4700:185 


,240,014 


,208 


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, 210 


5096:018,009,064,157 


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5108:009,000,157,053 


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, 170,152 


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5120:192,157,059,024 


,189,129 


, 238 


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,010,010 


,168 


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,009,000 


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5132:157,066,024,189 


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5138:032,167,018,009 


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,209 


4748:208 


,244,230 


,140 


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,156 


5144:072,024,189,147 


,014,032 


,246 


4754:018 


189,072 


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,153 


,240 


,065 


5150:167,018,009,064 


,157,007 


,196 


4760:014 


,189,073 


,015 


,153 


,014 


,098 


5156:024,189, 153,014 


,032,167 


, 103 


4766:015 


230,140 


,076 


,142 


,018 


011 


5162:018,009,000,157 


,027,024 


,021 


4772:169, 


000,133 


,140 


,133 


,139 


110 


5168:202,208,176,173 


,123,014 


,176 


4778:133 


138,169 


255 


133 


,148 


122 


5174:032,167,018,009 


,192,141 


, 101 


4784:133, 


128,141 


030 


208 


076, 


124 


5180:053,024,169,001 


,133,133 


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228,173 


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171 


5186:169,008, 141,031 


,208,173 


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201,010 


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247 


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075 


5192:031,208,201,005 


,208,051 


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4802:010, 


170,096, 


132, 


147 


168, 


149 


5198:173,031,208,201 


,005,240 


, 168 


4808:138, 


072,152, 


042, 


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176 


5204:249, 166,131,232 


,224,003 


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041,003, 


170, 


152 


041, 


143 


5210:240,019,134,131 


,173,079 


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4820:159, 


029,246, 


254, 


168, 


104, 


148 


5216:024,024,105,001 


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4826:170, 


152,164, 


147, 


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169, 


092 


5222:141,079,024,142 


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141,001, 


210, 


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5228:076,036,020,169 


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141,005, 


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5234:131, 169,017,141 


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5240:141,002,208, 141 


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112, 


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112 


5246:076,036,020,201 


006,208 


161 


4856:210, 


162,128, 


169, 


000 


157, 


050 


5252:194,173,031,208 


201,006, 


177 


4862:255, 


023,157, 


255, 


025 


157, 


102 


5258:240,249, 162,006 


169,000, 


196 


4868:127, 


026,157, 


255, 


026 


157, 


240 


5264:157,033,024,189 


135,014, 


184 


4874:127, 


027,157, 


127, 


025, 


202, 


163 


5270:032, 167,018,009, 


192,157, 


213 


4880:208, 


235,169, 


000, 


162, 


008, 


030 


5276:047,024,189,141 


014,032, 


091 


4886:157, 


255,207, 


202, 


208, 


250, 


021 


5282:167,018,009,192 


157,053, 


246 


4892:169, 


028,141, 


244, 


002, 


141, 


241 


5288:024,202,208,226, 


169,016, 


245 


4898:009, 


212,169, 


046, 


141, 


047, 


146 


5294:141,039,024,169, 


217,141, 


137 


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141, 


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212, 


083 


5300:059,024,169,004, 


133,144, 


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5306:169,000,133,129, 


133,132, 


114 


4916:016, 


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002, 


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190 


5312:133,130,133,145, 


133,138, 


236 


4922:002, 


141,027, 


208, 


169, 


000, 


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5318:133,139,133,140, 


162,090, 


227 


4928:133, 


134, 133, 


131, 


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142, 


102 


5324:157,189,014,202, 


208,250, 


200 


4934:169, 


001,133, 


133, 


169, 


064, 


227 


5330:169,010,133, 153, 


169,003, 


079 


4940:141, 


014,212, 


169, 


014, 


141, 


255 


5336:133,151,133,146, 


162,006, 


179 


4946:049, 


002,169, 


025, 


141, 


048, 


004 


5342:189,093,014,032, 


167,018, 


223 


4952:002, 


169,016, 


141, 


001, 


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163 


5348:009, 128, 157,255, 


023,189, 


221 


4958:169, 


067,141, 


000, 


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162, 


123 


5354:099,014,032,167, 


018,009, 


061 


4964:016, 


160,245, 


169, 


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216 


5360:128, 157,019,024, 


189,105, 


094 


4970:092, 


228,162, 


000, 


189, 


000, 


009 


5366:014,032,167,018, 


009,128, 


102 


4976:224, 


157,000, 


028, 


232, 


208, 


193 


5372:157,039,024,202, 


208,220, 


078 


4982:247, 


189,000, 


225, 


157, 


000, 


168 


5378:076,118,022, 169, 


000,162, 


037 


4988:029, 


232,208, 


247, 


189, 


208, 


213 


5384:128,157,255,025, 


202,208, 


215 


4994:015, 


157,008, 


028, 


232, 


224, 


026 


5390:250,133,133,162, 


105,134, 


163 


5000:072, 


208,245, 


169, 


192, 


141, 


139 


5396:142, 160,000,185, 


112,015, 


122 


5006:014, 


212,169, 


216, 


141, 


196, 


066 


5402:157,000,026,232, 


200,192, 


065 


5012:002, 


169,056, 


141, 


197, 


002, 


203 


5408:008,208,244,169, 


100,133, 


126 


5018:169, 


024,141, 


198, 


002, 


169, 


089 


5414:143,141,000,208, 


173,031, 


222 


5024:010, 


141,199, 


002, 


169, 


152, 


065 


5420:208,201,006,208, 


010,173, 


082 


5030:141, 


192,002, 


162, 


019, 


189, 


103 


5426:031,208,201,006, 


240,249, 


217 


5036:056, 


014,032, 


167, 


018, 


009, 


212 


5432:076,137,022,165, 


148,240, 


076 


5042:000, 


157,039, 


024, 


202, 


208, 


040 


5438:235,169,000,133, 


148,166, 


145 


5048:242, 


162,012, 


189, 


075, 


014, 


110 


5444:151,224,004,208, 


023,202, 


112 


5054:032, 


167,018, 


009, 


192, 


157, 


253 


5450:134,151,166,153, 


189,023, 


122 


5060:004, 


024,202, 


208, 


242, 


165, 


017 


5456:016,170,169,000, 


157,255, 


079 


128 COMPUTE! 


December 1983 
















m 






^^^.. 




.^^ 



ia>^:,t>^ 









©1983 MicHcaeHAPBiclMAGE. Imc. Atari 400(800 acs registered trademarks of Atan. Inc. 



5462; 
5468- 
5474: 
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5486: 

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023 

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^u" 

1°'i> 



fit* 



tarn IMh 



Children's 
Party 
Games 



Siti 



FUN for ALL Ages 



BUILD YOUR BODY 



ROUGH DAY AT THE OFFJCE 



L).t;.:., ;-.■!, JujiintintJn': 
mJi::;[...i.:iuii;.i:rifl[iuu[iDri 
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• * * 00 Two Push uM • ■ 



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ATAHl tlK DUk 

AOM U ea poclag* and haru 

PAHLTHFT lOFTWARE 

P.O. bat WH 

UMmnt, HI MTIl Ha_ 




A1AHIUK aqJC Uf HAM 11 iW|K>«t»p Huf PfrrvoM^ 

SUBTLY (Orr iorrwiM 
fO Bdi xn 

Mmilinl, Kl K'tt H(*ill IHIMflli MM 4S UM« Ul 



57 32:146,166, 146,208,004,162, 164 
5738:007, 134, 146, 189, 032 , 016, 118 
5744:133, 152,165,147,240,015, 196 
5750:165, 145,041,001,240,004,202 
57 56:198,145,198,145,230,145,161 
5762:032,092,023,169,001,133,068 
5768:147,076,012,021,169,000,049 
5774:133,152,165,133,208,019,184 
5780:166,144,202,240,014,169,059 
5786:000,157,059,024, 134,144, 160 
5792:134,13 3,133,129,076,231, 228 
5798:020,162,000,142,001,210, 189 
5804:142,003,210,141,005,210, 115 

5810:189,014,024,041,031,221,186 
5816:034,024,240,005,176,008,159 
5822:076,171,022,232,224,006,153 
5828:208,236,076,195,019,162,068 
5834:006,189,033,024,041,031,014 
5840:009,064,157,013,024,202, 165 
5846:208,243,076,195,019,166,097 
5852:142,232,224,105,144,013,056 
5858:169, 105,141,000,208,169, 250 
5864:152, 141, 192, 00 2, 076, 110, 137 
5870:022, 134,142,230,145,165,052 
5876:145,201,012,208,002,169,213 
5882:000,13 3,145,010,010,010,046 
5888:168,169,008,13 3,147,185,042 
5894:112,015,157,000,026,232,036 
5900:200,198, 147,208,244,032,017 
5906:117,023,076,189,022,173, 106 
5912:192,002,201,152,208,012,023 
5918:169,066,133,150,032,142,210 
5924:023,169,072,141,192,002,123 
5930:096,173,192,002,201,072,010 
5936:240,006,169,152,141,192, 180 
5942:002,096,169,136,133,137, 215 
5948:032,142,023,165,130,024,064 
5954:105,050,133,130,173,059, 204 
5960:024,056,233,001,009,080, 219 
5966:141,059,024,056,233,001,080 
5972:009,208,201,223,208,216, 125 
5978:169,217,141,059,024, 169,101 
5984:152,141,192,002,133,133,081 
5990:169,250,133,130,165,020,201 
5996:024,105,2 54,197,020,208,148 
6002:252,230,144,104,104,076,000 
6008:130,020,169,008,133,147,009 
6014:166,142,165,145,010,010, 2 52 
6020:010,168,185,112,015,157,011 
6026:000,026,232,200,198, 147, 173 
6032:208,244,096,166,146,202, 182 
6038:134,146,208,004, 162,007,043 
6044:134,146,189,039,016,133,045 
6050:152,165,148,240,252,169,008 
6056:000,13 3,148,096,160,004, 197 
6062:132,146,166,146,202,208, 150 
6068:002,162,004,134,146,189,049 
6074:046,016,133,152,169,004, 194 
6080:133,147,166,142,185,051, 248 
6086:016,157,131,025,232,200,191 
6092:198,147,208,244,192,016,185 
6098:208,002,160,000,166, 150,128 
6104:142,006,208,232,142,005,183 
6110:208,228,137,240,018,134, 163 
6116:150,165,020,024,105,002, 182 
6122:197,020,208,252,169,000,056 



130 COMPUTE! December 1983 



REACH OUT AND 
^EKS^ CONQUER SOMEONE. 

r>^ X^ Introducing FORTRESS.™ A classic strategy game of 

I \i^^. \ power and conquest On disk for the APPLE® & ATARI.® 

I Like such classics as chess and go. FORTRESS (»34.95) is beautifully simple: 

Occupy a place, fortify it, lay siege to your opponent's fortresses, and dominate (he 

/' countryslde-The rules are few: the 

possible moves, nearly limitless. /' ^ 

}. FORTRESS is very fast - each game ' 

lasts less than ten minutes. 

This two-player game also con- 
tains a great solitaire scenario. Five 
different computer opponents are 
provided, each endowed with a unique 
style of play. For example, there is 
the ruthlessly aggressive Genghis 
Khan and Lord Maginot. the master 
of defense 

The crowning glory is that the 
computer opponents not only play, 

they \eam and improve as .they play uHtrc at 

you. The betteryou get the better fHlfiVJ^OF ii Mire i "'V/^ " 

they get! Which brings forth a most \^ J 

fascinating event: 

ANNOUNCING THE $1,000 SSI FORTRESS TOURNAMENT 

Since you teach the computer opponents every time you play them, they are really an extension of yourself. SSI proudly 
announces a veiy different kind of strategy game tournament: computer versus computer! Send us the disk of your best trained 
computer player and we'll match it against other entries. The winner [the human, not his disk!) of this battle of electronic wits 
will win *1,000! Complete details in each FORTRESS box. 

So get a head start on the competition and head on down to your nearest computer/software or game dealer today. 

FX>RTRESS. a game destined to be a classic, awaits you. !.; 



IIRaa/c/'fi 



r 


1 




■ ' h ; h 1 


\ 




B 


ilJltilAl: 


H 


Iftrrfi r \ 




H 


■■.%^: 




1 h 


VJi^i r. 




1 


: rlM ...J...'. 




1 ?!!ia«.nr« c«nt. n/"W 





On disk for the Apple* II with Applesofl 
ROM Card. Apple 1) Plus. Ik. and Itl. 




ASso on disk for Uic 40K Awn* 
'100/800/1200 with nA.SIC Carlrldae. 



fmirm 



Applt Is a rcglMercd trademark or Apple Computer. Inc 



Que^lfffleatitgL 



GAMES FROM SSI 



Alarl is d rqiislered trademark uf Alarl. 




FINALLY, A VIDEO 
PINBALL GAME FOR 
THE PINBALL FAN! 

On disk for the APPLE® & ATARI.® 



^>ft^0'0^ 




E^^Wz/v/E. 



QUEEN OF HEARTS'" (»34.95) is 
dedicated to all you pinball players 
out there. Just look at what it offers: 

> Two playfields with five flippers. 

I A realistic •TILT" feature. 

' Four sequences: Hit the right tar- 
gets in the right order and you'll get 
extra balls and rack up a huge score. 
• Sound effects to complete the 
illusion of a real pinball game. 

So if you're itching for a pinball 
game, don't think pinball arcade 
Think computer/software or game 
store instead, 'cause that's where you 
can get hold of QUEEN OF HEARTS. 

See above for Applc^ speclllcallons. On disk Tor 
the 43K Alaii* 400/800/1200 wLth 2 Jo>'!itkks. 



'W ^A 



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I n n n o 
I U U U u 



If there are no convenient stores nearyou, VISA& Mastercard 
holders can order direct by calling 800-227-1617, ext 335 
(toU free). In California, call 800-772-3545, ext. 335. To order by 



mall, send your check to: Strategic Simulations Inc < 

Road. Bldg. A-200, Mountain View, CA 94043. (Callfi 

dents, add 6.5% sales tax) Please specify computer format 



WRITE FOR A FREE COLOR CATALOG OF ALL OUR GAMES. 





Frank Elsesser 



Here's n TI-99 version of the classic dungeon adventure 
game, complete with perfidious monsters, cunning 
thieves, and dangerous trapdoors. The game also in- 
cludes some pretty eerie sound effects. 



It you're brave enough, this game will take you 
into a two-level, 128-chamber dungeon on a quest 
for treasure. You may come out rich, or you may 
not come out at all. Finding your way through the 
passages might seem simple enough if you were 
alone in the dungeon, but there are monsters 
hiding in some of the chambers. In others, thieves 
will attempt to steal part of your hard-won gold. 
Some chambers have trap doors in the floor which 
drop you back to a lower level or send you plum- 
meting into deep pits. 

Since the game is quite long, it is divided into 
two segments. The first part (Program 1) gives 
detailed instructions on playing, and the second 
part (Program 2) is the game itself. You should 
first type in Program 1 and, after checking for 
errors, SAVE it to tape. Don't rewind the tape. 
Next, type in Program 2. After correcting any 
typing errors, SAVE Program 2 immediately after 
Program 1 on the same tape. When you load and 
run Program 1, it will give you instructions on 
loading the second part. 

If you do not want to type in the programs, 
send a blank cassette, a self-addressed stamped 
mailer, and $3 to: .- 

Frivik Elsesser 

1307 Dow^leis Drive 

Sterling, IL 61S01 

132 COMPUH! December l^aa 



Program 1: Game instructions 



100 
1 10 
120 
130 
140 
150 



CALL SCREEN(2) 

CALL CLEAR 

FOR C=l TD 8 

CALL COLOR (C, 16, 

NEXT C 

PRINT "C? SPACES>GET 



) 



THE GOLD" 



160 PRINT "INSTRUCTIONS. 



170 

180 
170 
200 
210 



230 

240 
250 
260 
270 



280 



290 

300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 



;70 



390 



400 



410 

420 

430 
440 



1 1 



FOR J=l TO 

READ A, B, C 

CALL SOUND < A, B, 0, C, 0J 

NEXT J 

DATA 125,262,131,125, 

0, 156, 131, 250, 131, 147, 250, 

31 , 100, 262, 131 

DATA 100,294,123,100,311,1 



?94, 1 



!94, 131 , 100. 



131,0,262, 3,523, 



500 



GET THE GOLD IS AN 
"GAME, WHERE THE PL 
"ANSWER CERTAIN QUE 



0, 392, 131 , 100, 

31 ,200, 131, 262 

CALL SOUND ( 200 

3) 

FOR DELAY=1 TO 

NEXT DELAY 

CALL CLEAR 

PRINT 

TURE" 

MUST" 

S AS" 

PRINT "HE WANDERS THROUGH 

: "CHAMBERS AND TUNNELS OF 

TWO-LEVEL MAZE."::;::: 

PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CO 

E . . . " : : 

CALL KEY(0,K,S) 

IF S=0 THEN 300 

CALL CLEAR 

PRINT "THE PROGRAM" 

PRINT " " 

PRINT 

PRINT "YOU ARE GIVEN 1,000 
"PIECES, AND THEN TRANSP 
"TO THE LOWER LEVEL OF A 



31, 25 
262, 1 

31 , 10 
311,1 



ADVEN 


AYER 


STION 


THE": 


A " : ; " 


NTINU 



GOLD 

ORTED 

128- 



PRINT "CHAMBER, TWO-LEVEL DUN6E 

ON": "(64 CHAMBERS PER LEVEL).":; 
180 PRINT "YOUR GOAL IS TO ESCAPE W 

ITH":"AS MUCH GOLD AS POSSIBLE. 

":"60LD PIECES ARE ACQUIRED BY": 
NT "ANSWERING THE QUESTION A 
D":"BY THE MONSTERS THAT INH 
T" : "THE DUNGEON. " : : 
NT "EACH TIME AN ANSWER IS": 
RRECT, GOLD IS GIVEN AS A":" 
ARD. IF THE ANSWER IS": 
NT "INCORRECT, THEN GOLD IS" 
AKEN AWAY. " : : 
NT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CQNTINU 



PRI 
SKE 
ABI 
PRI 
"CO 
REW 
PRI 
: "T 
PRI 
E. . 
CAL 
IF 



L KEY (0, K, S> 
S=0 THEN 430 




450 CALL CLEAR PrograiTi 2: Get The Goid 

460 PRINT '-THE QUESTION|' 100 ^ALL CLEAR 

470 PRINT " " jjQ PQPj CC=1 TO 3 

480 PRINT i20 CALL COLOR ( CC , 5, 1 1 ) 

490 PRINT "THE MONSTERS WILL ASK YD 130 NEXT CC 

U"::"ONE SPECIAL QUESTION AS YO 140 CALL SCREEN ( 1 1 ) 

U":: "TRAVEL THROUBH THE DUNGEON 160 FOR DDD=1 TO 500 

" : : : 170 NEXT DDD 

500 PRINT "WHERE IS THE GQLD?":::"H ISO CALL CLEAR 

INT; WHERE WOULD YOU PUT " : : " 1 , 1 90 PRINT "SET THE GOLD !"::::: i ::: = 

00 SOLD PIECES IF YOU":: ^°^ PRINT "AN ENCHANTED ADVENTURE":: 

510 PRINT "WERE CARRYING THEM?":::: ^^° ^°^ ^"^ "^^ ^ 

520 CALL^KEY(0 U^s/" ™^^^^^---" 230 CA^L SOUND < I A , 1 3 1 , O , 2.2 , 3 . 523 , 3 , 

O^B UHUL mtY IKi, I^^Si) 240 CALL SOUND ( I A, 1 47, O , 294 , 3, 587, 3) 

530 IF S-0 THEN 520 250 CALL SOUND ( I A , 1 3 1 , O , 3 1 1 , 3 , 622 , 3 ) 

540 CALL CLEAR 260 CALL SOUND ( I A, 156 , O , 3 1 1 , 3 , 622, 3 ) 

550 PRINT "MOVES" 270 CALL SOUND ( I A , 1 3 1 , O , 294 , 3 , 587 , 3 ) 

560 PRINT " " 280 CALL SOUND ( I A , 1 56, O , 294 , 3 , 587 , 3 ) 

570 PRINT 290 CALL SOUND ( I A*2 , 1 3 1 , O , 262 , 3 , 523 , 3 ) 

580 PRINT "AS YOU MOVE THROUGH THE" 300 CALL BOUND ( I A , 1 56, O, 262, 3) 

: "DUNGEON YOU WILL ENCOUNTER":" 310 CALL SOUND < I A , 1 23, O, 294, 3) 

MONSTERS, THIEVES, EMPTY"; 320 CALL SOUND ( I A, 1 31 , O , 31 1 , 3) 

590 PRINT "CHAMBERS, TRAP DOORS, se330 CALL SOUND ( I A, 1 56, O , 392, 3 ) 

CRET":"DOORS LEADING INTO NORTH ^40 CALL SOUND ( I A, 1 3 1 , O , 294 , 3 ) 

-"•"SOUTH AND EAST-WEST TUNNELS '^^'^ ^^'-'- SOUND (I A , 156 , O , 3 1 1 , 3 > 
^ . bUUIH ANU LAbl Wtt.1 lUNNtLt. ^^^ ^^^^ SOUND < I A « 2 , 1 3 1 , , 262 , 3 ) 

' ■ 370 NEXT J 

600 PRINT "AND SUPER KEYS.":: "TO MO 33^ cALL CLEAR 

VE, ENTER THE LETTER": "IN PAREN 390 cALL SCREEN(14) 

THESES FOR THE " : " DES I RED MOVE O 400 FOR CC=1 TO S 

R ACTION:":: 410 CALL COLOR ( CC, 1 6, 1 4 ) 

610 PRINT "1- CN)0RTH:3 SPACES>2- ( 420 NEXT CC 

E)AST":"3- (S)DUTHf3 SPACES>4- 430 DIM P(9,9,2) 

<W)EST":"5- (Q)UIT CENDS GAME:" *^0 PRINT "YOU WILL BE TAKEN TO"5i 

450 PRINT "THE DUNGEON":: 

460 FOR DELAY=1 TO 500 

470 NEXT DELAY 

480 CALL CLEAR 

490 RANDOMIZE 

630 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINU 500 MA=0 

E. . . " 510 CA = 

640 PRINT 520 G=1000 

650 CALL KEYC0,K,S) 530 Ml=l 

660 IF S = THEN 650 ^^^ *^^^ 



620 print "6- (g)old egives gold cd 
unt:":"7- <U)p cused at STAIRW 
ays:" : : 



670 CALL CLEAR 

680 PRINT "GAME RATING" 

690 PRINT " 



550 PRINT "WHO ART THDU?' 

560 INPUT A« 

610 CALL CLEAR 

620 GOSUB 860 



700 PRINT ^^Q CALL SCREEN(7) 

710 PRINT "AFTER YOU COMPLETE THE G f^^Q pOR CC=1 TO 8 

AME,":"A GAME RATING IS DISPLAY 550 CALL COLOR < CC . 16 . 7 ) 

ED •■:"ALONG WITH THE NUMBER OF" 660 NEXT CC 

670 PRINT "YOU CARRY lOOO GOLD PIECES 

720 PRINT "GOLD PIECES ACQUIRED AND WITH YOU":; 

": "NUMBER OF TURNS IT TOOK YOU" J^O GOSUB 860 60 . . . 

:"TO FIND YOUR WAY OUT.":: „,. ' 

730 PRINT "THE RATING WILL BE SOMEW -^qq gOSUB 860 

HERE" : "BETWEEN -500 AND +1000. ym GOSUB 900 

THE": "HIGHER THE NUMBER, THE": 720 CALL CLEAR 

740 PRINT "BETTER THE RATING. A":" 730 CALL SCREEN<2) 

NEGATIVE NUMBER INDICATES A":"P 740 FOR CC=1 TO 8 

DOR RATING. ":::: "GOOD LUCK!!!!! 750 CALL COLOR (CC, 16 , 2 > 

"... 760 NEXT CC 

750 PRINT "PRESS ENTER 770 PRINT "YOU HAVE ARRIVED AT . . . 



760 CALL KEY<0,K,S) 
770 IF S=0 THEN 760 



780 PRINT "THE DUNGEON . . BOTTOM LEV 

EL":; 
790 PRINT "YOU WILL COME ACROSS 
780 CALL CLEAR ^.g spftcES>MONBTERS" ; : 

790 PRINT "TO PLAY:":: "{4 SPACES3TY goQ print "THIEVES, AND GOLD. . . BUT 
PE NEW, THEN OLD CS 1 ";:::::::: : WATCH"j: 

800 FOR DELAY=1 TO 1000 810 PRINT "YOUR STEP 

810 NEXT DELAY . "si 

December 1983 COMPUTE! 133 



820 PRINT "TRAP DOORS CfiN BE COSTLY. 



830 


FOR AB=1 TO 2000 


840 


NEXT AB 


B50 


BOTD 1840 


860 


REM 


870 


FDR Z2=l TO 400 


sao 


NEXT Z2 


890 


RETURN 


900 


REM 


910 


FOR X=l TO 8 


920 


FOR Y=l TO 8 


930 


FOR Z=l TO 2 


940 


P (X, Y, Z) =INT <RND»7) +1 


950 


NEXT Z 


960 


NEXT Y 


970 


NEXT X 


980 


REM 


990 


H=INT CRND«3) +1 


1000 


FOR A=l TO 2 


1010 


FOR N=l TO H 


1020 


X=1NT (RND«8) +1 


1030 


Y=INT (RNDtS) +1 


1040 


P<X, Y, A)=8 


1050 


NEXT N 


1060 


NEXT ft 


1070 


S=INT (RND»4) +2 


loao 


FOR A=l TO 2 


1090 


FDR N=l TO S 


1 lOO 


X=INT<RND»8) +1 


1110 


Y=INT (RNDtS) +1 


1 120 


P (X, Y, A)=9 


1130 


NEXT N 


1 140 


NEXT A 


1150 


RETURN ' 


1160 


REM 


1170 


L1=L1-1 


1 ISO 


PRINT "YOU WALK UP T 



STAIRWAY. 

1190 N=l 

1200 X=INT(RND«5) 

1210 IF X=2 THEN 1270 

1220 CALL SOUND {5, -3, 5> 

1230 CALL SOUND «30, -7,20) 

1240 CALL SOUND <500. -7, 30) 

1250 N=N+1 

1260 IF N=15 THEN 1290 ELSE I2O0 

1270 CALL SOUND (60, -7, 20) 

1280 GOTO 1240 

1290 REM 

1300 GOSUB 860 

1310 CALL SCREENfll) 

1320 FOR CC=1 TO 8 

1330 CALL COLOR <CC, 5, 1 1 ) 

1340 NEXT CC 

1350 PRINT "YOU PUT THE SUPER KEY INT 

THE LOCK " 



1360 


GOSUB 860 






1370 


PRINT "THE DOOR 


IB 


OPEN" ; ; 


1380 


CALL 


SOUND (125, 


131 , 


o> 


1390 


CALL 


SOUND (125, 


147, 


o> 


1400 


CALL 


SOUND (500, 


165, 


0) 


1410 


CALL 


SOUND (250, 


165, 


0) 


1420 


CALL 


SOUND (250, 


165, 


O) 


1430 


CALL 


S0UND(250, 


147, 


0) 


1440 


CALL 


SOUND (250, 


165, 


O) 


1450 


CALL 


SOUND (750, 


175, 


O) 


1460 


CALL 


SOUND (500, 


165, 


0) 


1470 


FDR A=0 TO 30 STEP 


5 


1480 


CALL 


SOUND (-99, 


698, 


A, 1924, A) 


1490 


NEXT 


A 






1500 


FDR A=0 TO 30 STEP 


5 


1510 


CALL 


SOUND (-99, 


554, 


A, 1527, A> 



1520 NEXT A 

1530 GOSUB S60 

1540 IF L1=0 THEN 1620 

1550 MA=0 

1560 K=0 

1570 K4=INT (RND«4) +4 

1580 CB=CA+K4 

1590 PRINT "YOU ARE AT . . . THE UPPE 

R LEVEL" s : 

1600 GOSUB 860 

1610 GOTO 1900 

1620 PRINT "YOU FOUND YOUR WAY . . . 



1630 
1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 
1680 
1690 
1700 
1710 



1720 



1730 

1740 
1750 
1760 
1770 
1780 
1790 

1800 
1810 
1820 



1830 
1840 
1850 
I860 
1870 
1880 
1890 
1900 
1910 
1920 
1930 

1940 
1950 
1960 



PRINT "OUT OF THE DUNGEON":: 
CALL SOUND ( lOOO, 262,2, 330.2, 392, 
2) 

CALL SOUND ( lOOO, 349,2, 392,2, 440, 
2) 

PRINT "YOU HAVE ACQUIRED ";G;" G 
OLD PIECES. ■■ : : 
FOR J=l TO 11 
READ MMM,NNN,0OO 
CALL SOUND (MMM, NNN, 0,000,0) 
NEXT J 

DATA 125,262,131,125,294,131,250 
, 156, 131 , 250, 131 , 147, 250, 262, 131 
, lOO, 262, 131 

DATA 100,294,123,100,311,131,100 
,392, 131, 100,294, 131, 100,311, 131 
,125,262, 131,200, 13 1,262 
CALL SOUND (200, 131 , O, 262. 3,523, 3 
) 

GOSUB 1760 
GOTO 2690 
GG=G+100 

R=INT ( <6G*CA-7000+l > /Ml ) 
PRINT 

PRINT "YOUR RATING IS ";R 
PRINT 

IF G<=0 THEN 53BO 
PRINT "IT TOOK YOU ";M1;" 
{lO SPACES>TURNS TO FIND THE WAY 
OUT" : : 
RETURN 
REM 

C=INT <RNDt8) +1 
D=INT (RNDtB) +1 
P <C, D,2) = l 
Ll=2 

K4=INT CRND«4) +4 
CALL CLEAR 
A = P <C, D,L1 ) 
GOSUB S60 

ON A GOSUB 2960,3010.3060,3060,3 
140, 3730, 380 0, 3860, 4170 
PRINT 

IF 6<=0 THEN 2570 
PRINT A*;" WHAT IS YOUR ACTION? 



1970 PRINT 

1980 PRINT "(N)ORTH, (SJOUTH, <E)AST, 

{3 SPACES> (W) EST, (U)P, <G)OLD, 

ORC4 SPACES> (Q) UIT": : 

1990 CALL KEY(0,K,S) 

2000 IF S=0 THEN 1990 

2010 CALL CLEAR 

2O20 M1=M1+1 

2030 IF M1>=140/L1 THEN 

2040 IF K=78 THEN 2150 

2O50 IF K=69 THEN 2200 

2060 IF K=83 THEN 2250 

2070 IF K=S7 THEN 2300 

2080 IF K=85 THEN 2350 

2090 IF K=71 THEN 2410 



5270 



134 COMPUTE! Decefnber1983 



2100 IF K=ai THEN 2120 2750 CALL CLEAR 

2110 GOTO 1960 2760 GOTO 450 

2120 END 2770 END 

2130 PRINT 27BO CALL CLEAR 

2140 GOTO 1<?40 2790 PRINT "YDU ARE AT THE NORTH WALL 

2150 REM '■ : : 

2160 IF A=7 THEN 2450 2800 CALL SOUND < -500 , 400 , 2 , -4 , 2 ) 

2170 IF <D-1)=0 THEN 2780 2B10 PRINT "YOU CANNOT PASS THROUGH": 

21SO D=D-1 : 

2190 GOTO 1900 2820 PRINT "TRY ANOTHER DIRECTION.":: 

2200 REM 2830 GOTO 1940 

2210 IF A=6 THEN 2510 2840 CALL CLEAR 

2220 IF CC+1)=9 THEN 2840 2850 PRINT "YOU ARE AT THE EAST WALL" 

2230 C = C+1 : : 

2240 GOTO 1900 2860 CALL SOUND ( -500 , 400 , 2 , -4 , 2 ) 

2250 REM 2870 GOTO 2810 

2260 IF A=7 THEN 2450 2880 CALL CLEAR 

2270 IF (D+i)=9 THEN 2880 2890 PRINT "YOU ARE AT THE SOUTH WALL 

2280 D=D+1 ":; 

2290 GOTO 1900 2900 CALL SOUND ( -SOO , 400 , 2 , -4 , 2 ) 

2300 REM 2910 GOTO 2810 

2310 IF A = 6 THEN 2510 Z'^ZO CALL CLEAR 

2320 IF <C-1)=0 THEN 2920 2930 PRINT "YOU ARE AT THE WEST WALL" 

2330 C=C-1 " 

2340 GOTO 1900 2940 CALL SOUND ( -500 , 400 , 2 , -4 , 2 ) 

2350 CALL CLEAR 2950 GOTO 2810 

2360 IF A< >9 THEN 2380 2960 REM 

2370 IF K>-1 THEN 1160 2970 PRINT 

2380 PRINT "YOU ARE NOT AT A STAIRWAY 2980 PRINT "YOU ARE IN A 



2390 60SUB 860 2990 PRINT " . . . . EMPTY CHAMBER":: 

2400 REM 3000 RETURN 

2410 REM 3010 REM 

2420 CALL CLEAR 3020 PRINT 

2430 PRINT "YOU HAVE ";G;" GOLD PIECE 3030 PRINT "YOU ARE IN A SMQKEY . , . 

S."£: •":: 

2440 GOTO 1940 3040 PRINT " EMPTY CHAM 

2450 REM BER" : : 

2460 PRINT 3050 RETURN 

2470 CALL CLEAR 3060 CALL CLEAR 

2480 PRINT "YOU ARE IN AN EAST-WEST 3070 GOSUB 5220 

{5 SPACES>TUNNEL": : 3080 RANDOMIZE 

2490 PRINT "YOU CAN ONLY GD EAST OR W 3090 M4= I NT ( RND« 1 ) 

EST' 



3100 GOSUB 4290 



2500 GOTO 1940 3110 ON M4 GOSUB 44 10,4520,4720,4810, 

2510 REM 4410,4720,4520,4520,4410,4810 

2520 PRINT 3120 PRINT 

2530 CALL CLEAR 3130 RETURN 

2540 PRINT "YDU ARE IN A NORTH-SOUTH 3140 CALL CLEAR 

<4 SPACESJTUNNEL" : : 3150 PRINT "THERE'S A THIEF IN THIS R 

2550 PRINT "YOU CAN ONLY GO NORTH OR DOM":: 

{4 SPACES>SOUTH"": 3160 FOR 1=1 TO 5 

2560 GOTO 25O0 " 3170 CALL SOUND < 500 , 1 1 O, 2 ) 

2570 REM 3180 CALL SOUND < -500 , 330 , 1) 

2580 GOSUB 860 3190 NEXT I 

2590 PRINT 3200 P(C,D,L1)=2 

2600 CALL SOUND (250, 139, 2) 32 10 GOSUB 860 

2610 CALL S0UND(10,2000,2) 3220 G4= I NT ( 350/ L 1 »RND ) + 1 

2620 CALL SOUND ( 250 , 1 39 , 2 ) 3230 RANDOMIZE 

2630 CALL SOUND ( 1 O , 2000 , 2 ) 3240 Y= I NT ( RND « 8 > + 1 

2640 CALL SOUND < 500 , 1 85 . 2 ) 3250 IF Y<=5 THEN 3600 

2650 PRINT "YOU LOST ALL YOUR GOLD AN 3260 PRINT 

D YOU WERE" i : 

2660 PRINT "... UNABLE TO ESCAPE OU.":: 

{4 SPACESJTHE DUNGEON IN TIME.": 3280 GOSUB 860 

..; 3290 PRINT "AS HE QUICKLY RUNS BY- HE" 

2670 PRINT "MAYBE NEXT TIME";: ■' 

2680 GOSUB 1760 3300 PRINT "STEALS . . . ";G4;" GOLD 

2690 PRINT ^^ SPACESJPIECES" : : 

2700 PRINT "ANOTHER 6AME7":: 3310 G=6-G4 

2710 PRINT "ENTER ' 1 ' -YES 'O'-NO":; 3320 REM 

2720 INPUT AA 3330 GOSUB 860 

2730 CALL CLEAR 3340 PRINT "YOU SEARCH THE ROOM AND F 

2740 IF AAOl THEN 2770 IND ":: 

December 1983 COMPUTE! 135 



3270 PRINT " HE SURPRISES Y 



3350 
3360 
3370 



3380 
3390 
3400 
3410 
3420 
3430 
3440 
3450 
3460 
3470 
3480 
3490 
3491 
3492 

3493 
3494 
3495 
3496 

3497 
349B 
3500 
3510 
3520 
3530 
3S40 
3550 
3560 
3570 

3580 
3590 
3600 



RANDOMIZE 
Z2Z=INT «RND« 14) +1 

ON ZZZ GOSUB 3390,3490,34 10.3430 
, 3450, 3470, 349 0, 3490, 3510, 3390, 3 
530,35 50,35 70,34 90 
BOTO 3590 

PRINT "ft DEftD MAN":: 
RETURN 

PRINT "A MOLDY COFFIN" 
RETURN 

PRINT "A ROACH- 
RETURN 

PRINT "A SLAIN MONSTER" 
RETURN 

PRINT "A PIECE OF BREAD" 
RETURN 

PRINT "A TREASURE CHEST":: 
GOSUB B&O 
PRINT "YOU OPEN THE LID 



GOSUB 860 

RANDOMIZE 

G54=INT (RND»2000) +1 

PRINT "AND FIND";054;" GOLD PIEC 

ES. " 

6=G+B54 

PRINT 

RETURN 

PRINT "A TI HOME COMPUTER" 

RETURN 

PRINT "AN OLD SWORD" 

RETURN 

PRINT "A CANDLE" 

RETURN 

PRINT "THE WIZARDS REWARD-l.OOO 

<4 SPACES>GOLD PIECES" 

G=G+1000 

RETURN 

PRINT "YOU SURPRISED THE THIEF . 



3900 CALL SOUND ( to, 2000, 2) 
3910 CALL SOUND C500, IBS, 2) 
3920 PRINT "YOU STEPPED ON A ... . 

. . TRAP DOOR" : : 
3930 60SUB 860 
3940 TD=INT <RND*4) +1 
3950 IF TD>=3 THEN 3990 
3960 PRINT 
3970 PRINT "BUT . . YOU CAUGHT YOURS 

ELF" : : 
3980 RETURN 

3990 IF Ll=2 THEN 4100 
4000 L1=L1+1 
4010 K=l 
4020 PRINT "YOU FELL THRU TO ... . 

. .THE BOTTOM LEVEL .... AND" 

4030 G=100 

4040 GOSUB 860 

4050 PRINT 

4060 PRINT "YOU LOST MOST OF YOUR BOL 

D PIECES"! : 
4070 PRINT "YOU HAVE . . . ";G;" GOLD 

{3 SPACESJPIECES LEFT":: 
4080 PRINT "BUT, YOU STILL HAVE YOUR 

KEY"i : 
4090 RETURN 
4100 PRINT "YOU FELL INTO A DEEP . . 

PIT"; : 
4110 GOSUB 860 
4120 PRINT "YOU'RE LUCKY 

4130 PRINT "YOU DID'NT GET HURT":: 

4140 GOSUB 860 

4150 PRINT "BUT IN CLIMBING OUT . . . 

4160 GOTO 5310 

4170 PRINT "YOU ARE AT A STAIRWAY";: 

4180 PRINT " GOING UP . . . 



3610 
3620 

3630 

3640 

3650 
3660 
3670 
3680 
3690 
3700 
3710 
3720 
3730 
3740 
3750 
3760 
3770 

3780 
3790 
3800 
38 lO 
3S20 
3830 

3840 
3850 
3860 
3870 
3SBO 
3890 



GOSUB 860 

PRINT "AS HE RUNS OUT HE DROPS 



;G4; " GOLD PIEC 



PRINT " . . 

E S " : : 

PRINT "YOU PICK UP THE GOLD PIEC 

ES" : : 

G=B+G4 

IF M1=I THEN 3670 ELSE 3680 

RETURN 

MA=INT<RNDt4) +1 

IF Ml<=2 THEN 3700 ELSE 3710 

MA=1 

IF MA=1 THEN 3340 

RETURN 

CALL CLEAR 

PRINT 

GOSUB 5440 

REM 

PRINT " , . 

H TUNNEL": 

GOSUB 5400 

RETURN 

CALL CLEAR 

PRINT 

6DSUB 5440 

PRINT " . . 

-C3 SPACES>TUNNEL" : : 

GOSUB 5400 

RETURN 

REM 

CALL SOUND (250. 139, 2) 

CALL SOUND < lO, 2OO0, 2) 

CALL SOUND <25Ci, 139, 2) 



ENTER A NORTH-SOUT 



ENTER AN EAST-WEST 



4190 N=l 

4200 FOR F=700 T 

4210 CALL SOUND ( 

4220 NEXT F 

4230 FOR F=900 T 

4240 CALL SOUND< 

4250 NEXT F 

4260 N=N+1 

4270 IF N=2 THEN 

4280 RETURN 

4290 CALL SOUND < 

4300 CALL SOUND( 

4310 CALL SOUND< 

4320 CALL SOUND< 

4330 CALL SOUND< 

4340 CALL SOUND ( 

43SO CALL SOUND ( 

4360 CALL SOUND( 

4370 CALL SOUND ( 

4380 CALL SOUND ( 

4390 CALL SOUND ( 

) 

4400 RETURN 

4410 PRINT "HALT 

4420 GOSUB 4860 

4430 GOSUB 4900 

4440 INPUT P* 

4450 IF P«="BAG" 

4460 IF P«="IN B 

4470 REM 

4480 GOSUB 5O80 

4490 RETURN 

4500 GOSUB 4930 

4510 RETURN 



O 900 STEP 5 
-99, F, 0) 

O 700 STEP -( 
-99, F,0> 



4280 ELSE 4200 




««« I AM DRA' 



THEN 4500 
AG" THEN 450O 



136 COMPUTI! December 1983 



4520 PRINT "STOP *«* I AM BUS":: 

4S30 GOSUB 4860 

4540 GOSUB 49O0 

4550 INPUT P« 

4560 IF A*="IN BAG" THEN 4600 

4570 IF P*="BAB" THEN 4600 

45aO GOSUB 5080 

4590 RETURN 

4600 GOSUB 4930 

4610 RETURN 

4620 eOSUB 900 

4630 H=l 

4640 0=9 

4650 W=B 

4660 B=0 

4670 E=5 

4680 R=14 

4690 C=0 

4700 PR=0 

4710 GOTO 1940 

4720 PRINT "HALT *«« I AH LUM ! ! ! " : : 

4730 GOSUB 4S60 

4740 BOSUB 4900 

4750 INPUT P« 

4760 IF P*="BAG" THEN 4790 

4770 GOSUB 5080 

4780 RETURN 

4790 GOSUB 4930 

4800 RETURN 

4810 PRINT "BEWARE OF TRAP DOORS":: 

4820 CALL SOUND ( 500 , 220 , O , 330 , , 440, O) 

4B30 CALL SOUND ( 250, 330 , O, 440 , O, 550, O) 

4840 REM 

4850 RETURN 

4860 PRINT 

4870 PRINT "»»« YOU MAY NOT PASS 

{8 SPACESJTHROUGH UNTIL":: 
4880 PRINT "»«« YOU TELL ME WHERE THE 

<3 SPACES}GGLD IS":: 
4B90 RETURN 
4900 REM 
4910 RETURN 
4920 CALL CLEAR 
4930 PRINT "GOOD,YDU MUST BE REWARDED 

rt 

4940 PRINT 

4950 64=INT (400/Ll *RND) +25 

4960 K=l 

4970 G=e+B4 

4980 BOSUB 860 

4990 PRINT "YOU WIN ";G4;" GOLD PIECE 

S" : : 

5000 BOSUB 5180 

5010 P<C, D, LI ) =1 

5020 CA=CA+1 

5030 IF K=l THEN 5040 ELSE 5050 

5040 RETURN 

5050 IF CA=K4 THEN 5170 

5060 IF Ll=l THEN 5290 

5070 RETURN 

50a0 PRINT 

5090 PRINT "YOU LIE":: 

5100 PRINT "NO REWARD FOR YOU":: 

5110 PRINT 

5120 GA=INT <350/Ll tRND> +1 

5130 G=G-G4 

5140 GOSUB S60 

5150 PRINT "I WIN " ; G4 ; " GOLD PIECES" 

S160 RETURN 
5170 GOSUB B60 

5iao K=l 

5190 PRINT "YOU HAVE FOUND THE SUPER 
KEY" : s 



S200 GOSUB 860 

5210 RETURN 

5220 PRINT "YOU DISTURBED A MONSTER 

NtS SPACES>HIS CHAMBER":: 
5230 GOSUB 860 
5240 PRINT "AND HE SPEAKS 



5250 
5260 
5270 
5280 
5290 
5300 
5310 
5320 
5330 
5340 
5350 

5360 

5370 
5380 
5390 
540O 

54 10 

S420 

5430 
5440 

5450 

5460 
5470 



GOSUB 860 

RETURN 

GOSUB 5180 

GOTO 2040 

IF CA=»=CB THEN 

RETURN 

G=100 

GOSUB 860 

PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 



5170 



"YOU DROPPED 

"MOST OF YOUR GOLD PIEC 



ES. 
GOLD 



PRINT "YOU HAVE . . ";G 

{5 SPACES>PIECES LEFT." 

RETURN 

REM 

RETURN 

PRINT "THE DOOR CLOSES AND LO 

f3 SPACES] BEHIND YOU":: 

CALL SOUND ( 1000,8207,30, B803, 

500, 30, -8,5) 

GOSUB 860 

RETURN 

PRINT "YOU OPEN A SECRET DOOR 

D " : : 

CALL SOUND ( 1000, 8207, 30, 8803, 

500, 30, -8, 5) 
GOSUB 860 
RETURN 



CKS 
30, 

AN 
30, 



TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 99/4A 

— #- 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 
Learn to fly with the Dow-4 Gazelle, a real- 
istic IFR simulation of a typical -J-place pri- 
vate plane. It is not a gairie. A manual 
with 30 pages of text plus 7 figures helps 
the novice learn to fly. Experienced pilots 
will enjoy flying the ILS approach. Response 
time under 1 sec average. Display shows 
full panel (10 dials and II lights) and Indi- 
cates position of runway for landing. Real- 
istic sound effects. See reviews in Jan 83 
99'er and Jun 83 AOPA Pilot. Requires joy- 
stick. Cassette. S30. 

EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 

The Dow E/A turns your Ti into art assem- 
bly language machine. For use with Tl's 
Mini Memory Module. Fast and convenient. 
Allows use of entire RAM. Manual includes 
sample program with detailed explanations. 
See review in Aug 83 99'er. Cassette. S25. 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PRIMER 
Teaches Tt assembly language in step by step 
fashion for Basic programmers. Explains con- 
cepts in detail with many examples. This is 
what you have been waiting for if you 
haven't been able to understand the Tl Edit- 
or/Assembler manual, $20 

(Dow E/A and PRIMER S40) 

For additional information, write or call 
412-521-9385, To order, send check or MO 
U.S. funds: 

JOHN T. DOW 

6560 Rosemoor Street 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 15217 
Postage to U,S, and Canada included. [If 
foreign, add U.S. $2.1 Pa. residents add 6% 



December 1983 computc! i37 



64 

Mosaic Puzzle 



Bruce Jordan 
Tronslotion by Chris Metcolf. Programming Assistont 



In our October issue, we published a game, "Mosaic 
Puzzle," with versions for several computers. Program 
2, which was identified as the 64 version, actually runs 
on the VIC. Here is the 64 version. 



"Mosaic Puzzle" is a computer version of those 
sliding-squares puzzles that used to drive people 
nuts before the advent of Rubik's Cube. The object 
of the game is to arrange the 15 squares (1-8 and 
A - F) into some predetermined order by sliding 
them around in their frame. The first few moves 
are easy, but as the game progresses, it gets a lot 
more complicated. You'll find yourself rearranging 
everything just to get the last few squares in place. 

When you start the game, you're asked if 
you wish to set a time limit. If you answer Y for 
yes, enter the time limit in one line with no spaces 
or punctuation between the values. For example, 
for a 1-hour, 23-minute limit, enter 012300. If no 
time limit is selected, the screen will display 
elapsed time and TIME LIMIT: NONE. 

Next, enter the goal order that you will try to 
match to win the game. Note that some goals 
cannot be reached from the given starting ar- 
rangement. If you reach a point where only two 
adjacent tiles must be switched to complete the 
puzzle, then your goal is unreachable. You can 
also select various keys for up, down, left, and 
right movement. If you prefer a joystick, use port 
two. When you are playing, pressing the RETURN 
key or the fire button allows you to pause 
momentarily before resuming the game, restarting 
the program, or stopping entirely. Breaking off 
and resuming has no effect on the time clock 
(displayed at the top of the screen along with the 
time limit). 

138 COMPUTE! December 1983 




64 Mosaic Puzzle 

109 POKES 3 280, 14 :P0KE5 3 281, 6: POKES 5,1 76 :P 
0KE56 , 29 : CLR: P0KE54276 , 8 : P0KE54283 , 8 

110 POKE542 77,0:POKE542 78,2 55:POKES4284,0 
:POKES4285,255:POKE54296, IS 

120 S=1355:SC=S+54272;DIMA5(16) 

130 PRINT" {CLR] " :G=1632 :X=0 : DX=1 :P=55904 : 

S1=54276:S2=S4283 :AD=1232 : R=14 
140 PRINT"{CLR} fDOWN]"TAB(ll) "HEX NUMBER 

{ SPACE }PUZZLE"TAB( 51) "il7 yMDOWN] " 



150 
160 
170 
130 

190 

200 



210 



220 



REM FIND TIME LIMIT, MOVE KEYS 
PRINT" i 73 DO YOU WANT A TIME LIMIT? 

"7 :GOSUB270 
IFIN?<>"Y"THEN240 

H=l: INPUT" {home} £6 DOWW] HOURS MINS 
ECS 


IFLEFT?(T$,2)>"23 
EN200 

IFMID? ( T$ , 3 , 2 ) > "59 "ORMID? (T$ , 3 , 2 ) < "0" 
THEN200 



C 6 DIGITS } " r T$ : IFLEN ( T? ) <> 6THEN20 
ORLEFT$(T$,2)<"0"TH 



SCRIPT 64 




Developed by; 



i:U*f 



Rich vale 

Telecommunications, 

LTD. 



Dlslributed by: 



Warehouse 1, Inc. 

Eastern U.S. 800-253-5330 
Western 80a255^KS6 



DES-Da!a 
Equipment Supply 

213-923-9361 



Computer Marketing 
Services, Inc. 

800-222-0585 

Also available for the IBM-PC. 

Script 64, Commodore 64 and IBM-PC are registered trademarks of Richvale Communications LTD, 
Commodore Eiectronics Limited, and international Business Machines, Corp. respectively. 



Blue Sky Software 

Ashiand Office Center 
Evesham & Alpha Avenues 
Voorhees, NJ 08043 
609-7954025 



230 
240 

250 

260 
270 

280 
29r) 
300 

310 
320 

330 

340 

350 

360 
370 

380 

390 

400 

410 

420 

430 
440 
450 
460 

470 

480 
490 

500 

510 

520 
530 



IFRIGHT? (T$, 2 ) > "59 "ORRIGHT? (T$ , 2 ) < "0" 

THEN200 

PRINT" {DOW3} KEY FOR UP: ";:GOSUB270: 

U$=IN?: PRINT" {down} FOR DOWN: ";:GOSU 

B270:D$=IN$ 

PRINT"{D0WN] for LEFT: " r :GOSUB270 :L$ 

=IN$: PRINT" {DOWN} FOR RIGHT: ";:GOSUB 

270:R$=IN$ 

GOTO310 

PRINT" E+3";:WAIT198, 255 :GETIN5:PRIN 

T " { LEFT } " ; : POKE2 16 , 1 : PRINTIN? ; RETURN 



REM FIND GOAL ORDER 

PRINT" {CLR}"TAB(43) "ENTER GOAL SETUP" 

PRINT" {down} {3 SPACES}! 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9"SPC(23)"A B C D E F {RVS}SPACE" 
PRINTTAB(5) "{D0WN}IN ANY ORDER": PRINT 
TAB( 248) "GOAL 

FORK=0TO3 :POKE1592+K, 100 j POKE1792+K, 9 
9 : P0KE5 5 864+K, R : P0KE5 606 4+K , R 
POKE1631+K*40, 103:POKE1636+K*40, 101 :P 
OKE55903+K*40,R:POKE5590a+K*40,R:NEXT 
FORI = lT016 : POKEG+X, 63 : POKEP+X, 1 
WAIT198,255:GETA$(I) : FORL=I-1TO0STEP- 
1:IFA$(I)=A$(L)THEN370 

NEXT :IFA$ (1)=" "THENFORK=0TO4 : POKE554 
71+K, 15 ;NEXT ; 32=32 :GOTO420 
IF(A$(I)<"1"0RA${I)>"F")0R(A?(I)>"9"A 
NDA?(I)<"A")THEN370 

B=VAL{ A5 ( I ) ) :B2=B+48 : IFBTHENPOKE55417 
+2*B,15;GOTO420 

B=ASC(A5{I) )-64:B2=B:POKE5545 7+2*B,15 
POKEG+X, B2 : X=X+DX : IFX=4THEHG=G+40 : P=P 
+40:X=0 
NEXT 



REM SET UP WORK AREA 

PRINT " [ HOME } " : FORI=0TO64 : PRINT " 

[4 spaces}"; : NEXT: PRINT "{home} "TAB (12 

7) "PUZZLE" 

FORK=0TO3 : P0KE1192+K, 100 : POKE55464+K, 

R:POKE1392+K,99:POKE55664+K,R 

POKEl 23 1+K*40, 103: POKES 5503+K*40,R:PO 

KE1236+K*40, 101: POKES 5 508+K*40,R: NEXT 

READA, B, C : IFA>=0THENPOKEAD+A, B: POKE5 5 

504+A,C:GOTO500 

FORI = 1TO500 : NEXT : POKESI-3 , 80 : POKES 1 , 3 

3 : PRINT " { HOME } " TAB ( 2 S ) " { 10 DOWN } { RED ) 

{WHT} IGOl^ll" 

FORT=1TO300 : NEXT : PRINT " { HOME } "TAB { 28 ) 

"(10 DOWN} {4 SPACES} ":POKES1,8:TI$="0 

00000" 

PRINT "{HOME} "TAB (25) "LIMIT: {CYN}"; :IF 

T$=""THENPRINT"NONE":GOTOSB0 



540 PRINTLEFT?(T?,2)":"MID$(T?,3,2)": "RIG 

HT${T$,2)"i73" 
550 : 
560 : 

570 REM LOOP MAIN CONTROL 
580 PRINT" {HOME} TIME ELAPSED: { WHT } "LEFT? ( 

TI? , 2 ) " : "MID? (TI$ , 3, 2 ) " : "RIGHT? (TI? , 2 

)"g73" 
590 IFH=1ANDT?<=TI?THEN7S0 
600 GETB$:J=31-PEEK(56320)AND31:IFB$=""AN 

DJ=0THEN580 
610 IFB?=CHR?{13)ORJ=16THENWN=0:GOTO780 
620 IFB?=D?OR{JAND2)THENDR=-40;CK=L00:GOT 

140 COMPUTE! December 1983 



630 

640 

650 

660 
670 

680 

690 

700 

710 

720 
730 
740 
750 

760 

770 
780 

790 



800 
810 
820 
830 
840 

850 
860 
870 
880 
890 
900 
910 
920 
930 
940 

950 



0660 

IFB?=L$ORCJAND4)THENDR=1:CK=101:GOTO6 

60 

IFB?=R$OR(JAND8)THENDR=-1:CK=103:GOTO 

660 

DR=40 : CK=99 : 1 FB? < > U$AND { JANDl ) =0THEN5 

80 

IFPEEK(S+DR)=CKTHENS80 

POKES, PEEK(S+DR) : POKESC, PEEK(SC+DR) :P 

OKES+DR, 32:S=S+DR:SC=SC+DR 

FORM=0TO120STEP40;FORN=0TO3:W=PEEK{AD 

+M+N) ANDl 2 7:IFW<>PEEK(1632 +M+N ) THEN58 



NEXTiNEXTtPRINT" {HOME} "TAB(24) " 

{5 DOWN } [ CYN } { RVS 3 YOU WIN! E 73 ": POKE 

S1-3,0:POKES1,33:WN=1 

READNl , N2 , D: IFN1=-1THENP0KES1 , 8 :GOT07 

80 

POKESl-4, Nl : POKESl-3 , N2 : F0RT=1T0D:NEX 

T:GOTO700 



REM END OF GAME 

PRINT" {home} "TAB {23 )"{S DOWN} { WHT } 

{RVS} lYOU LOSE!E73":POKES1-3,10:POK 

ES1,17:WN=1 

POKES2-3 , 60 ! P0KES2 , 129 :FORT=1TO300 :NE 

XT : P0KES2 , 8 ; POKESl , 8 

TM?=TI$;PRINT"{H0ME}"TAB(21)"{9 DOWN} 

(1) RESET 

PRINTTAB{21) "{down} (2) QUIT":IFWN=0TH 

ENPRINTTAB{21)"{dOWN} (3) AS YOU LEFT 

{space} IT" 

GETV? : IFV? < " 1 "ORV? > "3 "THENS00 

IFV$="1"THENRUN 

IFV?="2"THENEND 

IFWNTHEN800 

PRINT" {home} {8 D0WN}":F0RI=1T06;PRINT 

TAB (21) "{18 SPACES}" :NEXT 

TI$=TM?:GOTO580 



REM SETUP AND MUSIC DATA 

DATA0 ,49,1,1,178,3,2,51,1,3,180,3 

DATA40 ,53,1,41,182,3,42,55,1,43 

DATA184 ,3,80,57,1,81,129,3,82,2,1 

DATA83, 131, 3, 120, 4, 1,12 1,1 33, 3, 122 

DATA6, 1,123, 32,3,-1,-1,-1 

DATA 96,22,150,0,0,50,96,22,75,0,0,50 

,96,22,75,49,28,175,96,22,115,49,28 

DATA175, 135, 33, 250, 0,0, 0,-1, -1,-1 © 



J 



SUPER FORTH 64 " 

TOTAL CONTROL OVER YOUR COMMODORE-64'^ 

wlih almoit 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING EASE! 



I Robotics. Fa^l Games. Graphics. Dsta Acquisitfon 
■ Process Control, Com muni cations. Ijofine Use 

A Superset of WVPFQRTH - Ext, for [he beginner or professional 



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• 1/3 I the (ifOQrinimrng lime. 

« Easy luil csRiral dI all iwind. hi res. 
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• Full cursor Screen Editor i Trice 

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Call: (415) 651-3160 

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Drawer 1766-C 

Fremont, CA 94538 

■ DealEr inquiries invited ■ 



r 




AT LAST! 

3-D scrolling action 
for the Commodore 64® 

Sentiner" brings a new dimension to Com- 
modore 64® games. From the cockpit of your 
starship your instruments signal the approach 
of life forms. You shudder in horror as the data 
describes a legendary terror. The Gorganitor 
approaches! Are you ready for this meeting? 



THE WAIT IS OVER! 

Shamus" is here 
for the Commodore 64® 

The odor tells you the Shadow's there — in one 
of four levels of 32 rooms, each bristling with 
danger. You know it won't be a high school prom 
but there's no turning back! Arcade adventure 
more intense than the original with three new, 
never before seen maps. Videogame Player 
Magazine's game of the year! 



Both games available at software dealers everywhere. Or order direct from Synapse Elite. 
Only $34.95 plus $2 shipping and handling (California residents add 672% sales tax}. Send 
check, money order or your Visa/Mastercard number. 




5221 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 • (415) 527-7751 



THE WORLD INSIDE THE COMPUTER 



Winnie The Pooh's 
Alphabet Adventures 



Fred Dignozio, Associate Editor 




One afternoon while 
Eric was riding his Big 
Wheel bike on the 
sidewalk in front of 
his house, a brown 
UPS truck pulled up, 
and a man hopped 
out and put some 
giant boxes on Eric's 
front porch. Eric went 
and got his dad. His dad told him that inside 
the boxes was a new NEC Trek home computer 
that had been sent, on loan, from the NEC Home 
Electronics Company in Elk Grove Village, Illinois. 
They set the computer up in Eric's bedroom. 
He liked the computer. It was neat to look at, 
with its ivory case, and its gray and orange keys. 
It was easy to use, too. He used its Micro Painter 
program to make pictures and its Electric Pencil 
program to do lots of gobbledygook processing. 

The NEC Trek was special, too, because it 
had games with all of Eric's favorite Walt Disney 
characters. He wanted to play the games and see 
Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Cinderella, the 101 
Dalmations, and Winnie the Pooh. But, so far, he 
still hadn't played any of the games. 

His dad had lots of excuses to explain why 



Fred D'li^iiazio /s a computer ciitliusinst a]ui aiitlwr oj 
:fi'vcml book> on couipiitcri^ for i/ouii'^i people. Hif biwka 
iiichiile Kiltie and !Iil" Computer (Creative Coiiiputiii^), 
Chip Mitchell: The Ctisu of the Stolen Computer Bniins 
(Duttoiiilj.'ideftay), The Star Wars Question and An.swer 
Book About Computers (Rivuioni House), ami How To 
Get Intimate With Your Computer (A 10-Step Plan To 
Conquer Computer Anxiety) tMcGraiv-llUli. 

Ai the I'ullwr of two young childreit, Fred has become 
concerned wilh introducing the computer to children as ii 
wonderful tool rather than as a forbidding electronic device. 
His column appears monthly in COMPUTE! . 
142 COMPUTE! December 1983 



the games weren't ready. He mumbled something 
about RAMs and ROMs and an extended BASIC 
cartridge that hadn't arrived. 

Eric already had a game disk with the word 
WINNIE written in big letters in blue ink. The 
disk had a game called Winnie the Pooh's Alpha- 
bet Adventures. But his dad told him that they 
still didn't have a disk drive to put the disk into. 

He really wanted to see the Winnie the Pooh 
program, so he put pressure on his dad to get his 
act together and find the equipment they needed 
to make the program work. 

Pretty soon, more big brown boxes started 
arriving in the mail. Eric ioved opening boxes. He 
had never run into a box he couldn't open. When 
he was only six months old, his parents put a box 
around him, with holes for his head, legs, and 
arms. On the side of the box his dad drew, in big 
letters, the words PAPER SHREDDER. And he 
drew lots of pretend dials and switches. It was 
Eric's first Halloween co'^tume. He went to three 




The first frame of W'imiie the PmIi's Alphabet Adventures 
game is on the displai/ screen. Next to the NEC Trek computer 
aresei'ernlothergamesproducedby the Walt Disney Educniional 
Media Cofitpany. 



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OOI 



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Our playground of active, colorful animals will have your 
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Unleash the creative talents of the big kids and Ihe little kids 
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Let your imaginalion run wild with the Sketch Pad that 
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/Alphabet 

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The most fundamental lesson every child must learn is how 
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spider Eater'" the game that 
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And that's 



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There's a full line of KoalaWare pro- 
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'5oft»arc included wiih Touch Tablet laries wiih campultr Iipe, 



KoalaPail. KoaU'iafe- Uro VHufji Miswr. 

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Halloween parties, crawled around on the floor, 
and shredded any paper that he found in his path. 

But Eric wasn't a baby any longer. He was 
four years old, and he could shred boxes the way 
he used to shred paper. When the computer boxes 
arrived, he opened all of them with his bare hands. 
Inside the boxes were the computer parts his dad 
had told him about. He helped his dad attach all 
the parts to the main computer that was sitting on 
a little table in Eric's bedroom. 

Run, Winnie, Run! 

Finally a box came with the last part. Eric huffed 
and puffed and "Hulked" open the box. Then he 
and his dad raced to his bedroom to put the missing 
part into the computer. 

His dad turned on the power. The computer 
worked! Eric hopped around the room. He almost 
fell on the computer, he was so excited. 

His dad let him put the Winnie the Pooh disk 
into the disk drive. He let Eric do everything on 
the computer all by himself. While he was working 
on the computer, sometimes he saw his dad put 
his hands over his eyes. Sometimes he saw him 
grit his teeth and look like he was going to cry. 
Sometimes he even heard him growl. But he al- 
ways let Eric do everything. Because ot this, Eric 
was getting pretty good at computers, even 
though he was only four years old. 



His dad read from the NEC manual for the 
Alphabet Soup package. Eventually there would be 
two programs in the package: the Winnie the Pooh 
alphabet game and another game called Mickey's 
Lucky Stars. Mickey's Lucky Stars would teach 
Eric how to match small letters in the alphabet 
with big letters; and help him learn which letters 
come before other letters and which ones come 
after. 

Eric's dad read the commands from the man- 
ual. He repeated the letters, one by one, and Eric 
typed them into the computer. When he was done, 
the command RUN "vvinnie." was on the screen. 
He pressed the RETURN button to send the com- 
mand to the computer. 

Out of the computer's speaker came the song 
"Winnie the Pooh," and the Pooh bear himself 
appeared on the screen. Beside him was a big, 
yellow, blinking question mark. 

just then the telephone rang, and Eric's dad 
took off. "I'll be right back!" he called. 

"Sure," Eric thought. "In about a million 
years." 

Eric didn't feel like waiting a million years. 
Besides, he knew what to do next, even without a 
manual. When he saw a question mark on the 




>h-^ (" 



nal BooK R 



nii 



'ue 



Sbion 




That's an easy one: HesWare™ educational software. 

The children witH the most answers in school are usually the children who enjoy learning. 
HesWare helps develop your child's interest in learning by making it fun. And along the way, develop 
familiarity and proficiency with computers— a skill that is becoming more and more essential to success. 

HesVrare educational software combines enjoyment with a creative learning experience. Unlike 
video games, HesWare educational programs involve Vour child— and that keeps their interest. Whether 
it's creating colorful and artistic pictures with Turtle Graphics, 
making up funny faces with Pacemaker™ or helping America's 
fevorite canine, Benji, save kidnapped scientists (and learn 



Pleases the 
tough 



about the solar system in the process,) or any of the programs 
in our education library HesWare gives your children a positive 
attitude toward learning and technology. 

It's not expensive to give your child a headstart on the 
future. HesWare programs are available for most popular home 
computers, including the Commodore VIC 20r Commodore 647 
Atarif and IBM® 

HesWare educational software. Just one of the 
ways HesWare is expanding the computer experience. And mj mmg 
expanding your child's horizons. Look for them at your ttGSwwSFG 
favorite software retailer. 



Human Engineered Software, 150 North Hill Drive, Brisbane, CA 94005 
800-227-6703 (in California 800-632-7979) Dept. C20 



^ 




HfisWarE is a Iradeniaik cf Humar Engineered Software. Facemakec is a tiademark of Spinnakei Software. VIC 20 aid Commodore 64 are Iradimarks 
ol Commodoie Electronics Lid. Atari is a registered trademark ol Alan. Inc. IBIil is a registeied trademark ot InternalHinal Business Machines. 

®1983 




screen, that meant the computer wanted him to 
type something in. "But what should I type?" he 
wondered. He picked his favorite word:' ERIC, 

He typed an E, then began searching for the 
R. But before he got there, the disl< drive light 
came on, the drive began clacking like his Big 
Wheel bike, and Winnie the Pooh vanished from 
the screen. 

A moment later, a new screen appeared. It 
was divided into several rectangles, each a differ- 
ent color. The Winnie the Pooh character, Tigger, 
appeared in the upper left-hand corner of the 
screen. In the upper center portion of the screen, 
two E's appeared — one uppercase and one lower- 
case. On the right-hand side of the screen was an 
elephant. In the lower left-hand corner of the 
screen was a yellow box. The box was empty. 

All these things appeared on the screen, but 
Eric didn't notice. He was still busv typing his 
name. He typed an I and a C, then he looked up. 

His dad sailed back into the room. He looked 
at the screen. "Hey, that's great, Eric," he said. 
"How'd you do it?" 

"By typing my name," Eric answered, not 
sure whether to be proud or puzzled. "It made an 
E, but it didn't make an R. Or an I. Or a C." 

1 Know What To Do! 

"I wonder what we do, now," his dad said, 
peering closely at the screen. The NEC company 
had sent Eric and his dad about ten pounds of 
computer manuals to assist them on the computer. 
But the two of them rarely used manuals, espe- 
cially when they were just getting started. The 
fun part of running new programs was to see if 
they could make them work without reading the 
instructions. 

Eric's dad was naturally cautious around 
computers. He tried to figure out which button 
might make the program do something. 

Eric had a better approach. When he didn't 
know what to do next, he pressed al! the buttons. 

His strategy worked. After only a few seconds 
and a couple of dozen buttons, he found one that 
did something. He pressed the DEL (Delete) key, 
and the empty yellow rectangle in the lower left- 
hand corner of the screen turned blue. He pressed 
the button again and it turned red. Then it turned 
green. Each time he pressed the button, it turned 
a new color. 

When Eric pressed the E key, the computer 
played a little more of the Winnie the Pooh song 
then went back to the picture of Pooh and the big 
question mark. 

"Hey!" Eric said. "E makes a picture. Then E 
makes the picture go away." 

He pressed some more keys. He eventually 
made it up to the orange function keys on the top 
of the keyboard. When he pushed the F4 key, 

148 COMPUTi! Decembef19S3 




This screen apirnvs after the boif hns typed Ike letter "j." The 
Winnie tlie Pooh character i> Kmi^n. When Ihe tm/ draws on 
the lonch juniel {in llieloiver corner, on thejarri^^ht), hisj'iclinv 
will iii>peiir in the box in Ihe lower lefthand corner of llie screen. 

Winnie the Pooh, Tigger, and Rabbit appeared on 
the screen and, with musical accompaniment, 
waved goodbve. 

"Oh, terrific!" said Eric's dad, more than a 
little distracted and disturbed by Eric's shotgun 
approach to using the computer. "Now you've 
terminated the program, and we've only gotten 
to see one letter." 

Eric was momentarily stymied. But at the 
moment he felt like he could'do anything — the 
way he felt when he was rustling up a jellybean, 
Cheerio, and dry-noodle stew in the kitchen, or 
tying his shoes, or stirring up Mowie's breakfast 
of gooky cat food and kibbles. He surveyed the 
keyboard. Then he was ready. "I know what to 
do," he said confidently, and began pressing all 
the keys at the same time. 

He got to the F5 key and pressed it. Winnie 
and his friends disappeared. The title frame came 
back on. He had restarted the game. He looked 
up at his dad. "See?" he said. 

All It Takes Is Teamwork 

Eric and his dad worked well as a team. With 
their combined brainpower and Eric's penchant 
for button pushing, they soon figured out how to 
use the rest of the program. 

For example, when Eric pressed the Fl button, 
the NEC thermal printer started making noises 
like a tire spinning on ice, and paper started 
creeping out with a copy of the picture on the 
computer display screen. 

Eric loved this part. Printing pictures was so 
easy! Very quickly, his bedroom floor filled up 
with 4-inch by 4-inch scraps of paper featuring all 
the Pooh characters and creatures whose names 
began with every letter from A to Z. 



KRELL t<^ EDUCATION 




CONNECTIONS 

Krell's Connections is the most exciting 
development in educational computing 
since LOGO. Connections offers children 
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educators will be gratified by the intriguing 
yet serious nature of Connections. 

Connections is accompanied by an initial 
set of data bases (included free with the 
game system) that deal with geography, 
chemistry, mammals, mathematics, tools, 
and everyday objects. Connections helps 
users to build their own data bases and to 
utilize the data bases created by others via 
the Connecf/ons User Group Exchange 
Program. 48K. »99.95 



Nc>v' ALEXANDER THE GREAT 

Available at lastifl Alexander The Great is ttie uitimale game for 
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all microcomputers and in a board version, 48K. 'SS.SS 



42 program series. Comptete cover- 
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KRELL'S LOGO 

The M.I.T. authorized version. Comprehen- 
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program /(tor in /.o^'o/oHf/ Tutorial Series, 
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Spectacular Price '89.95 

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rjevs-! PLATO'S CAVE 

Spectacular game (or aspiring scientists of ail ages. Players 
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Available at Selected Dealers 



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Solving The Mystery Of The Blank Box 

The blank box in the lower left-hand portion of 
the screen was the greatest challenge. Even when 
Eric printed out the display screen, the box was 
empty. Why was it empty? Either the program 
was broken and the box was supposed to have 
something in it, or Eric and his dad were supposed 
to put something in the box themselves. 

They tried using the joystick. That didn't 
work. 

They pressed all the keys on the keyboard 
again. No luck there, either. 

They were about ready to give up and peek 
at the Winnie the Pooh program's instructions. 
Then they figured it out. They could fill up the 
box by drawing things on the NEC Trek touch 
panel, a flat drawing tablet that reproduced a copy 
of a picture on the computer's display screen. 

The touch panel freed Eric from the computer 
keyboard. And that's when the real fun started! 

His dad went into his study and cut up lots 
of pieces of paper to fit on the touch panel. Two 
flexible magnetic strips held each piece of paper 
on the panel so it wouldn't move about. 

Eric climbed on the metal truck and, on top 
of his dresser, found the black felt-tip marker that 
NEC had supplied with the touch panel. 

He began drawing on the panel. He drew 
circles, triangles, straight lines, and random 
squiggles. Then, satisfied with his artwork, he 
pressed the Fl button and printed his picture — 
complete with a letter of the alphabet (in upper- 
and lowercase), a picture of an animal whose name 
began with that letter, and a character from Winnie 
the Pooh. 




Eric then took the pictures he had just drawn 
and put them onto the touch panel. He created 
new pictures by tracing the animals and letters on 
the old pictures. He created drawings that looked 
reasonably like Winnie the Pooh, skeleton hands, 
elephants, alligators, and birthday cakes. 

For Eric this was a thrill — such a thrill that 
he drew pictures on the touch pad, picture screen, 
and thermal paper for another two hours. And 
the next morning, when he woke up, it was the 
first thing he wanted to do, even before his all- 
important bowl of Cheerios. 

Drowned In Alphabet Pictures 

The night before, after the first hour, little scraps 
of paper were all over Eric's bedroom. Eric wanted 
to create a picture for each of his pets (his robot 
Denby, his puppy, and his kitty), for each member 
of his family and all his friends. Each picture had 
the first letter in the name of the person or creature 
it was going to. 

Paper scraps flooded the bedroom, and his 
dad grew alarmed. He had visions of being 
drowned by Pooh pictures. He suggested that 
Eric try to group the papers into piles. 

To his dad's relief, Eric came up with the idea 
to make "books" out of several of the 
> — - pictures. The letters could be grouped 
Jt-^ together to make alphabet books, or 
'<^^^ to form the complete names of his 

mother, father, sister, grandparents, cousins, 
and his pets, creatures, and friends. 
He and his dad got busy and turned Eric's 
bedroom into a miniature printing company. They 
stapled the pictures together into books, and they 
taped lots of pictures together on pieces of note- 
book paper to spell words and names, and make 
signs that spelled things like MOWIE, WINNIE, 
PIGLET, EEYORE, ERIC, CATIE, and BACK OFF! 
The flow of loose paper scraps slowed some- 
what, but not enough. Out of desperation, Eric's 
dad peeked at the instructions to the 
y-^ '•—^ Winnie the Pooh program and 

AAAAf7U7 1 V'^ discovered tots of addi- 
/ViflftrH . / v.^.^ tional activities using 

the alphabet-pictures 

that Eric was churning 

out of the computer. 





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Monkeymath 
by Dennis Zander 



It's a rare teacher who can make a child think learning's fun. 
But we've found several of them. And they make Monkeymath™ more fun than 
your child ever dreamed an educational game could be. 

Of course Monkeymath helps give your child a better 
understanding of addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
division. That s the partyou'// like. 

But the part your c/t/W will like is Monkeymath's arcade- 
type action and animation, three skill levels and scoring. So, like 
any good arcade game, kids just can't stop playing it. 

In fact, in a recent issue of Antic magazine, David Plotkin 
called Monkeymath "... one of the most 
entrancing educational games ever writ- 
ten," (And Monkeynews^^' and Monkeybui'der,™ our soon 
to be released reading comprehension and word recognition 
games will be every bit as entrancing.) 

So Monkeymath does more than help your child under- 
stand math— it teaches him that learning can be fun. 

And, as you can see, you don't find teachers like that 
just anywhere. 

Monkeymath,™ Monkeynews™ and Monkeybuilder™—a new educa- 
tional series from Artworx? For the Commodore 64, Atari, Apple and 
VlC-20 computers. Cassette/Diskette from $23.95. Artworx Software 
Co., Inc., 150 North Main St., Fairport, N.Y. 14450. For a free catalog of 
Artworx Software write or call 800-828-6573. 



'^^^S^ 





So you can play. 



A/rplr. AMrii ^ontmadort 64 and VH'-30 



Buying A Ticket To The i^Aagic Kingdom 



Walt Disney software runs on the NEC Trek 
computer (also known as the PC-6001A). 
Here are the prices of the components of a 
minimal NEC Trek system that will take full 
advantage of the software's features: 

NEC Trek Computer (PC-6001 A) . $349.95 

Disk Unit (PC-6031A) 549.95 

Data Recorder (PC-6082A) 99.95 

Expansion Unit (PC-6011 A) 99.95 

Extended BASIC Cartridge 49.95 

32K ROM/32K RAM Cartridge .... 49.95 

Touch Panel (PC-6051) 149.95 

Thermal Printer (PC-6021 A) 249.95 

Of course, you will also need a monitor 
or TV set to run the Walt Disney software. 

The NEC Trek is an excellent home com- 
puter system. It is attractive, its full-sized 
keyboard has a nice touch, and the display 
on computer .screen is beautiful: Large white 
characters are displayed on a rich green back- 
ground, and helpful function keys are dis- 
played, as a reminder, at the bottom of the 
screen. The system's components are equally 
attractive and are reliable, easy to attach, 
and easy to use. 

But do you need all the components 
above to run the Walt Disney software? 

You need most of the components, but 
not all. The Walt Disney software will be 
sold on cassette and disk, so you need to 
buy a data recorder ($99.95) or a disk unit 
($549.95), but not both. The data recorder is 
the way to go if you have a tight budget, but 
1 don't recommend it. The Disney software 
takes up a lot of space in the computer's mem- 
ory. Loading the programs from cassette will 
be tedious and time-consuming — not the 
way to get started on a fun learning activity 
with your child. 

In addition, you do not need the touch 
panel ($149.95) or the thermal printer 
($249.95) to make the software run. However, 
if you elect to go this low-budget route, 1 
think that you'd be better off (in the case of 
"Winnie the Pooh's Alphabet Adventures") 
with an inexpensive alphabet book for your 
child. The touch panel and the thermal 
printer are the keys to making the software 



interactive and a joyous experience for a 
young child (see my accompanying review 
with my four-year-old son Eric). Young chil- 
dren can use the touch panel and the thermal 
printer and create their own alphabet books. 

Winnie the Pooh's Alphabet Adventures 
will be partof a two-program package entitled 
Alphabet Soup. The other program will be 
Mickey's Lucky Stars and will teach letter 
sequences. Alphabet Soup is already available. 
It is just the first of five Walt Disney software 
packages. The packages teach the letters in 
the alphabet, reading, writing, spelling, and 
arithmetic. They will also help develop a 
child's problem-solving, logic, and fine motor 
abilities. Each package will cost $34.95 (disk 
or cassette). 

1 will review the forthcoming Disney 
packages in future issues of COMPUTE!. The 
reviews will appear about the time that each 
package is released. Here are the titles of all 
the packages and programs: 

Alphabet Soup (Ages 3-7) 

Winnie the Pooh's Alphabet Adven- 
tures 
Mickey's Lucky Stars 

Goblins & Galaxies (Ages 9 - 14) 

Minnie and the Haunted Mansion 
Goofy in Space 

Mathemagical Maze Craze (Ages 7-12) 
Cinderella's 3-D Maze 
Mickey's Mathemagical Mops 

Race To The Arcade (Ages 7-14) 
Donald's Word Arcade 
Dalmation Multiplication 

Countdown Carnival (Ages 7- 10) 
Mickey and the Beanstalk 
Cinderella's Beads 

If you want to learn more about the NEC 
Trek (PC-6001A) computer and the Walt Dis- 
ney software, write or call; 

The Personal Computer Division 

NEC Home Electronics USA 

1401 Estes Avenue 

Oak Grove Village, 11 60007 

312/228-5900 



152 COMPUn! December 1983 



FIRST, THE GOOD NEWS. 






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our design team again define "State of the Art." innovative gaming, cliallenge and excitement — 

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They began to use the pictures as alphabet 
flash cards and played lots of games, including 
Concentration (guess the missing letter). Scram- 
bled Letters (trying to reorganize letters to make 
up a word). Letter Match (matching up lowercase 
and uppercase letters). Tasty Letters (matching 
up flash cards with alphabet cereal letters). Al- 
phabet Clothes Line (taping the letter pictures to 
a string hanging in the room). Mystery Letters 
(letting Eric run his fingers along the clothes line, 
and trying to guess which letter he is pointing to). 

The Winnie the Pooh user's guide even had a 
short BASIC program to type in to create a new 
game. Eric and his dad typed in the game. It was 
a Mystery Letter game. It typed a sequence of 
letters on the computer's display screen, but one 
letter was missing. Eric had to guess the missing 
letter. If he got the letter right, his dad let him 
print the letter out on the computer printer. 

Typing With His Toes 

The more Eric used the Winnie the Pooh program, 
the more relaxed and creative he became. In the 
beginning, he sat stiffly in front of the computer 
keyboard and picture screen, held the touch panel 
in his lap, and drew on sheets of paper. But by 
the end of his first session things had changed 
drastically. His dad lay on his side, sprawling 
behind Eric, watching him draw his pictures. Eric 
decided he wanted to get more comfortable, too, 
so he climbed up on his dad, using him as a re- 
clining lawn chair. He stopped using the paper 
and marker to make pictures and, instead, began 
drawing pictures with his finger on the white, 
glossy plastic surface of the touch panel. It was 
like electronic finger painting, and he loved it! 

When Eric climbed on his dad the first time, 
he accidentally kicked the Expansion Panel on the 
side of the computer. Loaded in the Expansion 
Panel were a RAM cartridge and the Extended 
BASIC cartridge needed to run the program. When 
the Expansion Panel became dislodged, the screen 
went blank and the program disappeared. 

Eric pushed the Expansion Panel back against 
the computer, but he didn't want to reboot the 
disk (he'd already done that before), so his dad 
had to do it. While the program was reloading, 
Eric did backward somersaults across the bedroom 
. floor. 

His dad lay back down. Eric stopped doing 
his somersaults and climbed onto his dad again. 
As he was making himself comfortable, he pulled 
the cord out of the touch panel. His dad saw the 
cord fall off, but he didn't say anything. Eric spent 
about a minute making a drawing with his finger 
before he looked up at the computer's picture 
screen. The little picture box was still empty, 

Eric pushed all sorts of buttons on the com- 
puter before he realized that nothing was hap- 

154 COMPUTE! December 1983 



pening because the touch panel was no longer 
connected to the computer. This prompted his 
dad to deliver a little lesson on computer cables as 
"highways" for the computer's information to 
zoom back and forth from the computer to 
peripherals like the touch panel and the printer. 
Eric and his dad also discussed the pins on 
the ends of the cables, so that Eric would know 
the proper way to plug the cables into the com- 
puter and the other equipment. 

Eric got the touch panel hooked up. He 
climbed back up on his dad, dug his elbow into 
his dad's rib cage, and began drawing. But now 
the touch panel was upside down. This appealed 
to him. Everything he did on the touch panel 
showed up backwards and upside down on the 
picture screen. 

He tried typing the letters in his name. He 
tried making numbers. He made faces, houses, 
and robots. Everything appeared on the screen 
backwards and upside down. 

Eric turned the touch panel on its right side 
and drew pictures. Then he turned the panel on 
the left side. Then he turned the touch panel over 
and tried to draw pictures on its bottom. When 
he found that this didn't work, he improvised by 
drawing a picture with his knee. 

When he was done drawing, he said, "Daddy, 
please press the print button." 

"Phooey!" his dad said. "You're lying on 
me. How am I supposed to press the button?" 
"Please, Daddy?" 

When his dad heard that "Please, Daddy?" 
he couldn't resist. "I'll see what I can do," he 
said. He looked down at the computer. His bare, 
sockiess foot was only a couple of inches to the 
left of the keyboard. He lifted his leg carefully (so 
as not to dislodge Eric and his touch panel) and 
stretched his big toe toward the Fl button on the 
keyboard. He missed. The computer made 
haunted house music to show that he had pressed 
the wrong key. 

He tried again. This time his toe hit the right 
button. The printer started chugging away and 
printed Eric's picture. 

"Wow!" Eric said, impressed by his dad's 
display of pedal dexterity. Unfortunately, this 
gave Eric ideas. It opened his eyes to new ways to 
interact with computers. He knew that using his 
fingers was OK, and his sister had once operated 
her computer using her tongue. But he had never 
considered using his toes. Until now. 

The rest of the evening Eric practiced pressing 
all the buttons on the NEC Trek with his toes. 

He did pretty well, too. And his dad let him 
do it. But his dad created one rule that Eric had to 
obey. Before he could continue using the com- 
puter, he had to submit to a thorough sponge 
bath of both feet. © 




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An excellent book for the beginner. 
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Games for the ATARI Computer 
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Introduction to machine language for the 

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ATMS APPLICATION DISK 
All programs and machine language sub- 
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This wordprocessor is an excellent buy 
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Order-No. 7217 cartridge £69.00 



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SUPERBOOKS for your C-64 
The Great Book of Games, Vol. I 
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Expansion Board (holds 4 exp, boards) 
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Tricks for VICs (Book) 
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Learning With Computers 



Glenn M. Kleimon 



Are you interested in learning the Logo language? 
Or have you already begun using Logo or teaching 
it to others? If so, have you or your students en- 
countered any confusion that was frustrating and 
delayed progress? Would you like more guidance 
in understanding and explaining what you have 
heard called the "powerful ideas" inherent in 
Logo? Do you want to go beyond simple turtle 
graphics commands and explore more complex 
procedures, recursion, and language processing? 
Would you like suggestions from a Logo expert 
who is also an experienced teacher of the lan- 
guage? If you have answered yes to any of these 
questions, then I recommend that you get a copy 
of Learning with Logo by Daniel Watt (McGraw-Hill, 
1983, $19.95). 

I have used the version of this book designed 
for MIT (that is. Terrapin or Krell) Logo for the 
Apple Computer. It contains an appendix ex- 
plaining differences between MIT Logo, Apple 
Logo, and TI Logo. Another version of the book 
is available specifically for users of Apple Logo. 
Versions for Atari Logo and Commodore 64 Logo 
are forthcoming. 

Learning with Logo is designed to be used with 
a preprogrammed disk. The disk contains "tool" 
procedures that can be used as if they were built-in 
Logo commands. These procedures support many 
of the lessons in the book. The disk also contains 
longer programming examples so you can explore 
them without first typing them. You can order a 
copy of the disk for Apple, MIT, or TI Logo. The 
cost is S15.95, and the author gives permission to 
make a copy of the disk for anyone else who has 
purchased the book. All the procedures on the 
disk are given in an appendix of the book, so you 
can also type and save them on a disk yourself. 

A Wealth Of Information 

Learning with Logo is 365 pages long, divided into 
an introduction, 14 chapters, 4 appendices, and 
an index. Each chapter begins with a list of the 
commands and procedures introduced in that 
chapter, and then gives explanations and ex- 
amples of how they can be used. The book is well 
illustrated with clever cartoons and pictures of 
what you should see on the computer screen as 
you work through the examples. 

Chapter 1 gets you started with Logo. It ex- 
plains how to load Logo into the computer, use 

156 COMPUTE! December1983 



the keyboard, and enter commands. It also intro- 
duces the turtle and the FORWARD, BACK- 
WARD, LEFT, and RIGHT commands. Chapter 2 
covers the remaining turtle graphics commands. 

Chapter 3 contains two special turtle activities 
called Shoot and Quickdraw. They are ready to 
load and use. How they are programmed is dis- 
cussed later in more advanced chapters. 

Shoot is a simple game. The computer draws 
a target in a randomly selected position on the 
screen and places the turtle elsewhere. The player 
uses LEFT and RIGHT commands to turn the 
turtle directly toward the target and then specifies 
how far forward the turtle should move to reach 
the target. This game is designed to help children 
learn to estimate angles and distances, 

Quickdraw is a simple drawing tool. There 
are six simple commands: F moves the turde for- 
ward 20 steps; B moves it backward 20 steps; R 
turns the turtle 30 degrees to the right; L turns it 
30 degrees to the left; E ends the drawing and lets 
you give the picture a name; and RD followed by 
a name of one of your pictures tells the computer 
to redraw it. Quickdraw is usable by young chil- 
dren and introduces some of the major concepts 
of Logo, including building complex shapes out 
of simple building blocks. 

Chapter 4 explains how you can teach the 
computer new Logo procedures. It also explains 
how to use the Logo screen editor and how to 
save procedures on a disk. 

Chapters 5 and 6 further elaborate the use of 
turtle graphics commands and procedures. It pre- 
sents sample projects in which Logo procedures 
are used to create designs and pictures. 

Chapter 7 introduces the important concept 
of variables. It also covers some of the ways pro- 
cedures can be programmed to interact and ex- 
change information. This includes an explanation 
of recursive procedures. 

Chapter 8 further explores the concepts in- 
troduced in Chapter 7. It explains a procedure 
called POLY, which is used to draw polygons. 
POLY has two variables: SIZE (of a side) and 
ANGLE (number of degrees). Many different 
patterns and designs can be created by changing 
these variables and recursively repeating the 
POLY procedure. 

Chapter 9 introduces the fundamental com- 
mands for working with numbers, words, and 








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For use with the Apple II 
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New PLATO® lessons in 
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Help your child feel confident 
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This new PLATO series helps 
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keep kids motivated. 

New PLATO lessons in 
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This series helps kids understand 
the computer and lets them 
practice what they learn. 



Lessons include: The Computer 
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Widen your child's world 

Other PLATO lessons include 
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All PLATO micro courseware 
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For a free catalog 

See the growing line of PLATO 
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call toll-free: 800-233-3784. 
(In Calif, call 800-233-3785.) 
Or write; Control Data 
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lists. These complete the basics needed to begin 
working with the four larger projects described in 
Chapters 10 through 13, 

Chapters 10 and 11 explain in detail the pro- 
grams for the Shoot and Quickdraw activities 
introduced in Chapter 3. The project in Chapter 
12 is a race-track game which shows how simple 
animations can be created. The final project, de- 
scribed in Chapter 13, uses the Hst-processing 
commands for working with language. The pro- 
gram has the computer randomly select words 
from different sets and combine them into sen- 
tences and "poems." 

The final chapter explains how the special 
tool procedures on the disk operate. These include 
procedures for drawing circles and arcs, deter- 
mining the distance between the turtle and a 
specified point, counting the number of letters in 
a word or w^ords in a list, and several others. 

The appendices explain how to create your 
own disk of the procedures used in the book; dis- 
cuss the differences among MIT, Apple, and TI 
Logo; explain the use of disks and files; and pre- 
sent a summary of Logo commands. 

As this description of the chapters suggests, 
the book contains a wealth of information about 
Logo. The early chapters are suitable for complete 
beginners while the later ones explain sophisti- 
cated programming techniques. The book goes 
well beyond turtle graphics to explain how Logo 
can be used with numbers, words, and lists. The 
examples and discussions are all clearly and care- 
fully presented. The material is well-sequenced, 
with the lessons and programs in each chapter 
building on what was learned in prior chapters. 
The many illustrations aid both understanding 
and interest. And i have not yet described what I 
regard as the best features of this book. 

Helpful Cartoon Symbols 

Special cartoon symbols mark what the author 
calls pitfalls, explorations, powerful ideas, and helper's 
hints. Each symbol marks information that goes 
beyond the description and explanation of Logo 
to provide additional guidance and insight. 

Pitfalls are confusions or difficulties that many 
people encounter while learning Logo. The pitfall 
symbol (a turtle which has fallen into a trap) marks 
explanations that will help you avoid or get out of 
pitfalls. Some pitfalls are simple reminders for 
beginners, like putting a space between a FOR- 
WARD command and the number of steps the 
turtle is to move. Others, such as pitfalls in using 
recursive procedures, are for more advanced users 
of Logo. 

Powerful ideas help you think more clearly 
and solve problems with the computer more easily. 
Some of these ideas, such as dividing a complex 
problem into a series of simpler ones, will also 

158 COMPUTE! December l^iBS 



help you solve problems that do not involve the 
computer at all. A cartoon symbol of a turtle with 
a bright idea designates explanations of powerful 
ideas. These explanations are important for helping 
learners see the general principles while they 
work with specific examples. 

Explonifious are necessary to become profi- 
cient with Logo, but most learners need sugges- 
tions for things to explore. These are provided 
throughout the book, marked by a picture of a 
turtle with a map and spyglass. Many of the ex- 
plorations are suggestions for modifying and ex- 
tending programs given in the book.' 

Helper's hints explain difficult points and pit- 
falls more fully, suggest learning activities, and 
give other practical suggestions for teaching. 
These are marked by a symbol showing two turtles 
— an older and a younger one — helping each 
other learn by shining a bright light on the subject. 
Helper's hints can help you learn more about 
Logo and help you teach others. 

Daniel Watt, the author of Leiirniii;^ zoith U\'^o, 
is a former researcher with the MIT Logo group 
and an experienced Logo teacher. The clarity, 
organization, and special aids in this book reflect 
both his expertise with the language and his abili- 
ties as a teacher. Learni)i(^ with Lo^o comes closer 
to bringing a master teacher to your side than any 
other book 1 have seen ipt 






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GET THE JUMP ON MATH 



"^» 



With Scott, Foresman 
Math Action Games 



Frog Jump is a great way for your children to learn 
to work with numbers. Or they can take a Space 
Journey to learn how to work with percents. 
Pyramid Puzzler, Star Maze, Picture Parts, and 
Number Bowling help with multiplication. . . 
division. . . basic facts. . . decimals and fractions. 

Math Action Games get youngsters deeply 
involved in the excitement of discovering and 
mastering fundamental mathematics. Children 
have fun and learn at the same time. 

There's a Math Action Game for every age 
group. Exciting formats challenge participants, 
moving them through three levels of difficulty. 
Games can be competitive or non-competitive, 
so children play them again and again. Each 
game uses color, music, animation, and sound 
effects to trigger quick thinking and accurate 
response. 

Math Action Games can give your youngster 
the incentives and the satisfaction he needs 
to master math. It's an ideal supplement to 
any school mathematics program. Games 
are available for most popular 
microcomputers. 

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Products with tomorrow in mind. 





Buy Math Action Games wherever 
quality software is sold or write: 



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and Company 

Electronic Publishing Division 

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On The Road With Fred D'Ignazio 



The Electronic Chalkboards: 
The BBC And The Powerpad 



The Only Computer To Hove When 
You're Having More Than One 

Last spring I went to London and taught a course 
on robotics literacy. According to the Daily Tele- 
graph, the classroom where we met was like a 
"composite of several scenes out of Dr. Who." We 
had robot turtles and robot buggies rolling around 
on the floor, and robot arms waving and weaving 
on the tops of our desks. And we had 15 BBC 
microcomputers linked together in the BBC's 
Econet local area network. The students used the 
BBCs to control the robot arms, to learn Logo and 
BASIC, and to perform experiments with robot 
sensors. 

The 15 BBCs all received their programs from 
a single disk drive (the fileserver) in the front of 
the classroom. They all used a single printer (the 
printserver) to type out files, programs, and student 
papers and assignments. 

David Barnett, the course's computer in- 
structor, used a BBC as the demonstration com- 
puter. David's BBC was connected to a large tele- 
vision set mounted on a shelf so all the students 
could see it. The computer acted like the course's 
electronic chalkboard. David ran programs on his 
computer, and they appeared on the big TV. Then 
he pressed a button, and a copy of his computer's 
screen appeared on the screens of all the students' 
computers. 

The system was even more flexible than this. 
The students all worked on individual and team 
projects. When they finished their projects, they 
made presentations. To aid their presentations 
the students could send copies of their screens to 
all the other students' screens. 

And David, in front of the class, could help 
individual students if they got bogged down in a 
program. By pressing a couple of buttons on his 
computer, he could take a snapshot of the screen 

160 COMPUTE! December 1983 



on a student's computer. After studying the stu- 
dent's problem, he could take control of the stu- 
dent's keyboard and type in a command or piece 
of information. The student could watch all this 
on his or her own screen. A moment later, David 
would return control to the student, and the stu- 
dent could resume running the program on 
his own. 

This was a tremendous feature. When I am 
teaching a course and a student asks me a ques- 
tion, I often have to sit down at the student's com- 
puter in order to decide what is going on and 
what to suggest. If you have 15 students, and 
they are all asking questions, it can get pretty 
hecttc running from computer to computer. 

The BBC network eliminates this problem. 
You can stay seated at your own computer and, 
with the push of a button, you can "hop" to any 
student's computer, diagnose his or her problem, 
and enter the appropriate response. This feature 
alone, in my opinion, makes the BBC network 
extremely valuable. 

The Only Computer That Majors In 
Education 

Acorn Computers Ltd. sells the BBC computer in 
England. Its subsidiary. Acorn Computers Cor- 
poration, is now selling the BBC in the United 
States. Acorn can be reached at: 

Acorn Computers Corporation 
400 Unicorn Park Drive 
Wobtirn, MA 0J801 
(617)935-1190 

The company is concentrating its efforts ex- 
clusively on the $700 million US education market. 
Two years ago, the Acorn computer won a contest 
sponsored by the British Broadcasting Corporation 
and was given permission to name its computer 
the BBC. Acorn has since sold BBC computers to 
85 percent of British primary and secondary 



JUMPMAN'SAGREATGAME. 
BUT YOU'VE GOTTO WATCH YOUR STEP. 









Meet the Alienators. A fiend- 
ish bunch who've planted bombs 
throughout your Jupiter Command 
Headquarters. 

TOur job? Use your lightning 
speed to scale ladders, scurry 
across girders, climb ropes and race 
through 30 levels to defuse the bombs before they go off. 

That's the kind of hot, non-stop action we've 
packed into the award-winning* best-selling JumpmanT 
and into Jumpman Jr.'" our new cartridge version with 
12 all-new, different and exciting screens. 

Both games force you to make tough choices. 
Should you avoid that Alienator, climb to the top 



and try to work your way down, or try to hurdle 
him and defuse the bombs closest to you 
before they go off? 

If you move fast you'll earn extra lives. 
But if you're not careful, it's a long way down. 
So jump to it. And find out why jTumpman 
and Jumpman Jr. are on a level all their own. 

One to four players; 8 speeds: joystick 
control. Jumpman has 30 screens. Jumpman Jr. 
has 12 screens. 




smatar gmbs ton imkcnw-Guia pumt. 



•1983 C.K.S. award winner. 











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In 60 years we 've learned a lot about devel- 
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numbers and patterns. 



With Turtle Tracks^ youngsters 9 and up 
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Microzine "'is an innovation in computer 
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kids read, "talk" to and help write. It stim- 
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There's nothing like a learning party to get 
kids excited about education. That's the 
idea behind Electronic Party." a maze game 
in which children 5 to 8 also create original 
computer graphics 

Scholastic Wizware" is compatible with 
ApptefAtarif TI-99/4A. VIC-20.''- Commo- 
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^P Scholastic 
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'Graphics created with Penguin Software s Graphics Magician. Apple is a registered lradenarl< of Apple Computer Inc Atari is a registered trademark ot Atari Division. V^rner Communicalans^ 
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Five-i/ear-old /t'ss/'m Harvey is playing a BBC leiiniiii;^ fame 
callcil Missing Signs. 

schools. This amounts to 150,000 computers al- 
ready installed and 30,000 new computers going 
out each month. 

The US version of the computer is equivalent 
to the more powerhil BBC/B version. For the hefty 
$995 price tag, you do not get a monitor, a printer, 
or a disk drive. But you do get 64K RAM/ROM, 
an additional 80K ROM, built-in BASIC, a (TI) 
voice synthesizer, built-in word processing, high- 
resolution graphics (640 x 200 pixels), multi- 
channel sound, and a software switchable 40- or 
80-character screen. 

The computer comes with either an RS-423 or 
Centronics parallel port and with the Econet net- 
work interface built-in. The actual network, in- 
cluding software, costs $595, and enables you to 
connect up to 254 computers on an inexpensive, 
four-wire, telephonelike cable. The 6502 processor 
can be augmented to include an additional 6502 
processor, or a Z80, or 32-bit National Semicon- 
ductor 16032 processor, 

A 440K disk drive costs an additional $545; an 
BOOK disk drive costs $995. Acorn offers a mono- 
chrome monitor for $195. The computer will sup- 
port any of the popular printers, over the serial or 
parallel ports. 

I know from having used the computer in 
England that the operating system and the com- 
puter's version of BASIC are a programmer's de- 
light — extremely powerful yet simple to use. But 
Acorn's marketing strategy in the US will focus 
on the software that has been developed for the 
machine. Two hundred fifty educational packages 
have already been created for the BBC and ap- 
proved by Acorn's prestigious nine-member Edu- 
cational Advisory Board. 

In addition, 2,500 software companies pro- 
duce software for the BBC in England and in West- 
ern Europe. Many of these companies are mod- 
ifying and enhancing their packages so they will 
meet the board's approval and be available on the 
US version of the machine. 

164 COMPUTC! December 1983 



We Give Courses On How To Give 
Courses 

According to Harvey Lawner, general manager 
and senior vice president of Acorn (US), "Educa- 
tion is our main business. It is not an after- 
thought." Lawner is critical of computer com- 
panies that concentrate on getting a computer 
into a classroom, but do not provide direct and 
immediate support. "We aren't just selling a com- 
puter," Lawner contends. "We are selling a total 
learning system." 

Lawner's national marketing director. Bob 
Angelo, contrasts his company's approach with 
the hardware-first approach adopted by other 
American companies. "They're selling boxes," he 
says. "We're selling solutions." 

For an educational software package to be 
approved by the Educational Board, it must be 
supported by a lesson plan, a student's workbook, 
a teacher's guide, student notes, and (when ap- 
propriate) student experiments. This print coinpo- 
iiciit forms an integral part of Acorn's effort to 
turn the computer into a tool that any teacher can 
use no matter how little experience he or she has 
had with a computer. 

Acorn's philosophy is to package the BBC in 
a way to make it as familiar as possible to the av- 
erage teacher. The software, for example, comes 
in boxes that look like quality, hardcover, linen 
textbooks. 




Acorn Computers Corporation is tri/iu<i to make the BBC 

computer look familiar ami uontluvatciiing to teachers. Even 
the software is packaged to look tike classroom textbooks. 
(Please note: The "books" in this plioto arc oversized.) 



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According to Angelo, Acorn isolated two 
problems which have inhibited the introduction 
of microcomputers in the classroom. First, most 
of the software currently appearing in the class- 
room is often three to four years old, or even much 
older. The old software does not reflect the newest 
philosophies in educational computing and does 
not make use of the advanced hardware capa- 
bilities of the newer microcomputers. 

Second, computers in school are being used 
only by a relatively small number of teachers and 
students. Most teachers are fearful of the com- 
puters and don't see how a computer can make a 
valuable contribution to their own teaching. 

Angelo says that Acorn will attack both these 
problems head on. First, Acorn is commissioning 
the development of a huge quantity of new soft- 
ware for use in classrooms on the BBC computer. 
Second, the Acorn board is helping software com- 
panies to translate to the BBC the best new soft- 
ware currently running on other machines. 

Chalk Board's PowerPad 

Last week I flew to New York and got a chance to 
preview one of the most exciting new products 
on the market — the PowerPad, a touch-sensitive 
tablet in a 20-inch-by-17-inch hard plastic case. 
The PowerPad plugs into VIC-20, Commodore 
64, IBM PC, Apple, and Atari computers. 

The PowerPad can replace the keyboard as 
the primary means of inputting information into 
the computer, especially for children. It has 
numerous mylar overlays which easily clip on top 
of the 12-inch-by-12-inch touch-sensitive pad. 
Each overlay is a new keyboard, a keyboard with 
colorful shapes and figures. 

The PowerPad has only a few "keys" on each 
overlay, so the child or the beginning user isn't 
overwhelmed by choices. 

The "keys" are large and in bright primary 
colors. Printed on them are bold words (RED or 
PLAY) and symbols such as # or *. They are sepa- 
rated by plenty of space to make typing simple. 

The PowerPad features a novel design in 
which signals from the tablet are digitally sensed 
and encoded. A grid of 14,400 contact points (100 
points per square inch) is sandwiched inside the 
PowerPad. The points can record one contact at a 
time or a dozen contacts. Older touch pads can 
sense only one finger at a time. But kids (and 
adults) can put all their fingers on the PowerPad 
at the same time, and the PowerPad will sense all 
of them and transmit the proper signals to the 
computer. 

This capability is especially nice with the 
PowerPad's music software and overlay. Micro 
Maestro. The overlay has a piano keyboard at the 
bottom and a musical score in the middle, with 
colorful "buttons" for each note on the score. A 

166 COMPimi December 1983 




PowerPad tvifh its 12 x 12 inch touch-sensitive surface, and 
two selections from Leonardo's Library, MicroMaestro and 
Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush. 

child can play a musical chord on the piano 
keyboard by pressing all three fingers on different 
keys at the same time. This would be impossible 
on any other touch pad. 

Another software-and-overlay package, Leo's 
'Lectric Paintbrush, helps a child create colorful 
pictures on the computer. Again the multicontact 
feature of the PowerPad becomes especially use- 
ful. Before drawing each new part of the picture, 
the child can press the Pen Up button on the upper 
left-hand corner of the PowerPad. Immediately a 
pen tip appears. The child can change the color of 
the ink being used by pressing one of the colorful 
paint keys on the upper right-hand corner of the 




This family is usin^ the PoiverPad with tlie overlay for Leo's 
'Lectric PaintbriiHh, which allows you So "paint" colorful 
pictures on the computer screen with your finger. Using the 
"buttons" at the top, you can create shapes, move them around 
on the screen, create copies, and then save an entire screen 
onto tape or disk. 





fs. 





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levels of ploy 
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Can you protect the fruil in the or- 
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It tokes speed and precision to 
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crew. Con you lock them up be- 
fore they destroy you ond your 
spoceship? 7 levels of ploy 
Atori* 400.600, XL Series ond VIC-20" 

Test your skill os unit commonder 
of the city's defense forces. De- 
stroy the Qtiocking bombers, but 
wotch out, don't get hit yourself, 
a levels of ploy 



!«TtiiC'l*'<'.'*i'l*IVi1^T^i[4m*Ti>mJL^^<*JI 



Look for TG Products' ENJOYSTICK" 
its unique styling allows a 
more coordinated tracking/firing 
action and the switchoble firing 
button is odoptoble for right or left 
honded ploy. 



1104',„ ,. 

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'Aiori400.S00. ond XL Series ore trodemarhs of Atari, Inc. "VIC-20 is o irademoik of Commodore E!eorof> 
AbrocQdobro , Ozzy's Orchard, Nightstrike, Dioids ond ENJ0Y5TICK ore Trademarks of TG Products. 










Robert H. Ranson, President of Chalk Board, showhig the 
PowerPad fitted witii the MicroMaestro overlay. 

board. When the child picks a new color, the color 
of the pen tip changes to that color. 



Leonardo's Library 

The PowerPad costs $99.95. It is supported by a 
large and growing body of educational software, 
called Leonardo's Library. Programs in the library 
will cost between $25 and $50, The library will 
include programs focusing on visual arts, music, 
math, science, language arts, and social studies. 
Included among the first programs are: 

• Leo's 'Lectric Paintbrush. An electronic finger- 
painting kit. 

• Micro Maestro. Turns the PowerPad into a 
piano keyboard. 

'Music Math. Lets children explore the re- 
lationships between math and music. 

• PrograiiDiier's Kit. Lets older children and 
adults write their own software and develop 
their own creative uses for the PowerPad. 

FowerPads and programs in Leonardo's Li- 
brary are already available at K mart, Apple Com- 
puter dealers, and many other computer and 
discount stores. If vou would like to know more 
about the PowerPad, you can contact Chalk Board 
directly: 

Chalk Board, Inc. 

3772 Pleasanldale Road 

Atlanta, GA 30340 

(404)496-0701 © 




/iMiD 



"An Qftroctive, challenginc^ 
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the player." 

"A five-yeor-oldrcoflih^rrrdie 
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levels — higher skill levels 
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"Using Flower Pp5»eriM3 
Fun regularly, for even 
short time, shorp^S"^ 
one's moth obilifi^sS 



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If you're right, the weed is replaced 
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• Includes whole numbers, fractions, 
ond decimols— allows ployer to 
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plicotion, division, or dedmol/froction 
conversion. 

• Effective for o child just leorning 
math and challenging to on oduS 
wishing to refine his obillties. 

• Automoticolly oc^usts level of difficulty. 
At the end of each session, your skill 
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levels for all 13 gomes con be 
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Conimodmgp 4yApolPII+ri|le; and IBM PC ore Irodemorhs of Commodore 
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168 COMPtTFE! December19e3 




0' 



vAA^NiL 




ANNOUNCING 

A NEW GAME 

SO ORIGINAL 

Y3U NEED INSIDE SECRETS 

JUST TO SURVIVE...MUCH LESS WIN! 

7<[ow In Every Dragon Haw\Pac\age: Free Strategy Cards. 



Great new game — great new way to 
play. You are the Dragon Hawk, soaring 
to attack — and escape from — a host of 
flying monsters. Each time 
you press the trigger on your -^soi^crte" 

joystick, the hawk s wings 
flap, lifting you into position 
to dive, talons extended. 

One pounce and another 
phoenix bird or flying iquana is reduced 
to a mere floating feather. But if you 
fail to get above your enemies . . . zap! 
You ve had it! And you ve got to avoid 
the massive lightning bolts, too. 

Finally, on the seventh level, you come 




face to fece with the dragon himself. But 

you won t be alone. 

To get you there faster and make play 
ing Dragon Hawk more fun 
than any Commodore 64 game 
ever, you 11 have help at your 
fingertips. Strategy cards with key 
tips on crucial parts of the game 
are included free in your package. 
Get your claws on Dr^on Hawk right 

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You 11 find Dragon Hawk for the Com ' 

modore64 with disk drive at your local 

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Commodore 64 is a trademark of 
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umi 



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FRIENDS OF THE TURTLE 



David D. Thornburg, Associate Editor 




A Turtle Resource Update 



When we started "Friends Of The Turtle" in 1982, 
there were very few turtle graphics languages 
available in the marketplace, and even fewer books 
and other resources on this topic. In less than two 
years, the number of turtle-based activities and 
resources has exploded. Because many of you 
may not be able to keep up with all the activity in 
this area, I thought that it might be a good time to 
update the turtle resource list. 

As hard as I try, 1 know this list will be quite 
incomplete. It's almost impossible to be com- 
pletely up-to-date, so, if you have written a book 
or language that specifically relates to turtle 
graphics or to languages such as Logo, and it 
doesn't appear on this list, please send me a copy 
for review. 1 only write about things I have seen 
with my own eyes — a habit that is essential in 
this dynamic industry. 

Books 

There are several books on turtle graphics available 
today, with new titles available every month or 
so. Because of the considerable interest in turtle 
graphics by young computer users, I have labeled 
each entry with a level. Generally, Level A books 
are suitable for kindergartners through fourth 
grade. Level B books are for fifth grade and up, 
and Level C is for college through adult readers. 

H. Abelson, Logo for the Apple U, Byte Books/ 
McGraw-Hill, 1982. Level C. 

H. Abelson, Apple Logo, Byte Books/McGraw-Hill, 
1982. Level C. 

H. Abelson and A. diSessa, Turtle Geometry: The 
Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics, 
MIT Press, 1981. Level C. 

D. Bearden, 1,2,3, My Computer ami Me: A Logo 
Fun Book for Kids, Reston, 1983. Level A. 

170 COMPUTE December 1983 



D. Bearden, K. Martin, and J. Muller, The Turtle's 
Sourcebook, Reston, 1983. Level A, B, C. 

G. G. Bitter and N. R. Watson, Apple Logo Primer, 
Reston, 1983. Level B, C. 

J. D. Burnett, Logo: An Introduction, Creative 
Computing Press, 1982. Level A. 
P. Coburn et al.. Practical Guide to Computers in 
Education, Addison-Wesley, 1982. Level C. 

A. Goldberg and D. Robson, Smalltalk-80: The 
Language and Its Implementation, Addison-Wesley, 
1983. Level C. 

E. P. Goldenberg, Special Technology for Special 
Children: Computers to Serve Communication and 
Autonomy in the Education of Handicapped Children, 
University Park Press, 1979. Level C. 

P. Kelmanetal., Computers in Teaching Mathematics, 
Addison-Wesley, 1983. Level C. 

H. Kohl, T. Kahn, and D. Disharoon, Atari PILOT 
Activities and Games, Reston, 1983. Level B. 
S. Papert, Mimistorms: Children, Computers, and 
Powerful Ideas, Basic Books, 1980. Level C. 
R. P. Taylor, The Computer in the School: Tutor, 
Tool, Tutee, Teacher's College Press, 1980. Level C. 

D. D. Thornburg, Picture This! — An Introduction 
to Computer Graphics for Kids of All Ages (for Atari 
PILOT), Addison-Wesley, 1982. Level B. 
D. D. Thornburg, Picture This Too! — An Intro- 
duction to Computer Graphics for Kids of All Ages 
(for Apple SuperPILOT), Addison-Wesley, 1982. 
Level B. 

D. D. Thornburg, Computer Art and Animation: A 
Guide to TI Logo, Addison-Wesley, 1983. Level B. 

D. D. Thornburg, Computer Art and Animation: A 
Guide to Radio Shack Color Logo, Addison-Wesley, 
1983. Level B. 




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EUCHRE (ATARI) 

WAR GAMES 

LEIPZIG 1813 (ATARI) 
SHILOH 1862 (ATARI) 
IRONCLADS (CPM) 

ADVENTURE 

CRANSTON MANOR (CPM) 
WINDMERE ESTATE 

(NORTH STAR/APPLE) 
ZODIAC CASTLE (NORTH STAR/ APPLE) 
STARSHIP LANDING PARTY (TRS) 
GENESIS-THE CREATOR (APPLE) 
VALLEY OF THE KINGS (ATARI) 

GAMES 

VALDEZ (ALL) 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR (ALL) 

BACKGAMMON 2.0 (ALL) 

MANAGEMENT SIMULATOR (ALL) 

CHESS MASTER (CPM/TRS) 

STARBASE3.2(ALL) 

CACTUS LEAGUE BASEBALL (ATARI) 

FINAL ASSEMBLY (ATARI) 

l;^(;lM;ERl^(; siAiisiRS 

DIGITAL FILTER (ALL) 
HARMONIC ANALYZER (ALL) 
BASIC SCIENTIFIC SUBS. Vol. 1 (ALL) 
BASIC SCIENTIFIC SUBS. Vol. 2 (ALL) 
BASIC STATISTICAL SUBS. (ALL) 
CELESTIAL BASIC (APPLE) 
ACTIVE CIRCUIT ANALYSIS (ALL) 
BEAM DEFLECTION (ALL) 
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ALL) 
PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS (APPLE) 
STATTEST (ALL) 



29.95 
22.95 
23.95 
33.95 
19.95 



$ 33.95 
S 33.95 
$ 29.95 



$ 19.95 

$ 29.95 
$ 29.95 
S 19.95 
$ 49.95 
$ 29.95 



S 23.95 
I 23.95 
$ 23.95 
$ 29.95 
$ 23.95 
S 17.95 
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$ 53.95 

$ 33.95 

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S129.95 

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S 49.95 

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ADD $3.00 FOR DOUBLE DENSITY, S2.50 for 8" 



THESE ARE ONLY A FEW OF THE HUNDREDS OF PROGRAMS 
IN THE DYNACOMP LIBRARY. 

Besides being the leading distributor of microcomputer software, DYNACOMP 
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D. D. Thornburg, Even/ Kid's First Book of Robots 
ami Computers, COMPUTE! Books, 1982.' Level A. 

D. D. Thornburg, Discovering Apple Logo: An Invi- 
tation to the Art and Pattern of Nature, Addison- 
Wesley, 1983. Level B, C. 

D. Watt, Learning With Logo, McGraw-Hill, 1983. 
Level B. 

Computer Languages And Products 

In addition to ttie commercial languages shown 
here, COMPUTE! has published versions of PILOT 
to BASIC interpreters that include turtle graphics. 
These articles started in September 1982 with a 
version for the Apple by Alan Poole. 

Apple computers: 

Apple Logo (disk from Apple) 
Terrapin Logo (disk from Terrapin) 
Krell Logo (disk from Krell) 
Delta Drawing (disk from Spinnaker) 
Atari computers: 

Atari PILOT (cartridge from Atari) 
Atari Logo (cartridge from Atari) 
WSFN (disk from Atari APX) 
Delta Drawing (cartridge from Spinnaker) 

Commodore computers: 

Commodore 64 Logo (disk from Commodore) 

COMAL (Commodore 64 disk from COMAL 
User's Group, Len Lindsay, Madison, WI) 

Turtle Graphics II (Commodore 64 cartridge 
from HES) 

Delta Drawing (cartridge from Spinnaker) 
IBM computers: 

Dr. Logo (disk from Digital Research) 

Delta Drawing (disk from Spinnaker) 
Radio Shack computers: 

Radio Shack Color Computer (disk or car- 
tridge from Radio Shack) 

Texas Instruments computers: 

TI Logo (cartridge from Texas Instruments) 
Robots: 

TOPO (remote-controlled robot from 

Androbot) 
RB-5X (self-contained robot from RB-Robotics) 
Hero-1 (self-contained robot from Heath) 

Organizations 

The following organizations provide generally 
nonoverlapping views into the community of 
users of languages like Logo. 

Asociacion Amigos de Logo 

Salguero 2969 

1425 Buenos Aires, Argentina 

Friends of LISP/Logo and Kids (FOLLK) 

436 Arbalo Dr. 

San Francisco, CA 94132 

172 COMPUTE! Decembeft983 



National Logo Exchange 

P.O. Box 5341 
Charlottesville, VA 22905 

Young People's Logo Association 

1208 Hillsdale Dr. 
Richardson, TX 75081 

A Note About "Friends Of The Turtle" 

I have received overwhelming support from you 
all in the last two years. Together we have seen 
turtle graphics and the languages that support it 
move from relative obscurity to the forefront of 
the personal computer experience. In the be- 
ginning there was little to keep track of — and 
more time to help people on a direct basis. Now 
the vision we all shared has become reality — 
high quality turtle graphics environments are 
available on most of the personal computers on 
the market today. In keeping with this change, I 
have decided to focus all my activities for "Friends 
Of The Turtle" on this monthly column. As always, 
I want to hear from you with your ideas and pro- 
grams that you would like shared with your fellow 
readers. Those of you wishing to join an organiza- 
tion that supports your interest should contact the 
organizations listed above. Each is excellent and 
can provide many valuable services to members. 
Thank you for a wonderful two years — may 
the next years be as exciting. Q 



C-64 VIC 20 ATARI 



CHILD 

DEVELOPMENT 
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Displays single or multiple 

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Both software movies have interactive games that 
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Features of the software include: 

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• Original Musical Scores 

• Superior Full-Color Graphics 

• Optional Joystick Control 

• Machine Language Programs 

Relax and enjoy yourself. Let Max, Clover, and their 
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and learning. You'll be amazed at how real they are! 



tm tu 

STORYLINE and SAFETYLINE are currently available for any Atari computer 
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>!/ 'y^ 



Questions Beginners ^sk 



Tom R Halfhill, Features Editor 



Are you thinking about buying a computer for the first 
time, but don't know much about computers? Or maybe 
you just purchased a computer and are still a bit baffled. 
Each month in this column, COMPUTE! will answer 
some questions commonly asked by beginners. 



What is the best way to mail computer 
tapes and disks? 

A As carefully as possible. 
Many tapes and disks arrive at COMPUTE! 
Publications every month. The vast majority sur- 
vive the mails unscathed, thanks to careful 
packing and postal handling. But cracked plastic 
cassette boxes and crumpled envelopes show that 
some of them have had a bumpy trip. 

Cassettes seem to fare better than disks be- 
cause of their rigid plastic enclosures. If you need 
to mail only a few programs, a cassette might be 
safer. Be sure to use an unbreakable plastic cassette 
box instead of the standard Philips box. 

Disks should always be mailed in the stiff 
cardboard mailers available at some stationery 
shops and computer stores. 

For either tapes or disks, use a padded en- 
velope if possible, or wrap the media with paper 
or foam. Plainly mark the envelope with these 
warnings: "Handle With Care," "Hand Stamp 
Only," and "Magnetic Media Enclosed — Keep 
Away From Electric Motors And Othei Magnetic 
Sources." Wrapping the media with aluminum 
foil offers little or no protection against magnetic 
fields. 

If you find yourself regularly mailing pro- 
grams to friends, you might want to consider 
ec^uipping your respective computers with mo- 
dems and transmitting the programs over the 
phone. This is also a lot faster and sometimes 
even cheaper. 

QI am new to home computing. I bought an 
Atari 800 with a cassette recorder in Sep- 
tember. I understand some of the advantages of 
disk storage versus the cassette, but would like 
to know some of the disadvantages, if any. I also 

174 COMPUTE! December 1983 



don't understand why Atari's 810 disk drive is so 
expensive (about S450). Are there disk drives for 
this machine that are more moderately priced? 

A There are a few disadvantages to disk drives 
as opposed to cassette recorders, but most 
people find the balance weighs heavily in tavor of 
disks. 

Probably the biggest disadvantage is the one 
alluded to in the second part of your question: the 
higher cost of a disk drive. Ironically, a year or 
two ago your question would have seemed strange 
to most computer hobbyists, because at that time 
$450 or even $550 was considered a good price for 
a disk drive. Since then, prices of personal com- 
puters have been dropping as drastically as were 
prices of hand-held calculators in the mid-1970s. 
However, as you've noticed, prices of certain 
peripheral equipment — such as disk drives and 
printers — have dropped relatively less There 
are two general reasons for this. 

First, computers are largely solid-state devices 
with virtually no moving mechanical parts except 
for their keyboards. Their major components are 
silicon "chips" — memory chips and micropro- 
cessors. Rapidly declining manufacturing costs 
for chips account for much of the computer price- 
cutting. But disk drives and printers are more 
mechanical than electronic. They are complex 
machines with scores of precision moving parts. 
It is much harder to cut costs because mechanical 
technology is not advancing nearly as fast as elec- 
tronic technology. 

Second, the well-publicized price war of 1982- 
83, primarily between Atari, Commodore, and 
Texas Instruments, forced computer prices to 
drop even lower. Peripherals were not as affected 
by the price war partly because many dealers were 
selling computers "at cost," and then depending 
upon peripherals and software for profits. 

For these reasons it is likely that prices of 
disk drives and printers will continue to decline 
only slowly. It is difficult to economize without 
sacrificing precision and reliability. Cassette 
recorders, at less than S90, will remain attractive 
alternatives. 



o<Se*^' 




TG Produos brings a new meaning to the 
word ambidexfrous . . . ihe revolurionQty, 
new ENJOYSTICK'" features o unique fire but- 
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for tight or left bonded pioy. 

The EKJOYSTICK is also styled for the noturol 
gripping oction of the hand, olbwing o more 
coordinored tracking firing action for in- 
creosed scores and less forigue, especially 
during extended ploy. The self-centering 
me<±ianism opefctes smoothfy with Ngh pre- 
cision conffol. 

The EMJOYSTICK is comporible with the 
Atari 400 800 ond 1200XL rtie Afori VO 
2600 Video Gome, the Seot5 Video Arcode. 
the Commodore 64 ond VIC 20 ond the NEC 
PC 6000. 



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Also, look for gomes by TG Softwate includ- 
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OZZYS ORCHARD ond ABRACADABRA. 



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The greater complexity of disk drives accounts 
for their other disadvantages as well. Recorders 
are easier to use, particularly by beginners. They 
offer fewer features, fewer options. There is no 
Disk Operating System (DOS) to worry about, 
and no menu of disk commands to learn. Too, 
disk drives are sensitive to bumps and jolts when 
moved from place to place. The read/write head 
(analogous to the piay/record head in a cassette 
recorder) requires extremely precise alignment 
for reliable operation. Plus, when a cassette re- 
corder does break down after the warranty period, 
it can probably be fixed by any good audio equip- 
ment repair shop. A disk drive must be fixed at a 
special service center. 

These factors must be balanced against a disk 
drive's much greater speed, flexibility, capacity, 
ability to use a wider variety of commercial soft- 
ware, and greater reliability of storage. 

To answer your specific question about alter- 
natives to the Atari 810 drive, there are several 
units now being sold by independent manufac- 
turers. They are regularly advertised in COMPUTE! 
and other computer magazines. They are not sig- 
nificantly less expensive than Atari drives, but 
some do offer more storage capacity at a lower 
price. You should visit your local computer dealer 
or write the manufacturers for more detailed 
information. © 



COMMODORE USERS 



Join the largest, active Commodore users group. 
Benefit from: 

— Access to hundreds of public domain 
programs on tape and disk for your 
Commodore 64, VIC 20 and PET/CBM. 

— Informative monthly club magazine 
THE TORPET. 

Send $1.00 for Program & Information Catalogue. 
(Free with membership). 



Membership 
Fees for 
12 Months 



Canada — $20 Can. 
U.S.A. — $20 U.S. 
Overseas — $30 U.S. 



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• Accounting Ledger . . . ^39^^ 

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• Mail-Out S3995 

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Has file seafch for names 



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• Inventory Control ^39^^ 

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-Keeps 6 columns of information tor 
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Reference Quantity, and Note 



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-Stores and ouiputs to the printer 



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PACKAGE II 



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December 1983 COMPUni 177 




Millionaire 



Gary M. Kaplan 

Blue Chip Software isn't making 
claims about Millionaire's ability 
to sharpen your stock market 
investment skill, but it's certainly 
a vehicle for learning investment 
finance, and a whole lot of fun. 
It's available on disk for the Atari 
400/800, Commodore 64, Apple II 
and III, among other computers. 

When you fu'st plav Mil- 
lionaire, you begin at the Novice 
level with a $10,000 stake. With 
it, you can buy and sell 15 differ- 
ent big name stocks in five in- 
dustry groups. If you like the 
look of oil and gas, you can own 
shares in Conoco, Exxon, and 
Mobil. If you are feeling bullish 
about the auto industry, General 
Motors, American Motors, and 
Bendix are up for grabs. A retail 
group, a heavy industry group, 
and (since it's a computer game) 
a computer group, round out 
the industries. Purchase deci- 
sions are based on a steady 
stream of business information 
you'll have to wade through. 

Millionaire creates 91 weeks 
of stock market fluctuations and 
starts you out at week 14 with 
access to the preceding weeks' 
data. From there, you're on your 
own — either to the good life, or 
the poorhouse. 

Reading The Market 

Analysis is the key to your fu- 
ture. And, just like the real mar- 
ket, there's plenty to examine. 
Each week you'll be given the 
variables creating the market's 
present environment. These 

178 COMPlTrt! December 1983 



include corporate histories; a 
stock market graph showing the 
overall market trend; industry 
group graphs showing how each 
industry is doing; individual 
stock graphs; stock price tables; 
and a News Journal with com- 
pany announcements which 
may affect business. 

A news item might inform 
you of an IBM technology inno- 
vation. That could well mean a 
rise in IBM stock, but could also 
affect the entire industry. The 
value of Control Data and NCR 
stocks might well tumble. 

After you've digested the 
current state of the market, and 
determined what is relevant to 
your potential investments, 
you're ready to make a transac- 
tion. Taking a cue from Wall 
Street, Millionaire is a little cold- 
hearted to those at the Novice 
level, where you work on a strict 
cash basis. If you want to buy 
stocks, you've got to put up the 
actual greenbacks. 

Upward Mobility 

Shrewd maneuvering will propel 
you to the Investor ($12,000) 
plateau. Since you're building 
your fortune, options are opening 
up. At this level, you can buy on 
margin (borrow a percentage of 
the total purchase price of your 
stocks). Even greater flexibility 
comes if vour fortune increases. 

A Speculator ($18,000) is 
eligible to use call options. They 
assume a significant rise in a 
stock and allow the buyer to 
purchase at a slightly higher 
price at a later date. A Profes- 
sional ($40,000) may use put op- 
tions. They are used when you 
predict a significant decline in a 
stock and allow selling the stock 
at a slightly lower price. Players 



at the Broker level ($100,000) can 
borrow significantly from their 
net worth. 

The road to riches is not 
smooth by any means. Mil- 
lionaire's Wall Street is full of 
traps, and you might fall into 
any number of them. Your mar- 
gin accounts may be called, or 
your capital could erode due to 
high interest payments and 
overextended credit. And there 
are those nasty brokerage com- 
missions and taxes which take a 
bite out of your purse. 

At week 91, your assets are 
converted to "cash," and a new 
game can be started at your new 
financial status. It's a long road 
before you reach the Millionaire 
level, but with persistence and a 
bit of wisdom, it's possible. 
Wealth — even on Wall Street — 
usually takes time to accumulate, 
and Millionaire recognizes that 
financial reality. 

Only one person can play at 
a time, but the names and status 
of 14 players are retained. (Two 
or more can play together, pro- 
viding they come to a consensus 
on investment decisions.) You 
can also stop and save the game, 
picking up where you left off 
later. Actual game time is ap- 
proximately two hours. 

Millionaire is challenging 
and provides quite an education 
in the art, or science, of playing 
the stock market. It's ideal for 
beginners because it grounds 
them in market basics. People 
with market experience will like it 
because it's frustratingly true-to- 
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The Witness 

Dnn Gutiiiiin 

Monica could have shot her 
father. Freeman Linder. She had 
every reason to — her mother 
had said in her suicide note that 
she just couldn't take Freeman 
anymore. Coincidentally, Monica 
is now the heiress to his fortune, 
and besides, she left the house 
only a few minutes before the 
gunshots shattered the window 
and Linder died. 

Then again, it could have 
been Phong, the poker-faced 
butler, who was promised a for- 
tune by Linder — and never got 
a thin dime. And what about 
Stiles, Mrs. Linder's secret lover? 
The poor guy's been in a state 
since her suicide — • or was it 
murder? He knows Linder ig- 
nored his wife, and Stiles was 
rumored to be a "hired merce- 
nary" in 1907. The case is yours 
to solve. 

Tlic Witness is the latest in 
hifocom's masterful series of all- 
text adventures, and it may be 
their best one yet. The game, 
available in versions for most 
microcomputers, takes us back 
to the Thirties, The writing is 
colorful, like a pulp detective 
novel, and reflects the period. 
At one point Monica tells you 
this new actor (Bogart) she saw 
in a movie is not going to make 
it big. With games like this, the 
distinction between reading a 
novel on disk and playing a game 
has become blurred. The Witness 
is a novel, except that you are one 
of the characters, and every move 
you make affects the outcome. 

Talking To The Computer 

Other adventure games restrict 
you to simple commands like 
"go north" and "shoot gun." 
With Infocom's "Interlogic" 
programming system, the com- 
puter can understand complete 
sentences. Communicating this 
way gives you a much stronger 

182 COMPim! December 1983 



sense that you are participating 
in the story. However, as the 
game freely admits, "English is 
my second language." The pro- 
gram will only answer two spe- 
cific types of questions: ones 
asking for information and ones 
asking for the whereabouts of 
someone or something. You've 
got to be very careful with your 
phrasing. If you borrow a note 
from Monica and type "give 
back note," the computer will 
tell you, "You can't see any back 
note here." You should have 
typed "give the note hack." 
Nevertheless, with a little co- 
operation on your part, the 
computer does a superb job of 
catching your drift. 

If you get hooked on this 
game (and there's a good chance) 
you'll find yourself drawing in- 
tricate floor plans of the Linder 
house and jotting down notes to 
yourself. You will ruthlessly 
interrogate every suspect and 
shadow their every move. You 
will pick up every knick-knack 
on the mantlepiece and dust them 
for fingerprints or send them to 
the lab for examination. You will 
become frustrated, disgusted, 
and type rude suggestions into 
the keyboard. You could start 
arresting furniture just to see 
how the computer will respond. 
You will be possessed. 

The Witness is somewhat like 
Deadline, Infocom's first mystery 
thriller, but Deadline tended to 
bog down as you ran out of leads 
to follow. Here vou are provided 
with a loyal assistant, Duffy, 
who is more than happy to make 
plaster of Paris footprint casts 
for you, bring objects to the lab 
for analysis, and uncover little 
clues you might have over- 
looked. All you've got to do is 
"ask Duffy for help." 

Infocom does not crank out 
games and hope that one will 
click with the public. Each game 
is so clever and so intricate that 
you know somebody put 
thousands of hours of work into 
it. The game is a piece of art right 
down to the packaging, for 



which Infocom has become fa- 
mous. Out of Tlie Witness pack- 
age tumbles a suicide note, an 
urgent telegram, a newspaper 
page containing an article about 
Mr. Linder, a matchbook with 
some numbers scrawled on it, 
and a 12-page Detective Gazette 
with instructions for the game 
along with 1930s ads for hand- 
cuffs and fingerprint kits. And a 
floppy disk — can't forget that. 
With this game, you get your 
money's worth. 

For Dedicated Players 
Only 

However, as good as The Witness 
is, it's not a game for everyone. 
You have 12 hours to solve the 
crime, but do you have 12 hours 
to play a computer game? Fortu- 
nately, you can save your game 
on a blank disk and pick it up 
later. Even so, to investigate 
every room in the house, ques- 
tion every suspect, and follow 
up every lead may be equivalent 
to reading The Complete Works of 
Shakespeare. You can't just stroll 
around the house by typing "go 
to Monica's bedroom" or "enter 
the garage." It may take half an 
hour of directional search just to 
find Monica's bedroom, and she 
may have gone to the movies 
while you were bumping into 
the walls. To get in the room, 
you must first find the key, un- 
lock the door, and open the door 
— all separate commands. To 
make matters more difficult, you 
have no way of knowing if a 
suspect is telling the truth or 
lying to you — • that suicide note 
from Mrs. Linder could have 
easily been faked by Monica, 
Stiles, Phong, or even Mr. Lin- 
der. Infocom supplies no key to 
solve the mystery, and you may 
never solve it on your own. 

The Witness requires a dedi- 
cation that few other games re- 
quire. There are no pretty 
graphics here. It's you, your 
imagination, and the words on 
the screen. My guess is that 
people who enjoy challenging 
puzzles — jigsaw, crossword. 



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anagrams — will enjoy The Wit- 
ness, while those who favor tele- 
vision game shows may not. 
People who like to curl up with a 
good book — especiallv n mys- 
tery novel — will love it, while 
those who lean toward Garficlti 
Goes Coiuio should pass it up. 

For those of you who choose 
not to solve the crime, I feel it is 
only fair to share my findings 
with you. 1 have devoted the last 
three months of my life to this 
case and just moments ago 
solved the crime, arrested my 
suspect, and sent that person to 
jail. The murderer of Freeman 
Linder was... 

Ed. note: Unfortiniatehj, Mr. 
Giitumn zvtts iambic to coinpletc this 
review for reasons which arc still 
under iiwcsti^ution. 

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MAC/65 

Craig Chamberlain 

Atari's Assembler Editor car- 
tridge is extremely slow. Time 
spent just waiting for it to as- 
semble a program could be put 
to much better use programming 
and debugging, or thinking of 
new program ideas. For any 
programmer who spends much 
time at all using the Atari car- 
tridge assembler, the accumula- 
tion of wasted time could be so 
substantial it might actually be 
worthwhile for the programmer 
to rewrite the assembler to make 
it faster. 

Improving The 
Assembler 

Suppose a programmer did de- 
cide to improve the Assembler 
Editor cartridge. For one thing, 
he would have the editor to- 
kenize each source hne, instead 



of storing it in AT ASCII format. 
This change alone would sig- 
nificantly increase the assembly 
speed, and would have three 
bonus side effects as well. First, 
with a tokenized format it would 
be possible to LOAD and SAVE 
source programs just as fast as 
Atari BASIC can LOAD and 
SAVE programs; there would no 
longer be any need to wait for 
the slower ENTER and LIST 
commands. 

Second, through tokeniza- 
tion, the source file could be 
compacted to almost half the 
size of the AT ASCII equivalent. 
The shorter, compacted files 
would LOAD in even less time, 
and take up even less disk space. 
And a condensed program size 
would make it possible to hold 
longer files in memory. 

Finally, tokenization wouki 
allow error detection upon line 
entry. With the addition of other 
improvements such as a faster 
symbol table search, the revised 
assembler would be extremely 
fast. If the programmer added 
some other features like powerful 
conditional logic, an alphabe- 
tized printing of the symbol 
table, local labels, and macro 
support, he would have created 
the best assembler available for 
the Atari. 

A Dream Come True 

Stephen Lavvrow has made all of 
these improvements and more, 
and his MAC/65 macro assembler 
is the answer to every machine 
language programmer's dreams. 
MAC/65 is currendy available on 
the Atari for $80 from OSS, and 
Apple and Commodore 64 ver- 
sions are expected soon. This 
offers users of MAC/65 the added 
advantage of being able to use the 
same assembler on three of the 
most popular personal ctimputers. 

Conditional Assembly 

Let's take a closer look at two of 
MAC/65's best features. The first 
is conditional assembly through 
the use of the directives .IF, 
.ELSE, and .ENDIF. The .IF di- 



rective evaluates an expression 
and controls how the following 
code is assembled. If the value is 
true (nonzero), only the code 
between the .IF and the .ELSE 
or .ENDIF is assembled. Should 
there exist a . ELSE (it is optional), 
the code between it and the 
-ENDIF will be assembled if the 
value is false. It is possible to 
nest these conditional con- 
structs. One use of conditional 
assembly is to let the same source 
listing produce both cassette and 
disk versions of a program. This 
feature is even more powerful 
when used with the operators 
.DEFand.REF, which tell 
whether or not a label has been 
defined or referenced. 

Macro Assembly With 
Numeric And String 
Parameters 

Macros are defined by the direc- 
tives .MACRO and .ENDM, and 
consist of a sequence of fre- 
quently used source lines that 
are given a label. Whenever this 
label appears at any point in the 
source listing, the corresponding 
source lines will be inserted into 
the assembly. It's like a collection 
of automatic, prewritten sub- 
routines. Here is an example. 

1000 .MACRO SAVEREGS 
;save registers on stack 
1010 PHA 
1020 TXA 
1030 PHA 
1040 TYA 
1050 PHA 
1060 .ENDM 



5000 SAVEREGS 
5010 JSR SOMEPLACE 

The one call of SAVEREGS in 
line 5000 will cause five source 
lines to be assembled in its place. 
Note, however, that a macro 
differs in some ways from a sub- 
routine; a macro only affects 
assembly, and since this example 
used the stack, SAVEREGS could 
certainly not be made into a sub- 
routine (which stores a return 
address on the stack) without a 
stack conflict. 



184 COMPUTt! December 1983 



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A macro can also be defined 
so that different parameters can 
be specified each time the macro 
is called. One good example is 
the macro defined here to incre- 
ment a 16-bit memory location. 

1000 .MACRO INC16 

;increment a 16-bit number 
1010 INC%1 

;mcrement lo byte 
1020 BNESKIP 
1030 INC%1+1 

;increment hi byte 
1040 SKIP 
1050 -ENDM 



5000 INC16$600 

At assembly time, the value $600 
is substituted for the symbol 
%1, and the assembler will gen- 
erate the code to increment the 
16-bit number at $600. Another 
good example is the macro defi- 
nition for OPEN, provided in 
the MAC/65 manual. Once this 
macro has been defined, it is 
possible to have a source line 
which reads OPEN 3,4,0,"D: 
FILENAME". This one source 
line will generate all the code 
necessary to perform an OPEN 
operation using channel 3, aux- 
iliary bytes 4 and 0, and the 
specified filename. This takes a 
lot of the drudgery out of the 
tasks of writing in machine 
language. 

In the definition of OPEN 
(ngt reprinted here), the symbol 
%1 would represent the first 
parameter, in this case a 3. The 
second parameter corresponds 



to %2, and so on. String param- 
eters are indicated using a dollar 
sign, as in %$1. The symbol 7o0 
is reserved to tell how many 
parameters were included in a 
macro call. Combine this with 
the conditional logic described 
earlier and you have some very 
powerful tools. 

MAC/65 can handle a nesting 
level of 14 macros, with up to 63 
parameters at any given instant. 

The advantages of macros 
are that they reduce source file 
size, speed up the development 
of machine language programs, 
and reduce the number of pro- 
gramming mistakes. Typing the 
same code several times in- 
creases the risk of error, but a 
macro is defined only once. Also, 
a carefully chosen macro name 
can communicate more informa- 
tion to the reader of a source 
listing than a bunch of sparsely 
commented source lines. 

Other Features And 
Limitations Of MAC/65 

A local label is one which has a 
value in only one part of an as- 
sembly source. Another label, 
possibly of the same name but 
with a different value, can be 
used in another local section 
without conflict. This is espe- 
cially useful when several pro- 
grammers are each writing sec- 
tions of a large machine language 
project. Through the use of local 
labels, each programmer can use 
whichever label names he wants, 
without fear of causing "dupli- 



cate label" errors by using label 
names already chosen by the 
other programmers. Local labels 
are possible in MAC/65 with the 
.LOCAL directive. 

The directive .BYTE will 
print up to four byte values per 
assembly line, which can save a 
lot of paper. The .ERROR direc- 
tive can be used to report errors, 
such as the illegal use of a macro 
call. There is an .INCLUDE di- 
rective, which allows access to 
macro libraries, equate files, and 
multiple source files. There are 
also bitwise .AND, .OR, and 
.NOT operators. The operators > 
and c, when used before an ex- 
pression, return high and low 
byte values. This is an improve- 
ment over the common, but error 
prone, usage of /256 and &255. 

The RENumber, FIND and 
REPlace commands of the editor 
are usually satisfactory, but it 
would be nice to have a MOVE 
command. MAC/65 will work 
only on a 48K machine and is 
available only on disk, but these 
two problems will be solved 
if OSS releases MAC/65 on a 
cartridge. 

It should be noted that 
MAC/65 comes with OS/A -I- , 
the no-nonsense DOS from OSS. 
OS/AH- is completely compatible 
with DOS II because the disk 
routines are the same, but the 
DUP portion of DOS II has been 
replaced with a monitor that is 
always resident and takes up 
very little additional memory. 
You can quickly read a disk di- 



Atari Assembler Editor Cartridge And MAC/65 Comparison 

The test file contained 962 lines 
of nicely formatted, commented 
code, and made extensive use of 
labels but no macros. Macros 
will slow down MAC/65. The 
object file was about 2500 bytes. 
All assembly times are with 
listing turned off. EASMD is 
OSS's disk version of Atari's 
ASM/ED, and is nearly identical 
to the cartridge. 



EASMD 


MAC/65 


DISK FILE SIZE (SECTORS) 




(ENTER FORMAT) 231 




(LOAD FORMAT) 


133 


FREEMEM (BYTES) 30207 


28031 


TIME TO ENTER (SECONDS) 96 


82 


TIME TO LOAD 


0:15 


FREEMEM WITH PROGRAM 02389 


11489 


ASM MEMORY TO MEMORY 323 


less than 5 seconds 


ASM DISK TO DISK 444 


50 



186 COMPUTEI December W83 



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bfue waters of the Nile sliding silently by. Pharoah's 
Pyramid beckons to us across millennia; mysterious, 
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rectory or unlock a file without 
erasing your program, and there 
is no need for the questionable 
MEM. SAV file. 

Speed 

MAC/65 is amazingly fast. For 
relatively small programs, no 
sooner do you type ASM and 
press the RETURN key than the 
assembler starts printing the 
second pass. 

The incredible speed of this 
MAC/65 has greatly increased 
my productivity as a program- 
mer, not just because it as- 
sembles programs faster, but 
also because while waiting for 
the old cartridge, I would often 
switch the television channel 
and become interested in a show. 
Now with MAC/65 there's no 
time to get distracted. 

MAC/65 can assemble 
source files so fast (for memory 
to memory with no listing, it 
takes just a few seconds at the 
most) that the actual assembly 
speed becomes almost irrelevant. 
When assembling from disk, the 
only thing holding MAC/65 back 
is the slowness of the disk drive. 
For a comparison between the 
Atari cartridge and MAC/65, see 
the chart. 

The Apple version of MAC/ 
65 assembles from disk to disk at 
twice the speed of the Atari, due 
to the faster speed of the Apple 
disk drive. 

Reference Manual 

MAC/65 comes with a reference 
manual which gives complete 
descriptions of all commands, 
operators, directives, and errors. 
It is not a tutorial and does not 
teach machine language. A small 
macro library is also provided to 
get the user started. The manual 
could stand improvement, but it 
is a good manual, covers all 
necessary topics, and contains 
examples. 

Compatibility With The 
Atari Assembler Editor 
Cartridge 

Here is a list of all the differences 

188 COMPimi December 1983 



between MAC/65 and tlie Atari 
cartridge. 

1 . Source files are completely 
upward compatible with one 
exception. MAC/65 uses an 
algebraic operating system with 
different precedences for differ- 
ent operators (like BASIC), while 
the cartridge performs all opera- 
tions from left to right. Expres- 
sions like LABEL -f-'2/256 will 
have to be rewritten using brack- 
ets, such as [LABEL-l-2]/256. 

2. MAC/65 has a TEXT mode 
which turns off the error checking 
upon line entry, so the editor 
can still be used to do things 
like renumbering Atari BASIC 
programs. 

3. There is no DEBUG motie. 
Only the commands C and D 
(change and display memory) 
have been kept. All the other 
debugging features, including 
memory manipulation, break- 
points, the instant assembler 
and the disassembler, are avail- 
able in BUG/65, an interactive 
debugging tool which comes 
with MAC/65. 

4. The .INCLUDE files must 
be in SAVE format. 

5. The directive .PAGE now 
prints at the bottom of a page, 
not at the top. 

6. Bulk line deleting is faster. 

7. FIND and REPlace are 
slower, because the source is not 
stored in straight ATASCII. 

8. Although MAC/65 still 
does not print a total error count 
at the end of an assembly, it does 
at least list all errors to the screen, 
even if the output is directed to 
another device such as the printer. 

9. Automatic page numbering. 

MAC/65 

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has combined their years of experience designing military strategy board games 

with the latest in artificial intelligence for home computers. The resulting computer games 

are designed to assist you, the player, with combat results, lines of fire and double hidden movement 

in two player games and provide a worthy opponent in solitaire games. 



PAms 





Tacncal Level 



■-^^■)*.'>'j*-V 



r7\ 



■■*i^-^.iv. 



."ts^ 






v^ 







Paris in Danger: A simulation of ■Napoleons 1814 campaign in 
France. One of Napoieon's finest, against the Invading Allied Armies. 
lAustrian, Prussian and Russiun|. You can choose to take tlie role as 
Napoleon, Commander Schwarzenberg, or play both sides to re-create 
the actual campaign, PARIS IN DANGER is unique, in that it allows 
the players to compete on both the strategic and tactical levels, on a 
full-color scrolling map of France and surrounding countries. 

For all Atari Home ComptHcis, 48K Disk: $35.00 



T.A.C.: Tactical Armor Command during World War II. You 
control individual tanks, anti-tank guns, and infantry squads. For one 
or two players featuring outstanding Hi-Resolution graphics, enhanced 
sound, and stimulating challenge. Five different scenarios are available 
from Meeting Engagement. Rear Guard, and Static Defense, to 
Breakout and Stalemate. The players control up to eight vehicles, guns 
and squads simultaneously, utilizing the equipment of either the 
German, British. Russian or American forces. 
Atari & Apple Disks 14aK): S40.00 




V 



■\(ari 4/800 140K), TRS-80 )48K) 
cassettes: S30.00 

r\pple II |48K) 

.Atari Home Computers i48K] 
TRS-80 l/III 148K) 
diskettes: $35.00 



LEGIONNAIRE [by Chris Crawford): 

Consumer Electronics Showcase Award for Innovative Programming 

Warganie of the Year, VIDEO GAMES PLAYER Magazine 

Nominee for Warganie of the Year, Game Manufacturers' Association 

"On a scale of 1 to 100, this is a 'Jo' SOFTLINE Magazine, March '83. 
"Legionnaire is a wonderful game that combines the graphics and move- 
ment of arcade games with the depth of strategy games" BYTE. March '83. 
"An entertaining, attractive game in which thinking is more important 
than fast reflexes" COMPUTE!, July, 83. 

For all .Atari Home Computers, 16K Cassette: $35.00 
32K Diskette for Atari Home Computers: S40.00 
.Apple n Computer Diskette t48K|: S40.00 

*TrEii,3cmark5 of Warner CoinnuiiiLLniiiiiiii Apjili- CotnpitttTS IriC- aiul Tuiidy Curixirinlion. 




CLOSE 
ASSAULT: 

Advanced warganie of tactical infantry combat. Russian, German, and 
American forces are represented in this WWH simulation which blends 
the allure of computerization with tataletop gaming. CLOSE ASSAULT 
permits original scenario development or pre-programmed ones. 
Features include double hidden movement, solitaire or two player 
option, morale factors, and most unique, a game system that actually 
lets you control squad level units in life-like situations. 



.AVAILABLE .AT IJ-.VDING 
COMPUTER GAME STORES 
EVERYWHERE 

or call Toli-Free: 1 (800) 638-9292 

for the name of the dealer near you. 
Ask for Operator A. 



m 

EIUI 



micnocomputen games 



A DIVISION OF 



The Avalon Hill Game Company 

4517 Harford Road • Baltimore, MD 21214 • (301| 254-5300 



stellar Triumph 



Eric Brandon 

■ Space games have nearly become 
cliches in the world of video- 
games, but Stellar Triumph from 
H.A.L. Labs is a fun and unique 
addition to any Commodore 64 
game library. 

Stellar Triumph pits two 
players against each other in 
mortal combat. Each player is 
given a spaceship, fuel, and up 
to 32 shots. You can rotate your 
ship, or thrust either forward or 
backward with your engines. 
The objective is simple: Beat your 
opponent before he beats you. 

Playing By Your Own Rules 

What makes the game so inter- 
esting is the control vou have 
over the "rules" that govern 
combat. Using simple menus, 
you can define an incredible 
number of variables resulting in 
great variety . 

Your ship can either have 
"inertia," which causes it to drift 
when you're not thrusting, or it 
remains stationary until you 
move it. You can also define the 
strength of the thrust, and how 
much fuel you have. Your shots 
can be fast or slow, and they can 
be fired in rapid bursts or one at 
a time. 

The best feature, however, 
is that you can define the prop- 
erties of the universe you play in 
too. For example, the gravity of 
the sun can be either weak or 
strong, positive or negative 
(pulling you in, or pushing you 
away), or there can be no gravity 
at all. Just to keep things inter- 
esting, you can include asteroids 
to crash into, aliens which shoot 
at you, and the "mysterious 
monoliths" that sometimes 
bounce vour shots. 

The game is fascinating to 
watch when you select high grav- 
ity. Objects can go into orbit 
around the sun, and you can use 
the gravity to speed yourself up 

190 COMPUnr DecemberWaa 



as you go around the sun. 

Manv people do not have 
two joysticks since so few games 
allow two players. In Stellar 
Triumph, either or both players 
can control their ship from the 
keyboard. 

Because you have so much 
control, your S25 buys you much 
more than one game. By setting 
the parameters correctly, you 
could have a tank battle, an air- 
plane dogfight, or, of course, 
any number of space battles. If 
you don't feel like defining the 
universe, you can always play 
one of the eight predefined 
games availahle, simply by 
pressing the function keys. 

Overall, Stellar Triumph is an 
exceptionally enjoyable game to 
play, and it offers you the chance 
to play a human opponent rather 
than the computer. 

Stellar Triumph 

H.A.L. Labi 

4074 Midlmni Road, Suite 23 

Riverside, CA 92505 ^ 

S25 ^ 



Experienced 
Microcomputer 
Users Wanted 

COMPUTE! Publications, Inc., a 
major and growing publishing 
company in the home and 
personal computing industry, seeks 
experienced microcomputer 
writers and programmers to join our 
growing staff. Microcomputer 
experience a necessity. 
Professional journalistic writing 
experience helpful, but not 
required. 

COMPUTE! Publications, Inc, a 
subsidiary of the American Broad- 
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ON ADJOINING PAGE 



AARDVARK /4ctcaK So^tmaie 2352 S. COMMERCE WALLED LAKE Ml 480B8 



Gamestape 1 For The 
Timex/Sinclair 



Melbourne House produces re- 
markably high quality software 
for the Timex/Sinclair. In this 
review, we'll look at an excellent 
package, Caiitestapc 1, which 
contains 11 games for the 1/2K 
Timex/Sinclair. All programs run 
in IK, and -what is really remark- 
able - all but one are in BASIC. 
(Thus, ten of the eleven are list- 
able, and serve as an excellent 
source of ideas for economical, 
imaginative, simple game and 
graphics programming.) 

Educators will particularly 
enjoy their use of PEEK, 
INKEY5, CODE, SCROLL, 
PRINT AT, RND, AND, and 
OR. (This tape is worth pur- 
chasing as a tutorial alone.) 
Nonetheless, the primarv pur- 
pose is fun, and fun there is. I 
will evaluate the games on a 
scale of one to ten, with ten being 
high. Parenthetically, it is a real 
joy to play games that don't take 
over five minutes to load and 
then freeze up. Also, the tape 
exhibits no LOAD problems. 

Klini^oiif - 9. Ram as many 
of the oncoming fleet of 200 
Klingons as vou can. Pay par- 
ticular attention to the high- 
score motherships. Good for 
hand-eye coordination. Self- 
competitive scoring. 

Crash Landing - 5. A Lunar 
Lander without graphics - 
cockpit readout onlv. Requires 
patience and time. Program 
bombs with error message if you 
crash. 

Simon - 6. Flashing se- 
quences of four colors (names) 
that must be repeated bv re- 
sponding with first letters (with- 
in 30 seconds). 

Artist -8. Simple, quarter- 
square drawing program that 
can dump the screen to a printer. 
Positioning is by cursor control 
arrows and quarter-square 
diagonals. All keys repeat, and 

192 COMPUTi! Decembei19B3 



Arthur B. Hiinkins 

you can erase as well as draw, 
reposition, or clear screen. 

UFO - 7. Fire at stationary 
aliens from a moving spaceship. 
100 points possible; penalties for 
going off the screen and missing. 
Spaceship goes faster as game 
progresses. Good for hand-eye 
coordination. 

Code - 9. Version of Master- 
mind - guess a four-digit number 
in ten tries (number of tries can 
easily be changed in program). 
Each digit is different, and pro- 
gram cannot handle responses 
that contain repeat digits. 
Challenging. 

Asteroids - 3. Dodge as- 
teroids by maneuvering right or 
left; continues until you crash. 
Self-competitive scoring. Simple 
and somewhat boring, except 
for youngsters developing hand- 
eye coordination. Autorun. 

Bomber - 6. Bomb ten dams. 
Runs shorten as your aim gets 
better. Highly repetitive, but 
represents a more complex hand- 
eye coordination challenge. 

Kaleidoscope -5. Typical 
symmetrical quarter-square 
graphics in center of screen. 
Interest limited by quarter- 
square graphics. Program dem- 
onstrates effective use of PLOT 
and UNPLOT (erase) to achieve 



pattern. Autorun. 

Guillotine- 10. Version of 
Hangman. You get ten wrong 
guesses as the guillotine is built; 
at the tenth wrong guess, your 
head gets chopped off. This is 
the only two-player game; one 
player has to furnish the word. 
When a correct letter is guessed, 
all occurrences of it are filled in. 
The program accepts words as 
long as antidisestablishmentar- 
ianism. Simple yet effective 
graphics. 

Breakout - 10. This is the real 
winner, and the only program in 
machine language. Most pro- 
grams on the Timex/Sinclair are 
turtle-slow - not this one. Three 
speeds and two bat sizes may be 
selected. I challenge any Breakout 
pro to achieve a respectable score 
at the most difficult level. About 
half of the time my score was 
zero. It's a major challenge just 
to get in position to hit the first 
ball. On the other hand, at the 
lowest level, any beginner 
should be able to compile a re- 
spectable score. 

Gamestape 1 includes an in- 
sert which gives adequate in- 
structions. With only IK, expect 
simple, functional (and in 
BASIC, slow) graphics - nothing 
fancy. This package is a real bar- 
gain at $14.95. 
Gamestape 1 

Melbourne House Software, Inc. 
333 E. 46th St. 

New York, NY 10017 ^ 

S14.95 ® 



Memory Expanders 
For The VIC-20 



Creative users have developed 

programs of surprising sophisti- 
cation for the unexpanded VIC. 
However, some programmers 
have felt that working within 
the 3583 bytes left after BASIC 
grabs its share of the 5K of built- 
in memory puts unacceptable 
constraints on their creativity. 
As a result, memory expanders 



Ottis Cowper, Technical Editor 

for the VIC began to appear very 
soon after the computer itself hit 
the shelves. 

The simplest form of mem- 
ory expansion is the RAM car- 
tridge, which plugs into the 
memory expansion port on the 
back of the VIC. They usually 
expand memory in multiples of 
8K, although the first VIC mem- 



m. 



TAKE 










AA/lTI-l NlGl-lT A/llSSlOlM 



UTTTTTlTi 



You deserve the best. You've earned it. Now reward yourself with a session of Night Mission PINBALL^ 
the most realistic and challenging arcade simulation ever conceived! ■ Stunning graphics and dazzling 

^ :^ — ;;:3->^ sound effects put Night IMission PINBALL in a class by itself. Game features: multi- 

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' K?* • *i -^H and an editor that lets you create your own custom modes. ■ So take a break with 
, • r^'a ^ Night Mission PINBALL from SubLOGIC. Winner of Etecfron/c Games magazine's 
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mMW-:?-^ 






See your dealer . . . 

: or write or call lor more information. For direct orders please add $1 .50 for 
stiipping and specify UPS or first class mail delivery. Illinois residents add 5°/ 
sales tax. American Express, Diner's Club, MastarCard, and Visa accepted. 

Order Line: 800/637-4983 



LOGIC 



7^3 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign IL 61820 

(217) 359-8482Telex'. 206995 



^"iT^T^^^T^^'T^-Yi^^^F^'vyvin'^^^ '■<^ 



ory cartridges added only 3K. 
Some of these are still in circula- 
tion. The great advantage of the 
cartridges is their simplicity — 
just plug them in. The main dis- 
advantage is a certain lack of 
flexibility: It is necessary to re- 
move the memory cartridge to 
plug anything else into the ex- 
pansion port — a game cartridge 
or the Super Expander, for ex- 
ample. This can be overcome by 
using a motherboard, a device ■ 
which plugs into the memory 
expansion port and acts like a 
multioutlet extension cord for 
the port, and there are as many 
different motherboards available 
as there are RAM expansion 
cartridges. A second disadvan- 
tage is that it is not as easy to 
change the address range of the 
added memory when using car- 
tridges as it is with some of the 
more complex expansion sys- 
tems. This, however, really 
should not present a problem 
for most users. 

Commodore RAM 
Cartridges 

Commodore makes two expan- 
sion cartridges for the VIC: the 
VIC-1110, which provides 8K 
expansion, and the VIC-1111, 
which provides 16K expansion. 
An added feature of the 8K car- 
tridge is that it can be set to one 
of four address ranges, and, if 
you have a motherboard, can be 
used in conjunction with the 
16K cartridge to provide 24K 
expansion, the maximum 
amount VIC BASIC can use with- 
out special programming. 

RAMAX By Apropos 

RAMAX, made by Apropos 
Technology of Camarillo, 
California, is something of a 
fusion of a RAM cartridge to a 
motherboard. It provides 27K of 
expansion RAM and two addi- 
tional cartridge slots. A DIP 
switch allows you to selectively 
activate 24K of the additional 
RAM in three 8K blocks. The 
additional 3K block, if activated, 
goes to fill a hole in the unex- 

194 COMPUTl! December 1983 




Varioui memory expanders are available 
for the VIC. 

panded VlC's RAM space be- 
tween locations 1024 - 4095 
where no built-in memory is 
installed. This is the same 3K 
block filled by the additional 
RAM in the Super Expander 
cartridge, and by the 3K plug-in 
cartridges. The 3K block can be 
added alone or in conjunction 
with any of the other 8K blocks. 
However, BASIC cannot use the 
3K block along with the 8K blocks 
without special programming. 
With the 8K blocks activated, 
the 3K block can be used to hold 
redefined characters and 
machine language subroutines. 

If a block of memory con- 
taining data is switched out, the 
data is still maintained until the 
computer is turned off. If the 
memory block is switched back 
in, the data can be accessed as 
before. 

The two expansion slots can 
be used for game cartridges or 
for utility packages like VICMON 
or the Super Expander. How- 
ever, the slots are not switched, 
so you must avoid inserting two 
cartridges which use the same 
address at the same time. There 
is a DIP switch on the RAMAX 
which disables memory in the 
range 40960 - 49151, the area used 
by most cartridge game ROMs, 
This provides a way to effectively 
switch on and off a game car- 
tridge plugged into one of the 
slots. 

There is one additional DIP 
switch on the RAMAX which 
provides a valuable feature: the 
zoanii start reset switch. If you've 
ever experienced a "lock up" 
resulting from a bug in a machine 



language program, you've prob- 
ably wished for something that 
would allow you to regain con- 
trol of your computer without 
having to turn it off. That's what 
the reset switch does. 

The RAMAX draws its 
power from the VIC, but adds a 
0.5 amp fuse to protect the com- 
puter from any short circuits on 
the board. This proved to be a 
valuable safety feature. On sev- 
eral occasions programmers here 
at COMPUTE! failed to heed 
Apropos' warning that cartridges 
should not be installed or removed 
from the RAMAX while the 
power was turned on. This re- 
sulted in blown fuses on the 
RAMAX. And without the fuse 
the VIC itself might have been 
damaged. 

The RAMAX comes with a 
ten-day money-back guarantee 
and a six-month warranty on 
parts and labor. An extended 
service contract is also available. 
We were most impressed with 
Apropos' customer service. 
Shortly after we received our 
first RAMAX, Apropos detected 
a possible defect in the RAMAX 
and recalled for modification all 
boards that had been shipped. 
We had our new RAMAX back 
in a matter of days. 

The RAMAX also comes 
with a very complete brochure 
explaining all the available mem- 
ory configuration options. 

Golden RAM By Voice 
World 

The Golden RAM Expansion 
Chassis made bv Voice World of 
Del Mar, California, offers ex- 
ceptional tlexibilitv in configur- 
ing the expansion memory. The 
Golden RAM has 24K of memory 
in three BK blocks. Each block 
can be installed at one of two 
starting addresses. One of the 
blocks can be switched to start at 
location 40960 (SAOOO), which is 
a special block in the VIC. Pro- 
grams starting there, and begin- 
ning with the proper character 
sequence, will run automatically 
after a svstem reset. This is how 




AARDVARK ^cUoh. 



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cartridge games are made to 
start when the computer is 
turned on. As with the RAMAX, 
data is not lost when the blocks 
are switched in and out. Also, 
two of the 8K bloci<s of RAM can 
be switched to a rcmi oiihf niode 
in which they emulate ROM and 
cannot be overwritten (although 
all data is still lost when the 
power is turned off). These spe- 
cial features could be very valu- 
able to those involved in serious 
program development, although 
the casual user may never find a 
need for all of them. 

The Golden RAM includes 
four cartridge expansion slots. 
An excellent feature of this ex- 
pander is that the four slots can 
be switched in and out. It is pos- 
sible, for example, to leave vour 
four favorite game cartridges 
plugged into vour VIC at ail times 
and simply switch in the one 
you wish to play. This ends the 
need to constantly plug and un- 
plug cartridges. The Golden 
RAM also has a reset switch, a 
large push button which is a 
significant improvement over 
the tiny DIP switch for reset on 
the RAMAX. 

As with the RAMAX, the 
Golden RAM draws its power 
from the VIC. It is equipped 
with a 0.5 amp fuse to protect 
the VIC from short circuits. A 
spare fuse is also supplied. 

The Golden RAM comes 
with a full one-year warranty. 

VIC-1 no SK RAM Qirtrii^e 

VlC-nri 16K RAM Cartridge 

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$149 © 

196 COMPUTE December 1983 



Tl Statistics 

Roger B. Crampton 

In many professions there is a 
need to analyze something 
statistically. Engineers, medical 
researchers, psychologists, and 
social scientists often must 
generalize from data samples 
and make predictions concerning 
the probability of events. Not 
many years ago this data analysis 
was a tedious and expensive 
task, using calculators and many 
clerical assistants to perform 
manual computations. 

In addition, because the 
mathemahcs of statistics appear 
so formidable, professionals 
often hesitate to try to explain 
the implications of their data. 

Texas Instruments has 
helped remove some of this anx- 
iety with its Statistics Command 
Module, a series of programs 
that perform dozens of the most 
commonly needed statistical 
techniques. 

The module leads the re- 
searcher through the procedures 
of statistical analysis in a friendly 
and efficient way. The only hard- 
ware requirements for running 
complicated statistics programs 
are the TI-99/4 or 4A console, a 
monitor, and the module. While 
not essential, a printer and a 
cassette or disk drive will elimi- 
nate having to reenter the data 
set and file structure if you want 
a second look at your findings. 

Learn The Basics First 

Before plugging in the module, 
it is important that you 
thoroughly read the 48-page 
instruction manual at least twice. 
The time spent will be rewarded 
with a clear understanding of 
the module's capabilities and a 
basic understanding of statistics 
itself. 

When the module is inserted 
into the console, a title screen is 
displayed, followed in a few 
seconds bv the first of several 



menus (see Figure 1). 
Figure 1: Program Options 

PRESS 

1 TO CREATE A NEW FILE 

2 LOAD AN EXISTING FILE 

3 USE SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL 

CALCULATOR 

4 QUIT 

Typing 1 allows you to set up 
your file structure. You name 
each variable, determine its type 
(alphanumeric, integer, decimal, 
or scientific notation), and enter 
the maximum number of digits 
of each variable. The number of 
variables allowed depends on 
the width of each entry and the 
number of observations. Con- 
versely, the number of observa- 
tions that you will be able to 
enter depends on the number 
and specifications of the vari- 
ables you have selected. It is 
important to carefully define the 
parameters of the problem so 
that you will be able to use all of 
your observations without getting 
a MEMORY FULL message. 

Another reason for care 
when you specify the initial file 
stmcture is that there are no pro- 
visions for editing file specifica- 
tions once they have been set up. 

When the file structure has 
been established, the next menu 
will be displayed (see Figure 2). 

Figure 2: Basic File Structure 

MAIN INDEX 

PRESS 

1 TO SEE FILE DEFINITION 

2 ENTER OBSERVATIONS 

3 CHANGE OBSERVATIONS 

4 ANALYZE DATA FILE 

5 SAVE DATA FILE 

6 QUIT 

At any time, you can return 
to the main index, select option 1, 
and review the specifications of 
the file. But remember, you don't 
have a chance to change any- 
thing, unless you're willing to 
reenter the entire file definition. 



Entering Data 

When you are certain that your 
file is arranged exactly as you 



want it, it's time to select option 
2 and begin entering data. The 
module will prompt you with 
the names of the variables as 
each is typed in. 

Data entry is slow. A fast 
typist must slow down to about 
half speed because the module 
will not accept entries at usual 
typing speed. The first variable 
value will be accepted, but the 
initial digit of the second or suc- 
ceeding variables often gets lost. 
An entry of 84 becomes 4, an 
entry of L3794 wUl become .3794. 

After all your data has been 
entered, you can verify its accu- 
racy by selecting option 3 from 
the menu and single-stepping 
through your data set, making 
any changes that are necessary. 
There is no provision for LlSTing 
your data to a printer to check 
each observation for accuracy. 
This would be desirable, espe- 
cially to see that decimal data is 
properly entered. 

Analyzing The Data 

At last the preliminaries are com- 
pleted, and you're ready to get 
down to the real purpose of the 
program: looking at 3'our data 
from a statistical point of view. 
By pressing option 4 of the main 
index you are given a new menu 
(see Figure 3). 

Figure 3: Analysis Options 

ANALYZE DATA FILE 

PRESS 

1 FOR DESCRIPTIVE 

STATISTICS 

2 CORRELATION 

3 LINEAR REGRESSION 

ANALYSIS 

4 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 

5 TO EXIT THIS SECTION 

Each of the four options is 
thoroughly described in the 
user's manual. Few researchers 
will need all of the procedures 
available. In fact, it may be best 
to learn to use one technique at a 
time. The enormous amount of 
information from the analysis of 
even a simple data set can be 
overwhelming. 




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Although the Stati^tic^ Com- 
mand Module can provide vol- 
umes of information about a 
data set, it does have limitations. 
Evaluation of a great deal of in- 
formation can be hampered by 
memory problems if the module 
is used without memory expan- 
sion. In addition, no provision 
exists in the program to screen 
out data entry errors by speci- 
fying acceptable ranges for each 
variable. 

For nonprogrammers who 
need a means of analyzing fairly 
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module can be a useful tool. 
And for anyone seeking a rela- 
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statistics, it is superb. 

Statistics 

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SuperBASIC 64 



Martin C. Kees 



How would you like to be able to access 37 valuable new 
commands when you're programming on your 64? 
SuperBASIC adds sprite, color, graphics, sound, and 
memory management features and also enhances eight 
of BASIC'S own commands. And it's designed to work 
as easily and as quickly as any ordinary BASIC in- 
struction. Typing it into your computer is foolproof ; 
you won't be allowed to go on to the next line if you 
make a typing error. (See the instructions for using the 
MIX entry method, on page 216.) Once you try it, 
you'll wonder how you programmed without Super- 
BASIC — it's an especially valuable addition to any 64 
owner's library of programs. As a bonus, there's also a 
PET emulator and several demonstration programs so 
you can see SuperBASIC in action. 



SuperBASIC adds commands to BASIC using a 
special technique. BASIC is automatically copied 
to its matching RAM and modified to change the 
STOP command to a wedge vector (similar to 
Apple's ampersand (&) wedge). The character 
chosen was the left bracket ([). Then, using four- 
letter mnemonics following the wedge character, 
you can select what you want SuperBASIC to do. 

These machine language routines make it 
very easy to control virtually all the VIC-II chip 
special features. Sprites and hi-res graphics can 
be controlled from BASIC without having to POKE 
or use Boolean functions to enable special graphics 
modes. Since BASIC was moved to RAM to im- 
plement the [ wedge, this made it convenient to 
enhance a few BASIC commands. I added the use 
of variable expressions for GOTO and GOSUB, 
and RESTORE by line number. These changes to 
BASIC in RAM don't slow execution as they would 
have if CHRGET wedging techniques had been 
used. 

198 COMPUTE! December1983 



SuperBASIC Command Format 

The commands can be used in both direct or pro- 
gram mode. The general format is [xxxx <exp>,<exp> 
where xxxx represents the four-character 
mnemonic and <exp> is a number, variable, or a 
valid BASIC expression. When a color is selected, 
use the standard value ordinarily POKEd to the 
VIC chip. I have used the same coordinate system 
for sprite posihons as given in Commodore 
documentation. The hi-res upper-left corner is 
0,0, and the lower-right is 319,199. Commands 
that switch a function on or off use for off and 1 
for on. 

SuperBASIC includes two types of changes 
to normal BASIC, enhanced commands and new 
commands. Enhanced commands include GOTO 
and GOSUB and variants with IF and ON. You 
can use a line number expression for these com- 
mands. This can help in program readability, 
allowing constructions such as GOTO KEY where 
KEY = 1000. This would transfer control to line 
1000. RESTORE can also be followed by a line 
number expression. RESTORE KEY would cause 
the next READ to use the first DATA statement 
encountered at or after line 1000. This allows 
DATA statements to be selected under program 
control. Small files could be maintained in DATA 
statements and accessed by line number. When 
LISTing a program, the SHIFT key pauses the list 
until released. The ASC function will return a 
value of zero for null strings. 

The new commands can be divided into five 
categories: sprite, sound, color control, VIC mem- 
ory mapping, and graphics control. A convenience 
command [ CATA is also included. This lists to 
the screen all mnemonics defined in SuperBASIC. 

Loading The Program 

To type in SuperBASIC 64 (Program 1), you must 



Put Your 
Commodore 64 

TbVfork. 




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PowerFile Database Specifications 

Menu driven Ves 

Tulorial instructions Yes 

Sample files Yes 

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Characters per record up to 254 

Characters per field up to 254 

Fields per record (max.) 20 recommended (more allowed) 

Records per file lo disk capacity 

File structure random access 

Sorting on any field 

Nested sorts to 5 deep 

Nested subtotals to 5 deep 

Report Prinlout 

• User defined format 

• View or print selected information from your file 

• Select by logical function, range, string, and other parameters 

Compatible With Your Software 

^ Senuential files for use with MODEMS and to transfer data to 

ana from spreadsheets, accounting programs, and custom 

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System Requirements 

• C'64 Computer 

• One or two Disk Drives 

• TV or Monitor {color or monochrome) 

• Printer — properly interfaced (program runs with limited 
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Ask For PowerFile At Your Local Dealer, Or Call Toll 
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Commodore 64 is a register<^d tridemark of Commodore Electronics, Inc. 'Product of Batteries Induded WordPro is i 1fadem,irk of ProfeMlDnal Software, Jnc. 



use the "MLX Machine Language Editor" program 
presented elsewhere in this issue. Be sure that 
you read the MLX article and understand how to 
use MLX before attempting to enter SuperBASIC. 
The numbers you type in create a low memory 
loader for SuperBASIC which can be LOADed 
and RUN as if it were a BASIC program. Because 
the data for the SuperBASIC loader must go into 
the same area of memory where BASIC normally 
resides, a special tactic must be used to prevent 
the SuperBASIC data from overwriting MLX as it 
is entered. First, turn the computer off and back 
on to reset memory pointers to their normal val- 
ues. Next, type in the following line in direct mode 
(without a line number) and hit RETURN: 

POKE 44,22: POKE 642,22: POKE 5632,0: NEW 

This moves up the start of the memory area 
used by BASIC so that all of the data for Super- 
BASIC will fit below MLX without interference. 
Now LOAD and RUN the MLX program in the 
normal manner. When MLX asks for the starting 
and ending addresses for SuperBASIC, give 2049 
as the start and 5264 for the end. When you finish 
typing in the data for SuperBASIC, use the MLX 
Save command to store a copy of the SuperBASIC 
loader on disk or tape. If you do not type in all 
the data for SuperBASIC in one session, you must 
repeat the procedure for moving up the start of 
BASIC before loading MLX to complete your 
entry. 

When you have a complete copy of the loader, 
you must reset memory to its normal conditions 
before LOADing and RUNning SuperBASIC. You 
can do this by turning the computer off and back 
on, or with the command SYS 64738. When you 
RUN the SuperBASIC loader, it first copies BASIC 
from ROM into the underlying RAM and makes 
modifications to certain commands. Then it copies 
the machine language for the rest of the Super- 
BASIC routines into memory at $C000 - $CCOO. 
No other machine language subroutines which 
use memory starting at $C000 can be used with 
SuperBASIC 64, but the DOS Wedge program 
can be used without conflict. The loader erases 
itself from the BASIC memory area after it is RUN. 

The SuperBASIC commands will be enabled 
until you hit RUN/STOP-RESTORE or POKE 1,55. 
Once loaded, SuperBASIC can be reenabled with 
POKE 1,54. The programs you write with Super- 
BASIC commands are loaded and saved in the 
normal manner. The only conflict with normal 
BASIC is the use of the STOP command. It is not 
available; use END instead. When SuperBASIC 
commands are listed while SuperBASIC is dis- 
abled, the [ character will print as STOP. 

Sprite Commands 

[DSPR [MOVE [KSPR [ESPR [BSFP 

200 COMPUni December 1983 



These commands are used in defining sprite 
characteristics and controlling sprite movement. 
[DSPR (Define Sprite) is a general setup command 
that initializes a sprite for the VIC-II chip. The ten 
arguments in the parameter (see SuperBASIC 
commands at the end of the article) specify most 
of the options available for sprite control. [DSPR 
enables the selected sprite (numbered - 7), stores 
block (blk) address in current screen pointer table, 
expands if xexp or yexp = 1, determines initial 
display position (xpos,ypos), and sets sprite color 
registers. Multicolored sprites are selected by 
setting mulH = 1, single color by multi = 0. McO 
and mcl are optional arguments in the list which 
set up multicolor and 1. [MOVE moves the 
selected sprite to xpos,ypos. Horizontal values 
greater than 255 are handled automatically. [KSPR 
and [ESPR kill or enable the selected sprite. [BSPP 
sets background/sprite priority for the selected 
sprite (sel = 1 sets background in front of sprite). 

Sound Commands 

[SSND [PLAY 

These commands access some of the features 
of the SID chip. [SSND (Set up sound) produces a 
sound from one of the three voices of the SID 
chip. Voice (1 ~ 3) selects the voice, ad and sr con- 
trol the attack/decay and sustain/release registers 
of the selected voice. Wave controls the waveform, 
gating, and special effects functions of the sound 
chip. Wave, ad, and sr use the same values that 
would normally be POKEd to these registers. 
Freq controls the frequency of the voice but is a 
16-bit value in the range - 65535. Pwidth is the 
pulsewidth value for the pulse waveform and is 
needed only when wave = 65. Pwidth is an ll-bit 
value in the range - 12228. [SSND sets the vol- 
ume register to 15. [PLAY is a short form of [SSND 
that assumes AD/SR values have been set previ- 
ously. Waveform and voice values are coded into 
the first parameter argument by wave*256 + voice. 
Freq and pwidth are used the same as in [SSND. 

VIC Color Control 

[BKGD [BKG4 [EXTC [FCOL 

These commands control background, bor- 
der, and text character color. [BKGD sets the back- 
ground to the selected color. [EXTC sets the ex- 
terior border color to the selected color. [BKG4 
sets all four background color registers (used in 
extended color and multicolor bitmap modes). 
[FCOL (fill color memory) fills the color memory 
block with the selected color. This causes all text 
on the current screen to be displayed in the 
selected color. [FCOL is also useful in multicolor 
bitmap mode to set multicolor pixels. 

VIC Memory Mapping 

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If you are a person who likes to monkey around with 
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lor you!! Make your programming tasks easier, less 
time-consuming anfl more lun Why spend extra 
hours working on a BASIC program when the 
MONKEY WRENCH can do it for you in seconds. 
It can also make backup copies d( boot type 
cassette programs. Plugs into the right slot and 
works with ATARI BASIC carlfidge. 
The MOWKEV WRHNCH provides t8 direct mode 
commands They are AUTO LIfJEMUMBERING- Pro- 
vides new line numbers when enlering BASIC program 
lines RENUMBER -Renumbers BASIC'S line numbers 
including internal relerences DELETE LINE NUMBERS 
— Removes a range BASIC line numbers 
VARIABLES — Display all BASIC variables and tbeii curreni value. Scrolling — Use the 
STARTS SELECT keys 10 display BASICIinesaulomalicaily Scroll uporOown BASIC pro- 
gram FINOSTRING- Find every occurrenceota siring, XCHANGE STRING -Find every 
occutfence ot a suing and replace it with another string MOVE LINES — Move lines Irom 
one part ot program to anottier pan ol program COPY LINES — Copy lines from one pan 
of program to anottier part ot program FORMATTED LIST — Print 8ASIC program in 
special line format and automatic page numbering DISK DIRECTORY — Display Disk 
Directory CHANGE MARGINS - Provides Itie capability to easily change the screen 
margins MEMORY TEST - Provides the capability to test RAM memory CURSOR 
EXCHANGE - Allows usage ol the cursor keys without holding down ihe CTRL key 
UPPER CASE LOCK - Keeps the computer in the upper case character set HEX CON- 
VERSION - Converts a hexadecimal number to a decimal number DECIMAL COfJVER- 
SiON - Converts a decimal numtjei to a hexadecimal number MONITOR - Enter Ihe 
machine language monitor 

In addition to the BASIC commands, the Monkey Wrench also contains a machine 
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6502 microprocessor 



TELSTAR 64 



SopliisScaied Tertninal Communicalions Cartndge (or the 64. 

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• Uploail/Download to/lrom disk or tape 

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• Line editing capability allows correcting and lesending long 
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• 9 Ouxk Read functions 

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• Similar lo our tamoos STCP Termnal padage 

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Works with or without Expansion Memory. 

Works with VIC Cassette Deck. 

12 Commands provide other neat features. 

Also Available for 2001 , 4001 , and 8032 



Machine Language Monitor 
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More than 20 commands allow you to access 
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Someday every CBM 64 owner will need a 
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CBM 64 Debugger 

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TRAP 65 

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The VIC chip views memory differently than does 
the 6510 chip. VIC sees only 16K at a time and 
maps the ROM character set into part of this 16K 
bank at times. These commands allow changes to 
the normal locations of the screen and character 
sets. [BANK selects which one of four banks (0 - 
3) the VIC chip sees. Normally this is bank 0. 
[BANK resets the pointer BASIC uses to locate 
the screen. [VSIK determines which IK block of 
the 16 available is used for the text screen. The 
blocks are numbered - 15. The BASIC screen 
pointer is reset for this location. [CB2K controls 
which 2K block of the 8 available is used for the 
character set. In banks and 2 the ROM set is 
located at 2K blocks two and three. [CB2K is also 
used to select which 8K block is used for the bitmap 
screen, values -3 select the lower 8K block, and 
values 4-7 select the upper 8K block. These three 
commands must be used in coordination to 
smoothly relocate the screen. Caution must be 
exercised in selecting locations since a system 
crash will result if the screen overwrites important 
RAM such as page zero. Banks 2 and 3 must be 
used with great care. (More on bank 3 usage later.) 
Program 6 demonstrates relocation to PET stand- 
ard locations for the screen and BASIC. 

Graphics/Text Control 

[ECGR [MCGR [BMGR 

These commands select extended color, mul- 
ticolor, or bitmap graphics modes. A value of 
turns the mode off and a value of 1 turns the mode 
on. Only multicolor and bitmap work in conjunc- 
tion with each other to form a combined mode. 
When extended color and bitmap are both on, the 
screen will appear blank. This effect might be 
useful for temporarily hiding the screen. 

[MXGR [KMXG [CMXV 

These commands set up a simple interrupt 
routine that allows mixed modes to appear in two 
sections of the screen. [MXGR will change the 
contents of one VIC register (reg) or part of its 
contents (the bits OFF in mask) each time the raster 
counter register equals one of the two raster select 
values (rastl and rast2). The values in vail or val2 
will be stored into the selected VIC register. You 
must determine the appropriate value for the 
particular register. For example, [MXGR 33,240, 
152,6,252,1 will cause screen lines 51 to 151 to be 
displayed with background white and lines 152 to 
251 with background blue. 

The visible portion of the screen extends from 
raster 51 to raster 251 . [KMXG will kill the interrupt 
and leave the selected register in an unknown 
state. [CMXV (change mixed-mode values) allows 
changing vail and val2 while mixed mode is in 
force. By setting them equal, a known state will 
be in effect after [KMXG. The interrupt routines 

202 COMPUTE! December 1983 



are simple in that normal IRQ still occurs 
(keyboard scan, clock update, etc.) so that the 
transition will tend to creep. To keep the change 
precise, you must disable interrupts from the 
CIA. This will kill the keyboard, however, so I/O 
would be limited to joystick ports only. 

[SIZE [XYSC 

These commands help use the smooth scroll 
registers of the VIC chip. [SIZE selects 40 or 38 
columns for the text display chosen by setting 
colsel to 1 or (colsel = 1 selects 40 columns) and 
sets number of lines to 25 or 24 (rowsel = 1 selects 
25 lines). [XYSC moves the entire text screen up 
to seven pixels horizontally or vertically. By setting 
xpos and ypos to a value in the range 0-7, the 
screen can be stepped a pixel at a time to produce 
a smooth scroll. When used in conjunction with a 
machine language scroll routine or the automatic 
scroll up, text can be scrolled smoothly across or 
up the entire screen. 

[DECS 

[DLCS (download character set) assists in 
using banks without ROM character set images 
and in designing custom character sets. You can 
copy the uppercase graphics set, upper- and 
lowercase set, or both by setting set equal to 0, 1, 
or 2 respectively. This is followed by the address 
of the first location in memory where you wish 
the ROM set to be positioned. This should be on 
a 2K boundary unless you wish to change the 
order of the set. When the address is 53248, the 
set will be copied into the RAM beneath the ROM 
set for use in bank 3. 

[FBMS [FSCR 

The current hi-res screen (determined by the 
last [CB2K command) can be filled with any byte 
value with [FBMS (fill bitmap screen). [FBMS 
would clear the entire 8K screen. [FSCR works in 
a similar way with the current text screen. The 
entire screen is filled with a byte value. Since the 
text screen is used for color control in hi-res mode, 
[FSCR can be used for hi-res color control. 

[PLOT [FLIP [CLPX [MCPL 

These commands are used in plotting pixel 
points in hi-res graphics modes. The first three 
plot in 320 X 200 resolution two-color mode, the 
last in 160 x 200 resolution four-color mode. [PLOT 
sets the selected pixel on, [CLPX turns the pixel 
off, and [FLIP changes the pixel to the opposite 
state. [MCPL (multicolor plot) accepts horizontal 
coordinates in the range 0,159 and plots in one of 
four colors determined by sel, with sel in the range 
0,3. A value of selects background color, 1 selects 
text screen low-byte color, 2 selects text screen 
high-byte color, and 3 selects color memory color. 
Before you execute any of the plotting commands, 
[CB2K must be used to select the appropriate 8K 
block and [BMGR 1 must be in force for the plot 





^ 



Numerous 
screen 
graphic 
displays of 
detailed 
first year 
cash flow 
projections 



THE 

REAL PROBLEM IN 
PERSONAL FINANCE 
MANAGEMENT 

IF YOU HAVE HAD ENOUGH OF PIGGY BANK' 
FINANCE PROGRAMS... 

IF YOU WANT TO KNOW WHERE YOUR BUDGET IS 
GOING INSTEAD OF WHERE IT HAS BEEN ... 
IF YOU HAVE SOME DISCRETION AVAILABLE IN 
ALLOCATING YOUR FUTURE INCOME ... 

Then the Xana PERSONAL FINANCE FORECASTER, 
now available for the Commodore 64*, is specially designed 
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The FORECASTER uses advanced mathematical techniques 

to generate a rolling monthly, personalized cashflow 
projection based upon actual historical information and a 
limited number of estimates of future expenditures for 
discretionary items. 

SOME UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE FORECASTER INCLUDE: 

Selection of items from a large variety of income and expenditure 

categories personalizes your budget. 

Immediate revision of eac/i entry and/or each page. 

Opportunities to revise any or all data as desired to study ttie 

"What if" sensitivity of the budget. 

Simple updating from month to month with minimum data entry. 

Resistance to typographical errors. 

Single l<eystrol<e screen dump of any complete page of data. 

Printout of input data. 

Computer generated forms for organizing input data. 



Tabular 

printout 

of complete 

one to 

ttiree 

year 

projections 



If your nearest Commodore 64 dealer does not have the 
PERSONAL FINANCE FORECASTER in stock, contact: 

UNITED STATES (213)410-9884 
CANADA (403) 276-6834 

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"Commodore and the Commodore 64 are trademarks of Commodore Computer. 




to be seen. Remember that y coordinates increase 
as you go down the screen. 

[DRAW 

[DRAW is used to draw line segments on the 
hi-res screen. [CB2K and [BMGR must be used in 
preparation as in plot commands. [DRAW con- 
nects the endpoints given in the parameter list. 
The line is drawn from xl,yl toward x2,y2. 

[HRCS [CHAR [CHRX [CODE 

These commands make it easy to put text on 
the hi-res screen. [HRCS (hi-res character set) 
stores the address of the character set to be used. 
It need not be located on a 2K boundary or even 
be the same set as used on the text screen. The 
address given is of the first byte of the set. A value 
of 53248 will select the ROM set (upper/graphics). 
[CHAR and [CHRX plot an 8 x 8 character to a 
selected position on the current hi-res screen. The 
character code (char) to select which character to 
plot corresponds to the screen POKE codes as 
listed in Commodore documentation. Example: 
[CHAR 1,100,100 would plot the letter A with 
position 100,100 being the upper-left corner of the 
8 X 8 character ceil. [CHAR plots tiie cell to the hi- 
-res screen absolutely while [CHRX uses the exclu- 
sive OR function to flip the cell pixels. So [CHRX 
can be used to unplot a previously plotted charac- 
ter. [CODE helps in translating to the screen POKE 
code used by [CHAR and [CHRX in character 
selection. 

The argument for [CODE must be the name 
of a defined string variable. Upon execution the 
ASCII values stored in the string will be converted 
to screen POKE codes. The RVS ON and RVS 
OFF control characters can be used within the 
string to select the upper 128 or lower 128 charac- 
ters of the set. All other control characters will 
produce unpredictable results. Once the string is 
converted using [CODE, use the ASC function 
and MID$ function to read the codes. The ASC 
function will give correct results for the character 
of the set. Be careful when using strings not built to 
high memory because [CODE will modifv the actual 
string data stored within the BASIC text area. 
[HRAM [LOOK [STUF 

These commands make use of [BANK 3 pos- 
sible.from BASIC. When bank 3 is selected, the 
VIC chip uses RAM in the 64 from $C000 to SFFFF 
and ignores ROM located at the same addresses, 
including the ROM character set. SuperBASIC 
allows the location of one text screen ([VSIK block 
3 located at $CCOO) in bank 3. RAM from $0000 
to $FFFF can be used for character sets, sprites, 
and a hi-res screen. The main problem confronting 
the bank 3 user is the switching required to read 
and write to these RAM locations. All plotting 
commands need to read as well as write to RAM 
so they can be preceded by [HRAM to accomplish 

204 COMPUTE! December 1983 



SuperBASIC Commands 

Enhanced BASIC Commands 
RESTORE <exp> 
GOTO <exp> 
GOSUB <exp> 
IF <exp> GOTO <exp> 
IF <exp> GOSUB <exp> 
ON <exp> GOTO <expl>,<exp2>,... 
ON <exp> GOSUB <expl>,<exp2>,... 
LIST (Shift Key halts list) 

New SuperBASIC Commands 
Sprite Commands 

[DSPR spr,blk,xexp,yexp,xpos,ypos,muUi, 
sprcolr,mcO,mel 

[MOVE spr,xpos,ypos 

(KSPRspr 

[ESPR spr 

[BSPF spr,sel 
Sound Commands 

ISSND voice,ad,sr,wave,freq,pwidth 

(PLAY 256*wave + voice,freq,pwidth 
VIC Color Control 

IBKGDco! 

iBKG4 colO,coll,col2,coI3 

(EXTCcol 

[FCOL col 
VIC Memory Mapping 

IBANK sel 

IVSlKsel 

1CB2K sei 
Graphics Control 

[ECGRsel 

[MCGR sel 

IBMGR sel 

|MXGRreg,mask,rastl,vall,rast2,vaI2 

[KMXG 

[CMXV vall,val2 

[SIZE colsel,rowsel 

[XYSC xpos,ypos 

IDLCS set, address 

fPBMS byte 

[FSCR byte 

[PLOT x,y 

[FLIP x,y 

[CLPX x,y 

[MCPLx,y,sel 

[DRAW xl,yl,x2,y2 

[HRCS address 

[CHAR char,x,y 

[CHRX Char,x,y 

[CODE str$ 

(LOOK address, variable 

[STUF address,byle 

[HRAM <SuperBASIC mnemonic> 
<paramelerlist> 



this in bank 3. For example, [HRAMDRAW 
1,0,100,100 would draw to the hi-res screen in 
RAM under the $E0OO and SFOOO ROMs. [HRAM 
should be used in this manner with [PLOT, [FLIP, 
[CLPX, [MCPL, [DRAW, [CHAR, and [CHRX in 
bank 3. [MXGR should be avoided in bank 3. Using 
the first 3K of bank 3 will crash SuperBASIC, so 
make sure the text screen is relocated by [VSIK 3. 
When the transition to bank 3 is accomplished. 





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the IK block at $0400 can be reclaimed for BASIC 
program storage. [LOOK and [STUF are PEEK 
and POKE equivalents that can be used with 
[HRAM to examine and change RAM. [LOOK is 
different from PEEK in that a defined variable 
name is used in the parameter list to store the 
value read from memory. [STUF works the same 
as POKE and is primarily useful for storing to 
block $D000 RAM (for example, [HRAMSTUF 
53248,255). 

Programs 2-6 are demonstration programs 
which should be helpful in seeing the commands 
used in actual applications. 

If you're not up to typing in SuperBASIC 
yourself, send $3 along with a blank disk (no tapes) 
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Program 1: SuperBASic 64 



2049 


:011 


008 


000 


000 


158 


050 


,228 


2055 


:048 


056 


048 


000 


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2061 


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2079 


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169 


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133 


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133 


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133 


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169 


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188 


2097 


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162 


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160 


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127 


2103 


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145 


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200 


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249 


187 


2109 


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021 


230 


079 


202, 


208 


007 


2115 


;242, 


160, 


008 


169 


104, 


032, 


014 


2121 


:030, 


171 


169 


013 


141, 


119, 


204 


2127 


:002, 


141, 


120 


002 


169, 


002, 


003 


2133 


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198, 


169 


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248 


2139 


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169, 


020 


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183 


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045 


2151 


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107 


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157, 


082 


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028 


2169 


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133, 


224 


2175 


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162, 


032 


160 


000, 


177, 


167 


2181 


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145, 


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136 


208, 


249, 


143 


2187 


:230, 


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202 


208 


244, 


162, 


182 


2193 


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160, 


003 


185 


224, 


160, 


109 


2199 


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224, 


160 


232 


200, 


224, 


068 


2205 


:190, 


208, 


244 


169, 


003, 


141, 


088 


2211 


:161, 


168, 


169, 


192 


141, 


162, 


132 


2217 


:168, 


169, 


074, 


141 


210, 


166, 


073 


2223 


:169, 


193, 


141 


211, 


166, 


141, 


172 


2229 


:037, 


160, 


169 


084, 


141, 


036, 


040 


2235 


il60, 


169, 


219, 


141. 


223, 


160, 


235 


2241 


:169, 


255, 


141, 


044, 


160, 


169, 


107 


2247 


:194, 


141, 


045, 


160, 


169, 


038, 


178 


2253 


:133, 


001, 


169, 


005, 


141, 


143, 


029 


2259 


tl83, 


169, 


076 


141 


043, 


169, 


224 


2265 


:141, 


087, 


169, 


169, 


193, 


141, 


093 


2271 


:045, 


169, 


141 


089 


169, 


169, 


237 


2277 


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141, 


088 


169 


169, 


227, 


199 


2283 


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044, 


169 


096 


000, 


000, 


173 


2289 


:000, 


000, 


000 


000 


000, 


000, 


241 


2295 


:000 


000 


000 


000 


000, 


000, 


247 


2301 


!000 


000 


000 


032 


115, 


000, 


144 


2307 


:032 


158 


173 


032 


247, 


183, 


060 


2313 


:096 


032 


139 


192 


032, 


000, 


244 



2319 
2325 
2331 
2337 
2343 
2349 
2355 
2361 
2367 
2373 
2379 
2385 
2391 
2397 
2403 
2409 
2415 
2421 
2427 
2433 
2439 
2445 
2451 
2457 
2463 
2469 
2475 
2481 
2487 
2493 
2499 
2505 
2511 
2517 

2523 
2529 
2535 
2541 
2547 
2553 
2559 
2565 
2571 
2577 
2583 
2589 
2595 
2601 
2607 
2613 
2619 
2625 
2631 
2637 
2643 
2649 
2655 
2661 
2667 
2673 
2679 
2685 
2691 
2697 
2703 
2709 
2715 
2721 
2727 
2733 



192,165,020 


,166 


,002,157, 


248,007,032 


,000 


, 192,165, 


020,162,029 


,032 


, 162, 192, 


032,000,192 


,165 


,020,162, 


023,032,162 


,192 


,032,097, 


192,032,000 


,192 


, 165,020, 


072,162,028 


,032 


,162,192, 


032,000,192 


,165 


,020,166, 


002,157,039 


,208 


,104,240, 


117,032,000 


,192 


,165,020, 


141,037,208 


,032 


,000,192, 


165,020, 141 


,038 


,208,169, 


001,162,021 


,032 


,162,192, 


096,032,139 


,192 


,032,000, 


192,165,021 


,072 


,165,020, 


072,032,000 


,192 


,165,002, 


010,170,232 


,165 


,020,157, 


000,208,202 


104 


,157,000, 


208,104,162 


016 


032,162, 


192, 169,000 


141 


030,208, 


141,031,208 


096 


032,000, 


192,165,020 


041 


007,133, 


002,170,169 


001 


224,000, 


240,004,010 


202 


208,252, 


133,078,096 


164 


078,201, 


000,240,006 


152 


029,000, 


208,208,006 


152 


073,255, 


061,000,208 


157 


000,208, 


096,000,007 


014 


032,019, 


199,240,150 


032 


000,192, 


165,020,041 


003 


170, 189, 


183,192,133, 


078 


169,212, 


133,079,032 


000 


192,165, 


020,160,005, 


145 


078,032, 


000,192,165 


,020 


, 160,006, 


145,078,032 


,028 


, 193, 165, 


020,133,002 


,160 


,004,145, 


078,032,037 


,193 


,169,015, 


141,024,212 


,096 


,032,000, 


192,165,020 


,041 


,003,170, 


189,183,192 


,133 


,078,169, 


212,133,079 


,165 


,021,133, 


002,169,000 


160 


,004,145, 


078,032,037 


193 


165,002, 


160,004,145 


078 


096,169, 


000,160,004 


145 


078,076, 


000,192,032 


000 


192,165, 


021,160,001 


145 


078,165, 


020, 136,145 


078 


165,002, 


201,065,208 


016 


032,000, 


192,165,021 


041 


015,160, 


003,145,078 


165 


020,136, 


145,078,096, 


173 


141,002, 


208,251,076, 


044 


168,076, 


029,168,240, 


251 


032,003, 


192,032,019, 


166 


056,165, 


095,233,001, 


164 


096,176, 


001,136,133, 


065 


132,066, 


096,032,000, 


192, 


160,000, 


177,020,133, 


002, 


032,115, 


000,032,040, 


175, 


164,002, 


169,000,032, 


145, 


179,166, 


071,164,072, 


032, 


215,187, 


096,032,000, 


192, 


165,020, 


133,078,165, 


021, 


133,079, 


032,000,192, 


165 


020,160, 


000,145,078, 


096, 


173,014, 


220,041,254, 


141 


014,220, 


165,001,041, 


253, 


133,001, 


169,193,072, 


169, 


184,072, 



205 

153 
112 
092 
065 
134 
187 
120 
045 
083 
173 
054 
145 
072 
222 
056 
097 
020 
039 
101 
131 
187 
201 
045 
141 
080 
049 
043 
095 
234 
015 
144 
040 
141 

250 
098 
183 
249 
236 
072 
175 
236 
235 
012 
163 
236 
104 
099 
081 
063 
141 
100 
194 
132 
038 
207 
092 
122 
075 
080 
020 
048 
104 
130 
240 
206 
149 
027 
249 
008 



206 COMPUni December1983 



TEXT means • Multi-Column Processing •Sophisticated Matnematics 

• Advanced Editing • Total File Overview • Form Mode • Noted Text 

• Ergonomic Design • Ease of Operation and a lot of more features. 
SM TEXT is available for commodore-business computers. 



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itt^ANwmt* 



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ss 




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SM SOFTWARE INC. 

IS A SUBSIDIARY OF 

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ONE OF EUROPE'S TOP 

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U.S. computer technology, allied 
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2829 
2835 
2841 
2847 
2853 
2859 
2865 
2871 
2877 
2883 
2889 
2895 
2901 
2907 
2913 
2919 
2925 
2931 
2937 

2943 
2949 
2955 
2961 
2967 
2973 
2979 
2985 
2991 
2997 
3003 
3009 
3015 
3021 
3027 
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3063 
3069 
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3087 
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3105 
3111 
3117 
3123 
3129 
3135 
3141 
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208 COMPUTE! December 1983 



:032 


115,000 


,076 


,000,195, 


:165 


,001,009 


,002 


,133,001, 


:173 


014,220 


,009 


,001,141, 


:014 


,220,096 


,165 


,101,133, 


:254 


104, 133 


,002 


,198,254, 


:208 


005,165 


,002 


,076,239, 


:167 


032,000 


,192 


,032,121, 


:000 


201,044 


,240 


,237,096, 


:032 


121,000 


,201 


,137,208, 


;003 


076,055 


,169 


,201,141, 


:240 


249,076 


,050 


,169,000, 


:000 


000,000 


,000 


,000,000, 


:000 


000, 000 


,000 


,000,077, 


:079 


086,069 


,093 


,192,068, 


:083 


080,082 


,101 


,196,083, 


:083 


078,068 


,191 


,192,080, 


:076 


065,089 


,246 


,192,066, 


:075 


071,068 


,056 


,195,069, 


:088 


084,067 


,065 


,195,075, 


:083 


080,082 


,074 


,195,069, 


:083 


080,082 


,084 


,195,066, 


:083 


080,080 


092 


,195,083, 


:084 


085,070 


,137 


,193,069, 


:067 


071,082 


125 


,195,077, 


:067 


071,082 


150 


,195,066, 


:077 


071,082 


,175 


,195,083, 


:073 


090,069 


,187 


,195,088, 


:089 


083,067 


,211 


195,067, 


:065 


084,065 


250 


195,066, 


:065 


078,075 


053 


196,086, 


:083 


049,075 


113 


196,067, 


:066 


050,075 


151 


196,068, 


;076 


067,083 


172 


196,077, 


:088 


071,082 


065 


197,075, 


:077 


088,071 


180 


197,067, 


:077 


088,086 


200 


197,070, 


:067 


079,076 


217 


197,080, 


:075 


079,084 


130 


198,070, 


:076 


073,080 


122 


198,067, 


:076, 


080,088 


138 


198,077, 


:067 


080,076 


148 


198,070, 


:083, 


067,082 


197 


198,070, 


:066 


077,083 


232 


198,068, 


:0a2, 


065,087 


097 


199,072, 


:082, 


067,083 


060 


201,067, 


:072 


065,082 


134 


202,067, 


:072, 


082,088 


142 


202,067, 


:079 


068,069 


150 


202,076, 


:079 


079,075 


107 


193,066, 


t075, 


071,052 


105 


195,072, 


:082, 


065,077, 


158 


193,255, 


:255, 


255,255 


255 


255,255, 


:255< 


255.255 


255 


255,255, 


:255, 


255,255 


255 


255,255, 


:255, 


255,255, 


255, 


255,255, 


:255, 


197,200 


162, 


000, 134, 


:002, 


160,000 


177, 


122,221, 


:000, 


194,208, 


026 


232,200, 


:192, 


004,208, 


243, 


189,001, 


:194, 


072,189, 


000, 


194,072, 


:165, 


122,024, 


105, 


003, 133, 


:122, 


144,002 


230, 


123,096, 


:165, 


002,024, 


105, 


006,133, 


:002, 


170,189, 


000, 


194,201, 


>255, 


208,206, 


076, 


008,175, 


:032, 


000,192, 


165, 


020,141, 


:033, 


208,096, 


032, 


000, 192, 


:165, 


020, 141, 


032, 


208,096, 


:032, 


139,192, 


169, 


000,162, 


:021, 


076,162, 


192, 


032,139, 



085 
240 
237 
158 
124 
136 
247 
015 
158 
110 
255 
245 
072 
076 
120 
193 
241 
047 
093 
108 
121 
150 
181 
166 
186 
244 
013 
029 
048 
138 
174 
203 
018 
187 

039 
083 
087 
014 
255 
046 
034 
098 
131 
015 
235 
047 
084 
081 
042 
019 
029 
223 
229 
235 
241 
177 
173 
101 
084 
230 
067 
238 
218 
033 
211 
095 
112 
219 
001 
191 



3159 


:192 


3165 


:032 


3171 


:165 


3177 


:192 


3183 


:000 


3189 


:157 


3195 


:208 


3201 


:165 


3207 


:032 


3213 


:239 


3219 


:016 


3225 


:192 


3231 


:016 


3237 


;240 


3243 


:160 


3249 


:000 


3255 


:160 


3261 


!000 


3267 


!l60 


3273 


:000 


3279 


:160 


3285 


:000 


3291 


:133 


3297 


:248 


3303 


:032 


3309 


:007 


3315 


J 041 


3321 


:208 


3327 


J002 


3333 


;134 


3339 


:251 


3345 


:153 


3351 


:004 


3357 


:002 


3363 


:024 


3369 


:189 


3375 


i215 


3381 


:096 


3387 


:141 


3393 


1 165 


3399 


:003 


3405 


:041 


3411 


:221 


3417 


sl33 


3423 


:063 


3429 


:096 


3435 


:003 


3441 


Jl92 


3447 


;041 


3453 


:173 


3459 


:020 


3465 


:010 


3471 


:208 


3477 


:024 


3483 


:041 


3489 


:192 


3495 


:005 


3501 


:173 


3507 


:014 


3513 


:133 


3519 


:020 


3525 


:002 


3531 


:208 


3537 


:216 


3543 


:078 


3549 


:166 


3555 


:145 


3561 


:021 


3567 


:165 


3573 


:173 



,162 


,021 


,076 


,162 


,192, 


,139 


,192 


,032 


,000 


,192, 


,020 


,162 


027 


,076 


,162, 


,162 


,000 


134 


,002 


,032, 


,192 


,165 


020 


,166 


,002, 


,033 


,208 


232 


,224 


,004, 


,239 


,096 


032 


,000 


, 192, 


,020 


, 162 


017 


,160 


,064, 


,164 


,192 


165 


,020 


,240, 


,169 


,000 


152 


,022 


,160, 


,076 


, 164 


192 


,032 


,000, 


, 165 


,020 


162 


,022 


,160, 


,032 


,164 


192 


, 165 


,020, 


,214 


,169 


000 


,162 


,017, 


,064 


,076 


164 


,192 


,032, 


,192 


,165 


020 


, 162 


,017, 


,032 


,076 


164 


,192 


,032, 


,192 


,165 


020 


,162 


,022, 


,008 


,032 


164 


,192 


,032, 


,192 


,165 


020 


162 


,017, 


,008 


076 


164 


192 


,032, 


,192 


165 


020 


041 


,007, 


,020 


173 


022 


208 


,041, 


,005 


020 


141 


022 


,208, 


,000 


192 


165 


020 


,041, 


,133 


020 


173 


017 


,208, 


,248 


005 


020 


141 


,017, 


,096 


169 


032 


141 


, 000, 


,162 


000 


142 


005 


,002, 


,002 


173 


141 


002 


,208, 


,160 


000 


189 


000 


,194, 


,001 


002 


232 


200 


,192, 


,208 


244 


169 


000 


,160, 


,032 


030 


171 


165 


,002, 


,105 


006 


133 


002 


,170, 


,000 


194 


201 


255 


208, 


,032 


115 


000 


208 


,251, 


,173 


002 


221 


009 


003, 


,002 


221, 


032 


000 


192, 


,020, 


041, 


003 


072 


073, 


,133, 


020, 


173, 


000 


221, 


,252, 


005, 


020, 


141 


000, 


,104, 


024, 


106, 


106 


106, 


,020, 


173, 


136, 


002 


041, 


,005, 


020, 


141, 


136, 


002, 


,173, 


136, 


002, 


024, 


105, 


,141, 


022, 


192, 


076, 


010, 


,032, 


000, 


192, 


165, 


020, 


,063, 


010, 


010, 


133, 


020, 


,136, 


002, 


041, 


192, 


005, 


,141, 


136, 


002, 


165, 


020, 


,010, 


133, 


020, 


173, 


024, 


,041, 


015, 


005, 


020, 


141, 


,208, 


096, 


173, 


024, 


208, 


,241, 


133, 


002, 


032, 


000, 


,165, 


020, 


041, 


007, 


010, 


,002, 


141, 


024, 


208, 


096, 


,014, 


220, 


041, 


254, 


141, 


,220, 


165, 


001, 


041, 


251, 


,001, 


032, 


000, 


192, 


16 5, 


,041, 


003, 


162, 


008, 


201, 


,208, 


002, 


162, 


016, 


160, 


,201, 


001, 


208, 


002, 


160, 


,132, 


079, 


160, 


000, 


132, 


,134, 


002, 


032, 


000, 


192, 


,002, 


160, 


000, 


177, 


078, 


,020, 


200, 


208, 


249, 


230, 


,230, 


079, 


202, 


208, 


242, 


,001, 


009, 


004, 


133, 


001, 


,014, 


220, 


009, 


001, 


141, 



124 

168 
199 
115 
144 
207 
122 
205 
180 
125 
115 
106 
236 
199 
091 
221 
071 
238 
015 
245 
071 
126 
048 
101 
169 
027 
203 
127 
056 
153 
037 
029 
040 
175 
219 
064 
100 
045 
135 
183 
109 
024 
238 
082 

206 
125 
039 
202 
140 
162 
103 
251 
061 
114 
092 
084 
131 
248 
103 
196 
114 
235 
215 
160 
141 
036 
255 
191 
040 
035 



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3579 


:014 


,220 


,096,000 


,000 


, 154 


,223 


3585 


:000 


,006 


,252,000 


,006 


,000 


,009 


3591 


:033 


,240 


,044,025 


,208 


,048 


,093 


3597 


:003 


,076 


,049,234 


,173 


,006 


,042 


3603 


:197 


,073 


,003,141 


,006 


,197 


,124 


3609 


:170 


,172 


,007,197 


,185 


,000 


,244 


3615 


:208 


,045 


,008,197 


,029 


,002 


,008 


3621 


:197 


,153 


,000,208 


,173 


,017, 


,017 


3627 


:208 


,041 


,127,029 


,001 


,197, 


,134 


3633 


:141 


,017 


,208,189 


,000 


,197, 


,033 


3639 


:141 


,018 


,208,169 


,001 


,141, 


,221 


3645 


:025 


,208 


,076,129 


,234 


,120, 


,085 


3651 


:169 


,240 


,141,026 


,208 


,032, 


,115 


3657 


:000 


,192, 


,165,020 


,141 


,007, 


,086 


3663 


:197 


,032, 


,000, 192 


,165 


,020, 


,173 


3669 


:141 


,008, 


,197,032, 


,000 


,192, 


,143 


3675 


:165 


,020, 


,141,003, 


,197, 


,165, 


,014 


3681 


:021 


,041, 


,001,240, 


,002, 


,169, 


,059 


3687 


:128, 


,141, 


,004,197, 


,032, 


,000, 


,093 


3693 


:192 


,165, 


,020,141, 


,002, 


,197, 


,058 


3699 


:032 


,000, 


,192,165, 


,020, 


,141, 


, 153 


3705 


:000 


,197, 


,165,021, 


,041, 


,001, 


,034 


3711 


:240 


,002, 


,169,128, 


,141, 


,001, 


,040 


3717 


:197, 


,032, 


,000,192, 


,155, 


,020, 


,227 


3723 


:141, 


,005, 


,197,173, 


,017, 


,208, 


,112 


3729 


:041, 


,127, 


,013,004, 


,197, 


,141, 


,156 


3735 


:017, 


,208, 


,173,003, 


,197, 


,141, 


,122 


3741 


:018, 


,208, 


,169,003, 


,141, 


,006, 


,190 


3747 


:197, 


,169, 


,241,141, 


,026, 


,208, 


,121 


3753 


:169, 


,009. 


,141,020, 


,003, 


,169, 


,168 


3759 


:197, 


,141, 


,021,003, 


,088, 


,096, 


,209 


3765 


:120, 


,169, 


,049,141, 


,020, 


,003, 


,171 


3771 


:169, 


,234, 


,141,021, 


,003, 


,169, 


,156 


3777 


:240, 


,141, 


,026,208, 


,088, 


,076, 


,204 


3783 


:115, 


,000, 


,032,000, 


,192, 


,165, 


,191 


3789 


:020, 


141, 


002,197, 


032, 


000, 


085 


3795 


:192, 


165, 


020,141, 


005, 


197, 


163 


3801 


;095, 


032, 


000,192, 


165, 


020, 


210 


3807 


:041, 


015, 


162,000, 


157, 


000, 


086 


3813 


:216, 


157, 


000,217, 


157, 


000, 


208 


3819 


:218, 


157, 


000,219, 


232, 


208, 


245 


3825 


r241. 


141, 


134,002, 


096, 


032, 


119 


3831 


1000, 


192, 


165,020, 


041, 


007, 


160 


3837 


:133, 


002, 


165,020, 


041, 


248, 


094 


3843 


:133, 


251, 


165,021, 


133, 


252, 


190 


3849 


!032, 


000, 


192,165, 


020, 


133, 


039 


3855 


:07e. 


041, 


248,133, 


020, 


133, 


156 


3861 


:253, 


169, 


000,133, 


254, 


024, 


086 


3867 


:006, 


253, 


038,254, 


006, 


253, 


069 


3873 


:038, 


254, 


165,020, 


101, 


253, 


096 


3879 


1133, 


253, 


144,002, 


230, 


254, 


031 


3885 


:024, 


006, 


253,038, 


254, 


006, 


114 


3891 


:253, 


038, 


254,006, 


253, 


038, 


125 


3897 


:254, 


165, 


078,041, 


007, 


005, 


095 


3903 


:253, 


133, 


253,024, 


165, 


251, 


118 


3909 


:101, 


253, 


133, 251, 


165, 


252, 


200 


3915 


:101, 


254, 


133, 252, 


173, 


136, 


100 


3921 


:002, 


041, 


192,005, 


252, 


133, 


194 


3927 


!252, 


173, 


024, 208, 


041, 


008, 


025 


3933 


:010, 


010, 


005, 252, 


133, 


252, 


243 


3939 


:166, 


002, 


189,107, 


198, 


160, 


153 


3945 


:000, 


096, 


128,064, 


032, 


016, 


185 


3951 


:008, 


004, 


002,001, 


192, 


048, 


110 


3957 


:012, 


003, 


000,085, 


170, 


255, 


130 


3963 


:032, 


246, 


197,081, 


251, 


145, 


051 


3969 


:251, 


096, 


032,246, 


197, 


017, 


200 


3975 


;251, 


145, 


251,096, 


032, 


246, 


132 


3981 


:197, 


073, 


255,049, 


251, 


145, 


087 


3987 


:251, 


096, 


032,000, 


192, 


165, 


115 


3993 


:020, 


041, 


003,024, 


105, 


008, 


098 



3999 
4005 
4011 
4017 
4023 
4029 
4035 
4041 
4047 
4053 
4059 
4065 

4071 
4077 
4083 
4089 
4095 
4101 
4107 
4113 
4119 
4125 
4131 
4137 
4143 
4149 
4155 
4161 
4167 
4173 
4179 
4185 
4191 
4197 
4203 
4209 
4215 
4221 
4227 
4233 
4239 
4245 
4251 
4257 
4263 
4269 
4275 
4281 
4287 
4293 
4299 
4305 
4311 
4317 
4323 
4329 
4335 
4341 
4347 
4353 
4359 
4365 
4371 
4377 
4383 
4389 
4395 
4401 
4407 
4413 



!l33, 
:032, 
:000, 

!l70, 

:133, 

:160, 
;145, 
;173, 
:000, 
;165, 
:251, 
;145, 



002, 
255, 
192, 
189, 
020, 
000, 
251, 
136, 
133, 
020, 
230, 
251, 



006, 
197, 
165, 
119, 
165, 
049, 
096, 
002, 
251, 
145, 
252, 
200, 



020, 
133, 
020, 
198, 
002, 
251, 
032, 
133, 
168, 
251, 
202, 
192, 



038, 
002, 
041, 
037, 
073, 
005, 
000, 
252, 
162, 
200, 
208, 
232, 



021,123 
032,048 
003,080 
002,124 
255,063 
020, 162 
192, 143 
169,042 
003,156 
208,178 
246,072 
208,173 



: 249, 096 
:136,002 
:173,024 
:010,005 
: 000, 133 
: 000, 165 
: 208, 251 
: 246,096 
: 001, 096 
:192,169 
:141,178 
:173,167 
(208,002 
: 046, 176 
: 046, 178 
1056,173 
: 002, 168 
!l68,002 
! 002, 141 
:219,046 
: 002, 024 
:165,020 
: 021, 141 
:192,165 
:032,000 
:195,002 
: 002, 032 
:141,198 
: 202, 002 
:237,197 
:176,014 
:002,077 
:002,238 
: 141, 203 
:002,237 
: 002, 173 
r002,141 
:169,255 
r 200, 002 
:255,077 
:002,238 
:238,201 
r204,002 
: 200, 002 
: 002, 176 
: 208, 005 
; 105, 141 
:002,141 
: 002, 141 
: 141, 205 
; 144, 003 
;176,002 
;020,169 
;141,177 
; 208, 002 
1002,208 
; 208, 002 
1039,169 



,032, 
,041, 
,208, 
,252, 
,251, 
,020, 
,230, 
,032, 
,104, 
, 000 , 
,002, 
,002, 
,056, 
,002, 
,002, 
,178, 
,173, 
,144, 
,179, 
,176, 
,096, 
,141, 
,194, 
,020, 
,192, 
,165, 
,000, 
,002, 
,056, 
,002, 
,169, 
,199, 
,199, 
,002, 
,193, 
,196, 
,201, 
,141, 
,141, 
,201, 
,200, 
,002, 
,173, 
,169, 
,076, 
,141, 
,177, 
,167, 
,168, 
,002, 
,076, 
,013, 
,255, 
,002, 
,169, 
,049, 
,141, 
,255, 



000,192 
192,133 
041,008 
133,252 
162,032 
145,251 
252,202 
121,000 
104,076 
141,176 
141,179 
013,168 
096,162 
046,177 
046,179 
002,237 
179,002 
006,140 
002,202 
002,046 
032,000 
193,002 
002,032 
141,197 
165,020 
021,141 
192,165 
169,000 
173,198 
141,199 
255,141 
002,141 
002,169 
056,173 
002,141 
002,237 
002,176 
203,002 
200,002 
002,141 
002,208 
169, 000 
199,002 
000,237 
173,199 
205,002 
002,173 
002,173 
002,169 
032,030 
058,201 
177,002 
141,176 
169,000 
025,141 
169,000 
209,002 
141,204 



,173,205 
,252,225 
,010,195 
,169,046 
,160,225 
,200,018 
, 208, 082 
,208,208 
,070,218 
,002,197 
,002, 166 
,002,054 
,024,083 
,002,246 
,002,000 
,167,110 
,237,064 
, 178,203 
,208,049 
,177,243 
,192,185 
,165,019 
,000,241 
,002,062 
,141,157 
,196,077 
,020,030 
,141,020 
,002,008 
,002,159 
,202,088 
,199,013 
,000, 009 
,195,175 
,200,186 
,194,221 
,027,228 
,077,020 
,169,149 
,201,062 
,003, 100 
,141,204 
,205,244 
,201,018 
,002,099 
,240,022 
,200,025 
,201,175 
,255,232 
,199,110 
,173,162 
,208,091 
,002,026 
,141,155 
,209,029 
,141,106 
,240,089 
,002,103 



210 COMPUIE! December 1983 



COMMODORE 64™ SOFTWARE 



f 



in^ MMM Hijnvo 




SPRITKMASTER' is nol jusl .motlicr 
sprite aiitot. It's iIk- lirKM uliliiy .is'.iil.ihk' 
li)niuilticol<>is|iii(c.in'miiitioii.ui(l};anic 
ptogr.imininji II will h.ivf you nuikiiiji 
(ulla>l(H<ininiat«lobjcvlsiniusiniiiuik-s. 
Pc<)|)lo iTiiiiiinj;, binis Ityinj; oi tanks 
idllitif^.iRMsn.ipvvitli Spriinn.ista.il will 
auloniirtiiiiiiy .ipiK'nd yoiu s]1titL^ lo 
(rtlu-t piofiiains. irstMsyioListMnclniuler- 
siandanclcoincswiihalLillll p<igcinstiiit- 
tinn maniMl and s.llnpk^ ol animalai 
s]>iikN lo }ic\ you staiial. (SUKgfslai rctdil 
piia-...S5S.9'i) 



SPRITEMASrER". NELITRAl. ZONE"* AND BEACH-HEAD" 

ARE AVAILABLE AT YOUR I (X:ALC:0IV1IW(>D{)RE DEAI.EH 
ONF.ITHEKDISKOKTAI'E. 



GENERAL QUARTERS! BATTLE 
STATIONS! As chid cominantlt'tol 



VKlniy, and invadf onciny Icniioiv 
Willi land lout's. BEACH-HEAD" is 
a 100% in.idiinclanjiua.Uffiainfand 
ofTt'iN ituilli-stiirn action with liigli 
resolution, (lin.V()inK'iision,il}^iii[)lii<.v 
(Sunj^cslcd ivlail price... SJ4.95) 



NEUTRALZONI. lakisyoiitollieouter 
edges ol ihegalaxy. to ALPHA [V, a long 
ranneeailyvvaniingsiaiionwlioseniissioii 
is to (k-ieci alien inlnuk'is Ironi oilier 
galaxies. 

NEUTRALZONE'isiheuUiinaieinhigli 
rtsolulion, last aLiion, .ucade tiuality 
g<iincs. It is written in 100% madiiiie lan- 
gu.ige and k-aliiressitK Kith scrolling olllie 
?60 degree panorama. Tlie realism is 
iintielievable. {Suggested retail price... 
S34.95) 



ACCESS SOFTWARE INC 

')l'^ EAS'r9(M) SOUTH. .SAIT lAKE CITY, UTAl I «-! lOS 
TELEPHONE <W) I) Si2-1 H4 



^r <)iiiiii<i>1>ui*^*.l is. I ii-4'kli'ij-il li.iili'iri.iiL ril ( i iiniiu uliiri- ItllvilU'k^ MoiililU'S. Illl. 



4419 


: 173, 200, 002, 024, 109, 201 , 008 


4839 


4425 


:002, 240, 171, 173, 199,002,092 


4845 


4431 


.-141,167,002, 169,000, 141, 187 


4851 


4437 


: 168, 002, 173, 200, 002, 141, 003 


4857 


4443 


; 177, 002, 169, 25 5, 141, 205, 016 


4863 


4449 


: 002, 076, 016, 200, 238, 200, 061 


4869 


4455 


: 002, 238, 199, 002, 173, 193, 142 


4875 


4461 


:002, 041, 007, 133, 002, 173, 211 


4881 


4467 


: 193, 002, 041, 248, 133, 251, 215 


4887 


4473 


: 173, 194, 002, 133, 252, 173, 024 


4893 


4479 


: 197, 002, 032, 014, 198, 017, 075 


4899 


4485 


:251, 145, 251, 173, 204, 002, 135 


4905 


4491 


; 208,095, 173, 203, 002, 240, 036 


4911 


4497 


:016, 056, 173, 193, 002, 2 33, 050 


4917 


4503 


:001,141, 193,002,176,013, 165 


4923 


4509 


:206, 194,002, 144,008, 238, 181 


4929 


4515 


: 193, 002, 208, 003, 238, 194,233 


4935 


4521 


: 002, 056, 173, 200, 002, 233, 067 


4941 


4527 


1001, 141, 200,002, 176, 003, 186 


4947 


4533 


: 206, 201, 002, 024, 17 3, 200, 219 


4953 


4539 


:002, 109, 201,002, 240, 120,093 


4959 


4545 


: 173, 205,002,240, 165, 024, 234 


4965 


4551 


:173, 176,002, 109,208,002, 101 


4971 


4557 


:141, 208, 002, 173, 177, 002, 140 


4977 


4563 


: 109, 209, 002, 141, 209, 002, 115 


4983 


4569 


2 144,144, 173,202,002, 240,098 


4989 


4575 


: 006, 206, 197, 002, 076, 107,049 


4995 


4581 


: 200, 238, 197, 002, 076, 107, 02 5 


5001 


4587 


: 200, 173, 202, 002, 240, 006, 034 


5007 


4593 


: 206, 197,002,076, 250, 200, 148 


5013 


4599 


: 2 38, 197, 002, 206, 199, 002, 067 


5019 


4605 


:240, 058, 173, 205,002, 240, 147 


5025 


4611 


: 040, 024, 173, 176, 002, 109, 015 


5031 


4617 


: 208, 002, 141, 208, 002, 173, 231 


5037 


4623 


:177,002,10g,209,002, 141,143 


5043 


4629 


: 209, 002, 144, 019, 173, 203, 003 


5049 


4635 


: 002, 240, 017, 056, 173, 193, 196 


5055 


4641 


:002,233,001, 141, 193,002,093 


5061 


4647 


: 176, 003, 206, 194, 002, 076, 184 


5067 


4653 


: 107, 200, 238, 193, 002, 208, 225 


5073 


4659 


: 248, 238, 194, 002, 208, 243, 160 


5079 


4665 


:096, 198, 122,096,032,000,089 


5085 


4671 


: 192, 165, 020, 141, 075, 201, 089 


5091 


4677 


: 165, 021, 141, 076, 201, 096, 001 


5097 


4683 


: 143, 183, 000, 169, 000, 141, 199 


5103 


4689 


:193,002, 141, 196,002,032, 135 


5109 


4695 


:000, 192, 165, 020, 141, 197, 034 


5115 


4701 


:002,03 2,000, 192, 169,056,032 


5121 


4707 
4713 


: 197,020, 169, 001, 2 29,021, 224 
: 176, 005 , 169, 255 , 141 , 193 , 020 


5127 
5133 

5139 


4719 


:002, 165, 020, 041, 007, 133, 223 


5145 


4725 


:002, 165,020,041, 248, 133, 214 


5151 


4731 


; 251, 165, 021, 133, 252, 032, 209 


5157 


4737 


:000, 192, 169, 192, 197,020, 131 


5163 


4743 


: 176, 005, 169, 255, 141, 196, 053 


5169 


4749 


: 002 , 165 , 020, 041 , 007 , 141 , 005 


5175 


4755 


:194, 002, 141, 195, 002, 165,078 


5181 


4761 


: 020, 032, 014, 198, 165, 251, 065 


5187 


4767 


: 041, 248, 133, 2 51, 173, 197, 178 


5193 


4773 


: 002, 133, 020, 169, 000, 133, 110 


5199 


4779 


: 021, 006, 020, 038, 021, 006, 027 


5205 


4785 


: 020, 038, 021, 006, 020, 038, 064 


5211 


4791 


: 021, 024, 173, 075, 201, 101, 010 


5217 


4797 


: 020, 133, 020, 165, 021, 109, 145 


5223 


4803 


:076, 201, 133, 021, 024, 165, 047 


5229 


4809 


: 251, 105, 008, 141, 177, 002, 117 


5235 


4815 


: 165, 252, 105,000, 141, 178, 024 


5241 


4821 


: 002, 165, 021, 041, 208, 201, 083 


5247 


4827 


:208,208,007, 120, 165,001, 160 


5253 


4833 


5 041,251,133,001,169,000,052 


5259 



: 141, 176.002, 166,002, 240, 190 
1005,056,106,202,208,251,041 
: 141, 179, 002, 172, 176, 002, 147 
: 177, 020, 166, 002, 240, 004, 090 
1074,202,208,252,032,077,076 
: 202, 208, 238, 044, 193, 002, 124 
: 048, 056, 056, 169, 008, 229, 065 
: 002, 133, 002, 201, 008, 240, 091 
: 045, 173, 177, 002, 133, 251, 036 
:173, 178, 002, 133, 25 2, 169, 168 
: 000, 141, 176, 002, 173, 194, 209 
:002, 141, 195,002, 173, 179, 221 
: 002, 073, 255, 141, 179, 002, 187 
: 172, 176,002,177,020,166,254 
: 002, 010, 202, 208, 2 52, 032, 253 
:07 7,202, 208, 240, 169,004,197 
: 005, 001, 133, 001, 088, 096, 139 
: 172, 195, 002, 044, 077, 201, 000 
:048,012,133,254,173,179,114 
: 002, 049, 251, 005, 254, 076, 214 
;099, 202,081, 2 51, 145, 251, 100 
:200, 140, 195,002, 192,008,070 
: 208, 017, 160, 0S4, 140, 195, 123 
:002, 230, 252, 044, 196,002,071 
: 016, 005, 169, 007, 141, 176, 121 
1002,238,176,002,173,176,124 
; 002 , 201 , 008 , 096 , 169 , 000, 095 
: 141, 07 7, 201, 076, 078, 201, 143 
: 169, 255, 141, 077, 201, 076, 038 
:078, 201,032, 115,000,032,095 
:040, 175, 234, 234, 2 34,234,026 
: 234, 234, 165, 071, 133, 020, 250 
: 165, 072, 133, 021, 160, 000, 206 
: 177, 020, 240, 213, 056, 165, 020 
; 020, 233, 002, 133, 020, 176, 251 
: 002, 198, 021, 177, 020, 197, 032 
:069, 208, 196, 200, 177, 020, 037 
: 197 , 070 , 208, 189, 160, 003, 000 
: 177, 020, 133, 2 51, 200, 177, 137 
:020, 133, 252, 169, 000, 133, 148 
:253, 133,002, 133, 254,160, 126 
1000,177,071,170,164,002,037 
: 177, 2 51, 201, 018, 208, 007, 065 
: 169, 128, 13 3, 253, 076, 009, 233 
: 203, 201, 146,208, 007, 169, 149 
; 000, 133, 253, 076, 009, 203, 151 
:041, 191,016,002,073, 192, 254 
:005, 253, 164, 254, 145, 251,049 
: 230, 254, 2 30, 002, 202, 208, 109 
: 211, 165, 254, 160, 000, 145, 180 
:071, 096, 000, 000, 000, 000, 186 
: 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 000 , 02 5 
:000, 000, 072, 020, 010, 000, 133 
: 153, 034, 147, 154, 083, 085, 181 
: 080, 069, 082, 066, 065, 083, 232 
: 073, 067, 032, 066, 089, 032, 152 
: 077, 067, 083, 079, 070, 084, 003 
: 032 , 040 , 067 , 041 , 032 , 049, 066 
: 05 7, 056, 051, 034, 000, 101, 110 
: 020, 01 5, 000, 129, 074, 178, 233 
:049, 164,053,048,058,161,100 
: 065, 036, 058, 139, 065, 036, 228 
: 178, 034, 034, 167, 130, 058, 180 
: 137, 050, 048, 000, 107, 020, 203 
1016,000,130, 000, 143, 020, 156 
:020,000, 153, 034, 091,067, 218 
: 065, 084, 065, 034, 058, 144, 053 
: 067, 065,084,065,058, 144,092 
1070,067,079, 076, 049, 052, 008 
: 058, 144, 066, 075, 071, 068, 103 
: 054, 058, 162, 000, 000, 000, 157 



212 COMPUTE! December 1983 



1Zu^w^nclcc^m«fMHU<xt€4^Kd. 




10610 BAYVIEW (Bayview Plaza) 
RICHMOND HILL, ONTARIO, CANADA L4C 3N8 
(416) 884-4165 



'So 



avj 



C64-LINK 

RTc The Smart 64 rtc 



'^^ 



^IC^^^' 



So 



Call or write 
payments 
by VISA, 
MASTERCARD 
or BANK 
TRANSFER. 
Mailorders 
also by 
certified 
check, etc. 



M any more 64s 



n 'T'l r I L ! 1 1 I 1 11 



I 






I 



^m 



Spooling 

to 
Printer 



Cartridge 
Expansion Siot 




C64-LINK 



VL16 



{future) 

Cartridge 

Mother Board 



CP/M 



© 



POWER 
And 



® 



PAL 



© 



Other 
Cartridges 



Switch RF 



Seriai 
Audio I/O 
Video Port 



IEEE Disks 

(2031) (4040) 

(8050) (8250) 

(9090) 




IEEE Printers 

(4022) (8023) 

(8300) 

etc. 



1541 


Drive 


A 


nd 


1525 


Printer 


or 1515 Printerl 



or VL3 Cable 
to Parallel 
Printer 



lEEEroParallel 
Interface 

Parallel 
Devices 



IEEE to Serial 

Interface 

True Serial 
Devices 



or VL4 Cable 

to Standard 

Modem 



J 



Give These Expanded ^ 

Capabilities To Your 64 N^ 



M\C 



■*■ The ability to transfer data from any type of device to another (IEEE, Serial, 
Parailei) 

•k BASIC 4.0 which aliows you to run more PET BASIC programs and gives you 
extended disk and I/O commands. 

■*• The ability to have several 64s on line together - sharing comfnon IEEE 
devices such as disl^s or printers with Spooling Capabiiily. 

■*r Built-in machine language monitor 

it A built-in terminal or modem program which allows the system to communi- 
cate through a modem to many bulletin board systems and other computer 

mainframes. 



• Compatibility with CPIM. 



Contact your local Commodore Dealer or RTC. 



Copyrlghit and Trademarks 

C64 is a copyright of Commodore Business Mactiines, 
Inc. C64-LINK is a copyright of Richvale Tele- 
communications. CP/M is a registered trademark of 
Digital Research. POWER is a (rademark of Pro- 
fessional Software. PAL is a copyright of Brad 
Templeton. 



Program 2: Moire Pattern 

1 REM MOIRE TITLE PAGE DEMO 

5 [EXTC0 

10 CCB2K4;CbMGR1:CFBMS0 :[FSCR1 

15 FORJ=0 T0318 STEP2 

20 [DRAWJ,198,160,I00 :NEXT 

22 FORJ=0 TQ318 STEP2 

23 [DRAWJ, 0,160, 100 :NEXT 

24 FORJ=0 T0198 STEP2 

25 [DRAW160,100,318,J{3 SPACES} :NEXT 

26 PORJ=0 T0198 STEP2 

27 [DRAW161,100,0,J{3 SPACES} :NEXT 

29 [EXTC4 

30 M$="SUPERBASIC":[HRCS53248:M?=M$+"" 
40 X=120:Y=80:GOSUB50 

45 M?="(rVS}BY MCS0FT":M?=M$+"";X=124:Y=1 
20:GOSUB50 

47 [CHRX54,152,89:CCHRX52,160,89 

48 FORJ=1TO800:NEXT 

49 [FSCR16:j5 SPACES }GOTO100 

50 [CODEM9;FORJ=1TOLEN{M$) 

60 [chrxascCmid$(m?,j,i)),x,y 

70 X=X+8:NEXT 

80 RETURN 

100 GETA$:IFA5=""THEN100 

110 [BMGR0;[CB2K2 

Program 3: Geometric Pattern 

1 REM STAR DEMO 
10 PI=2*2 

20 INPUT" IcLR] POINTS WANTED (0 TO END)";P 
W 

21 IFPW=0THENEND 

22 INPUT"SKIP"?SK 

23 INPUT"RADIUS <100 " ; R 
30 P=PI/PW 

50 [BMGRl: [CB2K4:[FBMS0:[FSCR1 

60 X=160:Y=100-R:TL=0 

70 FORJ=lTOPW 

80 TH=TL+SK 

90 TL=TH;TH=TH*P-Cpi/4) 

100 X2=COS(TH)*R+160 

110 Y2=SIN{TH)*R+100 

120 LDRAWX,Y,X2,Y2 

130 X=INT(X2) :Y=INT{Y2) :NEXT 

140 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN140 

150 CbMGR0:[CB2K2:PRINT"{CLR3 " :GOTO20 

Program 4: Joysticl<-ControIled sprites 

1 REM DOODLE 

5 GOSUB900:[DSPR1, 13, 0,0, 160+1 6, 100+44,0, 

0;GOSUB140 
10 CBANK0:[CB2K4:[ BMGRl :[FBMS0: [FSCR1:CbS 

PPI,1 
20 E=l :X=160:Y=100:C=-1 :FORQ=1TO100:NEXT 

30 IFPEEK(203)=60THEN130 

31 IFPEEK(203)=4THENE=-E:IFE>0THENCDSPR1, 
13,0,0,0,0,0,0 

32 IFE<0THEN[DSPR1,13,0,0,X+16,Y+44,0,12: 
[CLPXX,Y 

35 JV=PEEK( 56320 ) :FR=JVAND16 

40 JV=15-(JVAND15) 

50 IFJV=0ANDFR=16THEN30 

60 IFJV=10RJV=50RJV=9THENY=Y-1 : IFY<0THENY 

=199 
70 IFJV=2ORJV=6ORJV=10THENY=Y+1:IFY>199TH 

ENY=0 
80 IFJV>=4ANDJV<=6THENX=X-1 : IFX<0THENX=31 

9 



90 IFJV>=aANDJV<=10THENX=X+l : IFX> 319THENX 

=0 
100 IFFR=0ANDJV=0THENC=-C : E=l : FORQ=1TO100 

: NEXT :IFC>0THENCKSPR1:POKE53 288,0 
105 IFE<0THEN[ESPR1 : [MOVEl , X+16 , Y+44 : [CLP 

XX,Y:GOTO30 
110 IFC>0THEN[PLOTX, Y:GOTO30 
120 IFC<0THEN[ESPR1 : [MOVEl , X+16 , Y+44 : GOTO 

30 
130 [BANK0: [BMGR0: [CB2K2 : POKE198 , 0: PRINT" 

CcLR}":[KSPR1:END 
140 PRINT" {CLR3 DOODLE 64" 

150 PRINT" {down} USE JOYSTICK IN PORT 2" 
160 PRINT"BUTT0N TURNS INK ON/OFF" 
165 PRINT"F1 TURNS ERASE MODE ON/OFF" 
170 PRINT "HIT A KEY TO START" 
180 PRINT"HIT [RVS} SPACE {off} TO STOP" 

185 PRINT"THE BLACK + IS YOUR CURSOR WHEN 

INK=OFF" 

186 PRINT"THE GREY + IS YOUR CURSOR WHEN 
t SPACE } ERASE=ON " : [BKGDl : [ PCOL0 

190 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN190 

200 IFA$=" "THENRETURN 

210 RETURN 

900 X=13*64 

910 READY: IFY<0THENRETURN 

920 POKEX,Y:X=X+1:GOTO910 

1000 DATAl, 192, 0,1, 192, 0,1, 192, 0,1, 192,0, 

1,192,0 
1010 DATA0, 128, 0,126, 63, 0,0, 128, 0,1, 192,0 

,1,192,0 
1020 DATAl, 192, 0,1, 192, 0,1, 192, 0,0, 0,0,0, 

0,0 
1030 DATA0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0, 0,0 
1040 DATA0, 0,0,-1 

Program 5: Sprite Animation 

1 REM FALLING SHAMROCKS 

2 REM HIT A KEY TO STOP PROGRAM 

5 [EXTC13 : [CB2K4 : [BMGRl : TfSCRS : [FBMS171 
10 X=832:V=53265:R=128 
20 READA:IFA<0THEN35 
30 POKEX,A:X=X+1:GOTO20 

3 5 FORJ=0TO7 

40 [DSPRJ,13,1,1,0,0,0,5+Jf2 SPACES}:NEXT 
50 FORJ=lT0256 : F0RK=1T08 : [MOVEK-1 , J+K*K, J 
*K+K:NEXT:WAITV,R: [FSCRJ/2 

55 GETA$:IFA?<>""THEN300 

56 NEXT 

60 X=PEEK(8192)+1:[FBMSX:GOTO50 

100 DATA0, 102, 0,0, 255, 0,1, 255, 128, 3, 255,1 

92 
110 DATA3, 255, 192, 2 5, 255, 152, 60, 126, 60, 12 

6,126,126 
120 DATA255, 60, 255, 255, 255, 255, 127, 255, 25 

4,255,255,255,255 
130 DATA24, 255, 126, 24, 126, 60, 24, 60, 24, 24, 

24,0,24,0,0,24,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,-1 
300 CCB2K2: [BMGR0:FORJ=0TO7: [KSPRJiNEXT 

Program 6: Simple pet Emulator 

10 REM ROUTINE TO SET BASIC MEMORY AND SC 

REEN TO PET STANDARD LOCATIONS 
20 REM SCREEN AT 32768 
30 REM BASIC 1024 TO 32767 
40 REM ASSUME IN C-64 STANDARD MAP 
50 [FSCR 0:[VS1K : [ BANK 2 : PRINT" [CLR} " 
60 POKE44,4;POKE 45 , 3 : POKE46 , 4 
70 POKE55,0:POKE56, 128 
80 NEW © 



214 COMPUTE! December 1983 



Look at these 
Features 

• Fully screen -oriented 

• Horizontal and vertical scrolling 

• Terminal mode - never seen before on a wordprocessor 

• Supports Commodore disk and cassette handling 

• Imbedded commands 




Wordprocessor 
for 

Ccmimoilore 64 



BLIZTEXT is 3 
trademark of ELCOMP 
PUBLISHING, INC. 

Commodore-64 and 
VIC -20 are trademarks 
of Commodore 

Business Machines. 



Dealer and Distributor 
inquiries are invited. 



BLIZTEXT - SUPER WORDPROCESSOR 

for the Commodore-64 

- ON SALE NOW! - 

• Fully screen-oriented, up/down, left and riglit 
scrolling - Upper and lower case 

• More than 70 commands 

• Full I/O compatibility with Commodore peripherals 
Upper and lower case 

• Works with practically every primer on the market, 
user definable printer control commands 

• INCLUDE command allows handling large files 
on up to 4 diskettes or on cassette. 

• Build in terminal software for electronic mail and 
networking. Telecommunications mode, upload and 
download, save on disk or cassette. 

• Dynamic formatting, Imbedded commands 

• Single keystroke (or disk directory and error channel 

• Program comes on disk or cassette 

• Double line spacing, left and right margin justification, 
cstiterjng, page numbering, and practically everything 

- one expects from a good wordprocessor. 

AVAILABLE NOW! 
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Manual oniy 162 pages) S29:95 

MACROFIRE 

Editor/Assembler for the Commodore-64 
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One outstanding tool, consisting of 3 powerful elements 
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1.1 Fully screen^jriented Editor {more than 70 
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3.) Machine Language Monitor 
Assembly can be started from the editor. Translates in 
3 passes. More than 1,000 lables, screen oriented/no line 
numbers, scrolling, includes disk files, 
Practically everything the serious machine language 
programmer needs everydayl 

Manual only S19.95 

Order #4963 S89.00 



THE GREAT BOOK OF GAMES, VOL.1, 

by Franz Ende 

46 programs for the Commodore 64 

Introduction to graphics and sound. How to program 

your own games. Walking pictures, animation, high 

resolution graphics, programming tips and tricks, hints 

and useful subroutines for the beginner and advanced 

programmer. This book is a MUST for every C-64 owner. 



Hardware Add-Ons: 

Parallel printer interface KIT Order #4990 S 19.95 
Direct Connect Modem KIT Order #4991 Aikf. price 
Universal Experimenter Board Order #4970 S 9.95 
Expansion Board, space tor four ex- 
perimenter boardslboard only) Order #4992 S 29.95 



Come and get it - It's yours for only 
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Programs from the book on disk. 
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MORE ON THE SIXTYFOUR, by H.-C. Wagner 
How to get the most out of your powerful Commodore 
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How to connect a parallel and serial printer. How to 
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Programs from the book on disk 
Order #4989 SI 9.95 

NEW PRODUCTS 
Watch out for our new books, software and add-ons to 
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How to program in 6502 Machine Language on 
your C-64 , by S. Roberts I Introduction I 
Order-* 184 SI 2.95 

Commodore-64 Tune-up, Vol. I, by S. Roberts 
How to expand and customize your C-64. 
Order #185 £12.95 

Small Business Programs for the Commodore-64 
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How to make money using your C-64. Mailing list, 
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Tricks for VICs 

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PAYMENT: check, money order, VISA. MASTER 

CARD, Eurocheck, ACCESS, interbank 
Prepaid orders add E3.50 for shipfiing lUSA) 
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Machine Language Entry Program 
For Atari And Commodore 64 



Charles Bronnon, Program Editor 



Even the best typists have problems entering machine 
languare programs as BASIC loaders. Here's the solu- 
tion. 



Have you ever typed in a long machine language 
program? Chances are you typed in hundreds of 
DATA statements, numbers, and commas. You're 
never sure if you've typed them in right. So you 
go back, proofread, try to run the program, crash, 
go back and proofread again, correct a few typing 
errors, run again, crash, recheck your typing — 
frustrating, isn't it? 

Until now, though, that has been the best 
way to enter machine language into your com- 
puter. Unless you happen to own an assembler 
and are willing to wrangle with machine language 
on the assembly level, it is much easier to enter a 
BASIC program that reads the DATA statements 
and POKEs the numbers into memory. 

Some of these BASIC loaders, as they are 
known, use a checksum to see if you've typed the 
numbers correctly. The simplest checksum is just 
the sum of all the numbers in the DATA state- 
ments. If you make an error, your checksum will 
not match up. Some programmers make the task 
easier by calculating checksums every ten lines or 
so, and you can thereby locate your errors more 
easily. 

Almost Foolproof 

"MLX" lets you type in long machine language 
(ML) listings with almost foolproof results. Using 
MLX, you enter the numbers from a special list 
that looks similar to BASIC DATA statements. 

216 COMPUTEI December 1983 



MLX checks your typing on a line-by-line basis. It 
won't let you enter illegal characters when you 
should be typing numbers, such as a lowercase L 
for a 1 or an O for a 0. It won't let you enter num- 
bers greater than 255, which are not permitted in 
ML DATA statements. It will prevent you from 
entering the wrong numbers on the wrong line. 
In short, MLX should make proofreading obso- 
lete! 

In addition, MLX will generate a ready-to-use 
tape or disk file. For the 64, you can then use the 
LOAD command to read the program into the 
computer, just as you would with any program. 
Specifically, you enter: 

LOAD "program",l,l (for tape) 

or 

LOAD "program", 8,1 (for disk) 

To start the program you need to enter a SYS 
command that transfers control from BASIC to 
machine language. The starting SYS will always 
be given in the article accompanying the machine 
language program. 

For the Atari, MLX will generate a ready-to- 
use boot tape or boot disk. It also has an option to 
create binary files for DOS users. A boot disk is 
like the disks sold with professional games on 
them. You just insert the disk, remove any car- 
tridges, and turn on your computer. The game 
will then automatically load. 

Boot Tapes 

Using a boot tape is almost as simple. Just insert 
it into your player, rewind, press PLAY. Hold 
down the START key while turning on your com- 







i'.^!ii'C!'S'^/-''- 




You'll never make 
Grand Prix champion just 
driving in circles. 

You've got to stop 
sometime. The question is 
when. Right now you're 
in the lead. But the faster 
you go, the more gas you consume. And the 
quicker your tires wear down. 

If you do pull into the pits, though, you lose 
precious seconds. So it's up to you to make sure the 
pit crew is quick with those tires. And careful witih 
that gas. Otherwise, poof! you're out of the race. 

See your retailer for available computer formats. 



So what'll it be, Mario? Think your tires 
will hold up for another lap? Or should you 
play it safe and go get some new ones? 

Think it over Because Pitstop" is the 
one and only road race game where winning 
is more than just driving. It's the pits. 

Goggles not included. 

One or two players; 6 racecourses, 

joystick control. 



ajM/VTTJrsamtMif 




snunGYaAMtsMRTHiMaiOH-auiiEPtAmt. 



puter until you hear a beep (like the one you hear 
with CLOAD). Then press a key on the keyboard 
and the program will automatically load and run. 
Incidentally, the binary file is more useful for 
utilities than games. Binary files are loaded from 
the DOS menu (selection L) or automatically if 
the file is named "AUTORUN.SYS". If you'can't 
stand the thought of putting only one game on 
each disk (as with boot disks), you can place sev- 
eral binary file machine language games on one 
disk. 

Getting Started 

To get started, type in and save MLX (you'll need 
it for future ML programs published in COMPUTR!)- 
When you're ready to type in the ML program, 
the program will ask you for several numt?ers: the 
starting address and the ending address. In addi- 
tion, the Atari MLX will request a "Run/Init Ad- 
dress". These vital numbers can be found in the 
appropriate article accompanying the ML program. 

The Atari version will then ask you to press 
either T for a boot tape, or D for disk. If you press 
D, you'll be asked if you want to generate a boot 
disk (press D) or a binary file (press F). 

Next you'll see a prompt. The prompt is the 
current line you are entering from the listing. 
Each line is six numbers plus a checksum. If you 
enter any of the six numbers wrong, or enter the 
checksum wrong, MLX will ring a buzzer and 
prompt you to reenter the line. If you enter it cor- 
rectly, a pleasant bell tone will sound and you 
proceed to the next line. 

A Special Editor 

You are not using the normal Atari or Commodore 
64 screeh editor with MLX. For example, it will 
accept only numbers as input. If you need to make 
a correction, press < DEL/BACK S> (Atari) or <INST/ 
DEL> (64). The entire number is deleted. You can 
press it as many times as necessary back to the 
start of the line. If you enter three-digit numbers 
as listed, the computer will automatically print 
the comma and prepare to accept the next number. 
If you enter less than three digits (by omitting 
leading zeros), you can press either the comma, 
space bar, or RETURN key to advance to the next 
number. When you get to the checksum value, 
the Atari MLX will emit a low drone to remind 
you to be careful. The checksum will automatically 
appear in inverse video; don't worry, it's high- 
lighted for emphasis. 

When testing MLX, we've found that it makes 
entering long listings extremely easy. With the 
audio cues provided, you don't even have to look 
at the screen if you're a touch-typist. We have 
tested MLX with people lacking any computer 
background whatsoever. No one has ever man- 
aged to enter a listing wrong with it. 

218 COMPUTl! December W83 



Done At Last! 

When you finish typing (assuming you type the 
entire listing in one session) you can then save 
the completed program on tape or disk. Follow 
the screen instructions. With a boot disk, the Atari 
version will offer to format the disk. If you press 
Y (yes), be sure you have a blank disk in drive 
one — not your program disk! If you get any errors 
while saving, you probably have a bad disk, or 
the disk is full, or you made a typo when entering 
the actual MLX program. (Remember, it can't 
check itself!) 

Command Control 

What if you don't want to enter the whole program 
in one sitting? MLX lets you enter as much as you 
want, save that portion, and then reload the file 
from tape or disk when you want to continue. 
MLX recognizes these few commands: 

S:SAVE 

L: LOAD 

N: New Address 

D: Display 

For the Atari, hold down the CTRL key while 
you type the appropriate key. Hold down SHIFT 
on the 64 to enter a command key. You will jump 
out of the line you've been typing, so it's best to 
perform these commands at a new prompt. Use 
the SAVE command to save what you've been 
working on. It will write the tape or disk file as if 
you've finished, but the tape or disk won't work, 
of course, until you finish the typing. Reuiember 
what address you stop on. The next time you run 
MLX, answer all the prompts as you did before, 
then insert the disk or tape. When you get to the 
entry prompt, press CTRL-L (Atari) or SHIFT-L 
(64) to reload the file into memory. You'll then 
use the New Address command to resume typing. 

New Address And Display 

Here's how the New Address command works. 
After you press SHIFT-N or CTRL-N, enter the 
address where you previously stopped. The 
prompt will change, and you can then continue 
typing. Always enter a New Address that matches 
up with one of the line numbers in the special 
listing, or else the checksum won't match up. 

You can use the Display command to display 
a section of your typing. After you press CTRL-D 
or SHIFT-D, enter two addresses within the line 
number range of the listing. You can abort the 
listing by pressing any key. 

Tricky Business 

The special commands may seem a little confusing 
at first, but as you work with MLX, they will be- 
come easy and valuable. What if you forgot where 
you stopped typing, for instance? Use the Display 






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For CBM-64 
and VIC 
owners only: 

This is just 1 of 
20 pages of the 
newest and biggest 
Skyles catalog, hot 
off the press. 

We know you'll 
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software and books 
that will make your 
CBM-64 or VIC 
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nicer to live with. 
So, if we missed 


















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sending you your 
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1 



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Mountain View, California 94041 



command to scan memory from the beginning to 
the end of the program. When you sec a bunch of 
170s (64) or zeros (Atari), stop the listing by 
pressing a key and continue typing where the 
170s (or zeros) start. Some programs contain many 
sections of these zeros or 170s. To avoid typing 
them, you can use the New Address command to 
skip over these blocks. Be careful, though; you 
don't want to skip over anything you should type. 

Making Copies 

You can use the MLX SAVE and LOAD commands 
to make copies of the completed ML program. 
Use LOAD to reload the tape or disk, then insert 
a new tape or disk and use the SAVE command 
to make a new copy. 

One quirk about tapes made with the 64 MLX 
SAVE command: When you load them, the mes- 
sage "FOUND program" may appear twice. The 
tape will load just fine, however. 

We hope you will find MLX to be a true labor- 
saving utility. Since it has been thoroughly tested 
by entering actual programs, you can count on it 
as an aid for generating bug-free machine lan- 
guage. And be sure to save MLX; it will be used 
for future all-machine-language programs in COM- 
PUTE!, COMPUTEi's Gazette, and COMPUTE! Books. 

Program 1: MLX — 64 Version 

100 PRINT"ICLR3{RED]";CHR$(142);CHR$(8); : 
POKE53281, 1:POKE53280,1 

101 POKE 788, 52: REM DISABLE RUN/STOP 
110 PRINT"{RVS3 {40 spaces}"; 

120 PRINT" I RVS 3 {15 SPACES 1 {RIGHT J f OFF) 
i*3£{RVS} {right] {right} £2 SPACES} 

E*3ToFF}^*3f {rvs}£{rvs} 

{13 SPACES]"; 
130 PRINT" {RVS] {15 SPACES ]{ RIGHT ] gG3 

[right] {2 RIGHT] tOFF}£[RVS }£E*§ 

{0FF]E*3{!RVS}{13 spacesT"? 
140 PRINT" {RVS] {40 SPACES]" 
150 V=53248:POKE2040, 13 :POKE2041 , 13 :FORI= 

832T0894 : POKEI ,255: NEXT : POKEV+27 , 3 
160 POKEV+21 , 3 : POKEV+39 , 2 : POKEV+40 , 2 : POKE 

V, 144 : POKEV+1 , 54 : POKEV+2 ,192: POKEV+3 , 

54 
170 POKEV+29,3 
180 FORI=0TO23 : READA : POKE679+I , A : POKEV+39 

, A: POKEV+40 , A ; NEXT 
185 DATA169, 25 1,166, 254,164,255,3 2,216,25 

5,133,253,96 
187 DATA169, 0,166, 251, 164, 252, 32, 21 3, 255, 

133,253,96 
190 POKEV+39, 7: POKEV+40, 7 
200 PRINT"{2 down] {pur] {bLK] {3 SPACESJa F 

AILSAFE MACHINE LANGUAGE EDITOR 

{5 DOWN}" 
210 PRINT"§53{2 UP]STARTING ADDRESS? 

{8 SPACES] {9 left]"; :INPUTS:F=1-F:C$= 

CHR$(31+119*F) 
220 IFS<2 56OR(S>40960ANDS<49152)ORS>53247 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO210 
225 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 
230 PRINT "653 {2 UP } ENDING ADDRESS? 

{8 SPACES] {9 left]"; :INPUTE:F=1-F:C?= 



CHR$(31+119*F) 
240 IFE<256OR(E>40960ANDE<49152)ORE> 53247 

THENGOSUB3000:GOTO230 
250 IFE<STHENPRINTC$; " f RVS] ENDING < START 

{2 SPACES] ":G0SUB1 000 :G0T0 2 30 
260 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

300 PRINT" tCLR] ";CHR$(14> :AD=S : POKEV+21 , 
310 PRINTRIGHT$("0000"+MID$(STR?(AD) ,2) ,5 

);":"; :F0RJ=1T06 
320 GOSUB570:IFN=-1THENJ=J+N:GOTO320 
390 IFN=-211.THEN 710 
400 IFN=-204THEN 790 
410 IFN=-206THENPR1NT: INPUT" {D0WN]ENTER N 

EW ADDRESS ";ZZ 
415 IFN=-206THENIFZZ<SORZZ>ETHENPRINT" 

{rVSJoUT OF RANGE" :GOSUB1000:GOTO410 
417 IFN=-206THENAD=ZZ: PRINT :G0T03 10 
420 IF No-196 THEN 480 
430 PRINT :INPUT"DISPLAy: FROM" ;F: PRINT, "TO 

"; sINPUTT 
440 IFF<SORF>E0RT<SORT>ETHENPRINT"AT LEAS 

T";S; "{left} , NOT MORE THAN" ; E :GOT043 



450 F0RI=FT0TSTEP6: PRINT :PRINTRIGHT5(" 000 
0"+MID$ ( STR5 ( I ) , 2 ) , 5 ) ; " : " ; 

451 FORK=0TO5:N=PEEK(I+K) : PRINTRIGHT? ( "00 
" +MI D? ( STR? ( N ) , 2 ) , 3 ) ; " , " ; 

460 GETA? : IFAS > " "THENPRINT : PRINT : GOTO310 
470 NEXTK:PRINTCHR?{20) ; :NEXT1 : PRINT: PRIN 

T:GOTO310 
480 IFN<0 THEN PRINT : GOTO310 
490 A(J)=N:NEXTJ 
500 CKSUM=AD-INT(AD/2 56)*256:F0RI=1T06:CK 

SUM=(CKSUM+A(I) )AND255:NEXT 
510 PRINTCHR$(18) r :GOSUB57O:PRINTCHR$(20) 
515 IFN=CKSUMTHEN530 
520 PRINT: PRINT "LINE ENTERED WRONG : RE-E 

NTER" : PRINT: GOSUB1000:GOTO310 
530 GOSUB2000 
540 F0RI=1T06:P0KEAD+I-1,A(I) :NEXT:POKE54 

272,0:POKE54273,0 
550 AD=AD+6:IF AD<E THEN 310 
560 GOTO 710 
570 N=0:Z=0 

580 PRINT" E+^"; 

581 GETA$:IFA$=""THEN581 

585 PRINTCHR?(20) ; :A=ASC{A$) : IFA=130RA=44 

ORA=32THEN670 
590 IFA>12aTHENN=-A: RETURN 
600 IFAO20 THEN 630 
610 GOSUB690: IFI=1ANDT=44THENN=-1 :PRINT" 

{left] {left}"; :GOTO690 
620 GOTO570 

630 IFA<48ORA>57THEN5B0 
640 PRINTA$; :N=N*10+A-48 

650 IFN>255 THEN A=20 :GOSUB1000 : GOTO600 
660 Z=Z+1:IFZ<3THEN580 
670 IFZ=0THENGOSUB1000:GOTO570 
680 PRINT", "; : RETURN 

690 S%=PEEK(209)+256*PEEK(210)+PEEK(211) 

691 FORI=1T03:T=PEEK(S%-I) 

695 IFT<>44ANDT<>58THENP0KES%-I, 32:NEXT 
700 PRINTLEFTS("{3 LEFT] ", I-l );: RETURN 
710 PRINT" {CLR} [RVS]*** SAVE ***{3 DOWN}" 
720 INPUT" {down] FILENAME" ;F$ 
730 PRINT: PRINT" {2 DOWN} {RVS}t{0PP3 APE OR 

{RVS]d{OFF]ISK: (t/d) " 
740 GETA$ : IFA? < > "T"ANDA$<> "D"THEN740 
750 DV=1-7*(A$="D") :IFDV=8THENF$="0:"+P$ 
760 OPEN l,DV,l,F$:POKE252,S/256:POKE251, 



220 COMPUTE! December 1983 



UNICORN TREASURES 

MAKE 
LEARNING A PLEASURE 




Each Unicom educational game teaches as it 
entertains. All our treasures have been developed 
and tested at The Computer Learning Center for 
Children. Written by experts who make them 
educational and fun, our games feature colorful, 
high-resolution graphics, multiple difficulty levels,, 
beautiful music, and are completely user-friendly 
with simple on-screen instructions. 

Unicorn's educational games are unique in their 
flexibility. Parents will be delighted to be able to 
use them year after year as their child's educational 
needs change. No need to spend a lot of money on 
software that children will master in a short time 
and not use again. 



10 LrrriK robots — Arr 2-7. The moM 
deli(^h[ful way 10 introduce your young learner 
lo [he compJier. ID l.iiilc Robois ha\ live dil 
ferent garner io keep your child's avid aiieniion. 
There is upper and lower case Idler rp.-ogniluin. 
counling Ihe roboEs. robot addiiion. an inler- 
aclive storybook tale and a unique robot ".keicti 
game that will enchanl kids in a most crealiie 
way. The storybook tale introduces the concept 
of siibiraction and serves as a tnolivational tool 
for the beginning reader, 

Availabk for the Apple, Atari, 
Commodoire 64 and IBM compuleni. 

Disk vcTsions only. 

IBM version requires 
color card adapter. 






KL'N BUNCH — The most flexible language arts 
program on the market today. Available on three 
ieiels. elementary (grades I 61, intermediate 
Ijunior high school), and college board 
preparatory (high school). Each lesel includes 
over 2(XX) words and phrases. Within ihe elemen- 
tary level the word list can be accessed by grade. 
The program also allows you lo enter your own 
words and phrases. You can adjust the length of 
time the words and phrases arc displayed on the 
screen, making l-utibunch an excellent tool (or 
yweif reaiitnji as well as rt'mt'dtanon . There is a 
built-in printer option w'hich allows you to list the 
vocabulary tor further review. Funbuncfi also 
coniains a computer doodle drawing game for 
creative fun. Please specify Funbanch (elemen- 
tary), Funbunch (intermediale) or Funbunch (col- 
lege board preparatory) when ordering. 



SHIPS AHOV - Ages 5-13. Out- 
standing graphics and sound makes 
t)iis program an entenaining way 
for children to practice their basic 
math facts. The object of the game 
IS to sail your ship across Ihe ocean 
avoiding the treacherous mine hid- 
den beneath Ihe sea. Ships Ahoy 
allows you to select beginner, inter- 
mediate or advanced levels within 
the four basic math functions. The 
Jlexib/liiy of this ptogram lies in the 
option of choosing to be timed or 
not enabling the academically 
talented student to practice .speed 
math. An equation program and 
built-in tables enhance the effect- 
iveness of Ships Ahoy. Two unique 
and different games are included as 
rewards. 



RACt CAR •RITHMKTIC"' — 

Agcv s.Adull- A math game that 
the entire family can plav together. 
Hach petson can compete on their 
own level in a race to ihc linish 
line. Children aiid adults alike will 
have hour upviit hour vil cducatjon- 
aE fun together and can practice Ihe 
lour basic math lunctionv, each 
choosing ihcir own o[X"ration, dif- 
licultv level and optional time fac- 
tor. Race Car 'Kithmclic fully 
utili/'es your computers superb 
graphics and sountl capabilitiev- 
An aTcadc-siyle race car >zaiiic is in- 
cluded as a reward. I ram I to 4 
players. 




Available ul your ItKal computer slurc. 
If you (;an'i Tind ihtMn ihere, you can 
order directly from Unicorn Software. 
All programs $39.95. Please enclose 
$2.00 for shipping and handling. 
Visa and Mastercard welcomed. 

Atari, Commodore 64. IBM PC and Apiilc arc 
trademarks of Alari, Inc., Commodore tilcc- 
tronjes t.Tt>, Inicrnaliona) Business Maetiinev 
Corp,, and Apple Computer. Inc. resr^-livrtv. 



Copyright ]983 hy Unicorn Software Companv. Ml iiptil'. reserved 




UNICORN 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

UNICORN SOFTWARE 

1775 East Tropicana Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89109 

(702) 798-2727 or (702) 798-5990 



S-PEEK(252)*256 
765 POKE255,E/256:POKE254,E-PEEK(255)*256 
770 POKE253,10;SYS 679 : CLOSEl t IFPEEK( 253 ) 

>9ORPEEK(253)=0THENPRINT"{DOWN}DONE. " 
:END 

780 PRINT" [down] ERROR ON SAVE. {2 SPACESIt 
RY AGAIN. ":IFDV=1THEN7 20 

781 OPEN15,8,15:INPUT#15,DS,DS$:PRINTDS;D 
S$ tCLOSElS : GOTO720 

790 PRINT" {CLR][rVS}*** LOAD ***[2 DOWN}" 

800 INPUT" {2 DOWN} FILENAME" ; F$ 

810 PRINT: PRINT" {2 DOWN] {rVS}t{gff} APE OR 

ERVS}DtOFF}lSK: (t/D) " ~ 
820 GETA5:IFAS<>"T"ANDA?<>"D"THEN820 
830 DV=1-7*(a9="D"):IFDV=8THENF$="0:"+P$ 
840 OPEN 1,DV,0,F$:POKE252,S/256:POKE251, 

S-PEEK(252)*256 
850 POKE253,10:SYS 691:CL0SE1 
860 IFPEEK(253)>9 OR PEEK(253)=0 THEN PRI 

NT:PRINT:GOTO310 
870 PRINT" {D0WN}ERR0R- ON LOAD . { 2 SPACES}T 

RY AGAIN. {down}": IFDV=1THEN800 ~ 
880 0PEN15,8,15:INPUT#15,DS,DS5:PRINTDS;D 

S$ : CLOSEl 5 : GOTO800 

1000 REM BUZZER 

1001 POKE54296 , 15 :POKE54277, 45 : P0KE54278, 
165 

1002 POKE54276,33:POKE 54273, 6: P0KE54272, 
5 

1003 FORT=1TO200 iNEXT : P0KE54276 , 32 ; P0KE54 
273, 0:POKE54272,0; RETURN 

2000 REM BELL SOUND 

2001 POKE54296 ,15: POKE54277 , : POKE54278 , 2 
47 

2002 POKE 54276, 17:POKE54273,40:POKE54272 
,0 

2003 FORT=1TO100:NEXT:POKE54276, 16: RETURN 
3000 PRINTC$? " [RVS}N0T ZERO PAGE OR ROM": 

GOTO1000 

Program 2: MLX — Atari Version 

100 GRAPHICS 0: DL=PEEK (560) +256*PEEK 
C561)+4:PDKE DL-l,71:POKE DL+2.6 

110 POSITION 3,0:? " MLX " : PCS I T I ON 23 
,0:7 " IJ--T*K--J.ta=»J'.VJaT " : POKE 7 10,0 



120 

130 

140 
150 

160 

1 70 
130 
190 
200 
210 



TA 
DI 

■. D 

CP 
Ei 
BU 
3 
EC 
AD 
C 1 
22 
GE 
DI 



BE 
RS 
H = 
R$ 
PI 
IN 
FF 



"S 

"R 
DR 

M 

0) 

SK 

EN 

sk 

FF 

) = 

TO 

DR 

70 

8) 

T 

A< 

CH 

) 

G = 

(2 

IN 

(3 

NI 

IT 

ER 



tarting Addres 

Ending Addres 

un/Init Addres 

Ait), BUFFER* (F 
,F«(20) ,CID*(7 
INV* (6) ' 
# 1 , 4 , , " K : " : ? 

ERt=CHR* (0) : BU 

BUFFER*: BUFFER 

R*=BUFFER* 

= BEG: CIO*="'hhh 

) : CID$ <S) ="LV" 



5 " 
S" 

s " 



INPUT BES: 
INPUT FIN: 
INPUT STAR 



#1 , ME 
:;• 6 8 T 

R S C M E 
THEN 
BES-2 
) =CHR 

T ;beg 

) =CHR 
T = BEG 
-Ht25 
* C6 ) = 



DIA: I 
HEN 1 
DIA) : 
BUFFE 
4: BUF 

* ( (FI 
/256) 

* (L) : 
+ 8: H = 
&: BUF 
CHR* ( 



F ME 

70 

? : I 

R*=" 

FERS 

N-BE 

: L = B 

BUFF 

INT ( 

FER$ 

H) 



IN-BE6+i27) ,, T* 
) , SECTOR* ( 12S) 

: ? , " Eia p e ar 

FFER* ( FIN-BE6+ 
S (2) =BUFFER« : S 

" : CIO* <4) =CHR$ 
: CIO* (7) =CHRt < 

DIA<>34 AND ME 

F MEDl A< >ASC C " 
■■ : GOTO 250 
=CHR* (0) : BUFFE 
G-i-127) /12a) 
E6-H*256: BUFFE 
ER* (4) =CHR* CH) 
PINIT/256) : L=P 
(5) =CHR* <L) : BU 



230 

240 

2 50 
260 

270 

2S0 

290 

3 00 
310 

320 
330 

340 

350 

360 

370 
380 

390 
400 

410 



420 
430 



440 

450 

460 
4 70 

4 80 

4 70 

5 00 

510 
520 
530 
540 



FOR 
CHR 
. 14 
3, 1 
H=I 
»25 
« 19 
BUF 
CHR 
IF 



1=7 TO 24:READ A : BUFFER* ( I > = 
S<A):NEXT I : DATA 24,96,169,60 
1 ,2,211, 169.0, 133, 10, 169, 0, 13 
1,76,0,0 

NT(STARTADR/256) :L=BTARTADR-H 
6: BUFFER* ( 15) =CHR* (L) : BUFFER* 
) =CHRS (H) 

FER*(23)=CHR*(L) :BUFFER*(24)= 
* \H) 
MEDIA< ;.-ASC ( -'D" ) THEN 360 



Boot Si 5k 



i i n a r y Si 1 e : " 



GET «1,DTYPE:IF DTYPE< 

YPE .; >70 THEN 270 

? CHR* <DTYPE> : IF DTYPE 

6 

BE6=BEG-30: BUFFER*=CHR 

R*<2)=CHR*( (FIN-BEG+12 

H=INT <BEG/256) : L = BEG-H 

R*(3)=CHR*(L) :BUFFER*< 

PINIT=STARTADR:H=INT(P 

L=PINIT-H*256: BUFFER* ( 

: BUFFER* (6) =CHR*(H) 

RESTORE 338: FOR 1=7 TO 

: BUFFER* < I >=CHR* Cfl) : NE 

DATA 169,0,141,231,2,1 

0,141, 232,2, 133, 15, 169 

169, 0, 133, 1 1 , 24, 96 

H=INT (BEG/256) : L=BE6-H 

R« (B) =CHR* (L) : BUFFER* ( 

) 

H=INT(STARTADR/256) :L = 

*256: BUFFER* ( 22) =CHR*( 

(26) =CHR* (H) 

GRAPHICS 0:POKE 712,10 

10:POKE 709,2 

? ADDRj ■■:";: FDR J = l TO 

GOSUB 570: IF N=-l THEN 

330 

THEN 720 

THEN LET READ 



; o3 AND DT 

=70 THEN 3 

* ( ) : B U F F E 
7) /I 28) 
*256: BUFFE 
4) =CHR* (H) 
INIT/256) : 
5) =CHR* (L) 

30: READ A 
XT I 

33, 14, 169, 
, 0, 133, 10, 

*256: BUFFE 
15) =CHR* (H 

STARTADR-H 

L) : BUFFER* 

POKE 710, 



N = -19 

N = -12 



IF N=-14 THEN 
; : INPUT ADDR 



NO-4 TH 

"Di spl ay 

[ : INPUT T 



IF 

IF 



TRAP 410 

Addr ESS 


TRAP 32767: IF 
TRAP 430:? :? 
PUT F: ? , "To" 
7 

IF F<BEG DR F>FIN OR T 
FIN DR T<F THfeN ? CHR* 
least ";BEG;", Not Mor 
IN: GOTD 430 
FDR I=F TO T STEP 6:? 
FDR K = TO 5:N = PEEK;(AD 
+I+K-BEB) :T*="000":T*( 
(N) ) ) =STR* (N ) 
IF PEEK (764) < 255 THEN 
OP : POP :? :GDTO 370 
? T*; 'S " i : NEXT K:? CHR 
XT I : ? : ? : GOTO 370 
IF N<0 THEN ? : SOTO 37 
A(J)=N:NEXT J 
CKSUM=ADDR-INT (ADDR/25 

1=1 TO 6: CKSUM=CKSUM+ 
= CKSUM-2S6* CCKSUM>255) 
RF=i28:30UND 0,200,12, 
0:SDUND 0, 0, 0, 0: RF=0: ? 
IF NOCKSUM THEN ? :? 
" ; CHR* (253) ; : ? : GOTO 3 
FOR W=15 TO STEP -1: 
, 10, W: NEXT W 
FDR 1=1 TO 6: POKE ADR ( 



J=J-1 : GOT 

:l:GaTD 72 

? :? "New 
? :GOTD 37 

EN 4 8 
:Fro(n";:IN 
: TRAP 3276 

<BEG DR T> 

(253) ; "At 
e Than " ; F 

- - ^ ? ■ ? " 

R ( BUFFER*) 
4-LEN (STR* 

GET ttl , A: P 

« ( 126) ; : NE 



6) *256: FOR 
A C I ) : CK.SUM 
: NEXT I 
B:60BUE 57 
CHR* (126) 
" Incorrect 
70 
SOUND 0,50 

BUFFER*) +A 



222 COMPUni December 1983 




YOUR GIFT GIVING PROBLEM 
IS SOLVED* ___ 



You can reJy on PACE for ONE STOP shopping for all your Micro Computer 
needs, for gifts, or just for yourself. We have picked the best 2,000 Pro- 
grams, Booi^sand Accessories— covering all the major brands and put 
them into one friendly store. And, this Is backed up by THOUSANDS of 
additional items we stock in our central warehouse, ready for overnight 
shipping to our stores. Magazines? You bet! We carry almost 60 differ- 
ent Micro Magazines on our racks! Plan to visit us soon. Can't visit? Then 
you can order from our gigantic product list— just write for your FREE 
copy today! 



BIG SAVINGS YEAR 'ROUND! 



With PACE, you can save money on all your Micro Computer purchases, 

each and every day! Just compare and we're sure you'll find we are your BEST 

source for what you need, and at a price you can afford! 



WORD PROCESS ING/C-64" 

4702-000101 Quick Bm Fox, C/T S57.00 
51 65-0OO025 Scnpl 64/80 Col D S89.00 
4100-064207 Easy Script, Disk SS4.95 
5841-006401 TotlTe«t,Tape S35.95 
5841-046401 Toll Texl, Disit S35.95 
5841.0O6402 dTotI Label. Tape S17.95 
5841-046402 To!l Label, Disk SI 9.95 
S692-000104 WoTj Pro 3 Plus. D $99.95 
5692-000204 Spellnght PliiS/54, D S59.95 
5066-000164 PaporClip.Disk *100.00 

DATABASE/C-64- 
SO86-0OO284 Dolphi0racle,D»120.0O 
5S44-0OOO24 Mirage DataBase. Dt9fl.00 
4538-000401 DataBaseMgr.D S79.00 

UTILITIES/C-64~ 
436S-004064 DBvelop64.Tape S54.95 
4365-404064 De\/BlDpe4.Dish SS9.9S 
4001-000177 Tiny Basic Comp. (22.95 
4100-064101 Assembler. Disk £19.95 

GAMES/C-64~ 
ST96-OO3026 Fl Apocalypso.T »27.95 
5796-004026 FI.Apocalypse, D t27.9S 
5796-003028 Survnior Tape $27.95 
S796-0O4028 Suivivor.Disk 127.95 
5796-003064 Blue Max. Taps t27.95 
5796-004064 Blue Max, Dish S27,95 
5763-254251 Frogger.Dlsk $27.95 
5763-254252 Frogger.Tape S27.95 
5763-254201 Crosslire, Disk *23.9S 
5763-254202 Crosslire. Tape $23.95 
5763-254803 S Lightfoot.Can $27.95 
4085-O02174 TempleApstiai.D $31.95 
40B5-O02173 Temple Apshai. T $31,95 
4085-005873 Jumpman, Tape $31.95 
4085-00SB74 Jumpman. Disk $31.95 
S09e-OOO231 Ctioplifter,Can $35.95 
4ZCI0-000129 AsltoblitiCarl. $36.95 
420O-OOO126 Trashman.Cart. $36.95 
4428-000512 Gndrunner.Can $39.95 
4770-030O02 CrilicaJMass. D $31.95 
4770-030003 Replon, Disk $31.95 

4770-077010 Type Attack. Can, $31.95 
5432-245421 Suspended, Disk $39.95 
5432-006408 Planellall.DiSk $39.95 
5432-243444 Wilness.Disk S39.95 

BUSINESS/C-64' 
5828-000104 Invent. Mgml $69.95 

5628-000204 Sales Anal. Mgmt SS9.95 
5B28-0O0304 AcclS- RecVlnvoice $89.95 
5828-000404 Aocts Pay/Ctik>vTtle $69,95 
5e!8-0O0504 PayrallMgmt $69.95 

5828-OOOS04 Cash Flow Mgml $69.95 
5828-000704 Gen. Ledger IBS. 95 

5O63OOO1O0 StodiMgmt,. C/D$29.9S 
5165-000026 Easy CaC Result, C S67.1S 
5165-000028 Cat Result Adv. C $140,00 
4775-000100 PersonalAccl D $34.95 
4775-000101 PersonalAccl.r S29.95 
4775-000102 Comp MeChant D $26.95 
477S-000103 Comp Mechanc T $21.95 
5190-195925 HomeAcclD $69.95 

5433000264 Accts. Rec.Disk $79.95 
5433-00O364 ACCIS Pay. Dish $79.95 
5433-000464 Payrpll.Dlsk $79.95 

5433-000564 Inu, Mgrat. Disk $79.95 
5433-000164 Ger Ledger, Disk $79.95 
ANY 3 OF ABOVE FOR JUST$229.00i 



GAM 

5763-404203 
4770-022010 
5431 -005200 
40B5-005263 
4085-002103 
5842-002304 
5842-002302 
5842-656818 
5842-002408 
4770-022005 
4325-022004 
4325-022001 
4325-012002 
5098-000223 
5098-000224 
5431-005203 
4428-000307 
4115-000372 



ES/VIC-20' 

Crosslire, Tape $23.95 
Type Altack. Cart. $31.95 
Demon Attack Can $31 .95 
R'COCtiet.Tape $14.95 
TempleApshai.T $31.95 
Sidewinder. Tape $23.95 
CalacticBlili.T $19.95 
Swarm, Tape $23.95 

Deaety Skies, Cart $31 .95 
Turmoil, Cart. $31.95 

Mutant Herd. Cart. $31,95 
River Rescue, Cart $31 .95 
Jumbo Jel f*X Cait $31 .95 
Sealox. Cartridge $31 .95 
AE.Canridge $31,95 

Atlanhs, Can $27.95 

Shamus. Cart. $31,95 
Paratrooper. Tape $1 5.95 



PRICES KAVAIUkBILITT SUBJECT TO 
CHANGE 



BUSINESS/VIC-20" 

4200-000136 HomeFinanceT $29.95 
4200-O00115 Home Inventory. T $14.95 
4200-000109 CarCosls.T $14.95 

4200-000103 Loan Analyzer. T $14,95 
420O-O0Q10O DeciSionMaker,T$19.95 

GAMES/ATARI* 

5796-002008 Fl. ApocalypsB.C $31.95 
S796-O03O0B Fl Apocalypse. T $27.95 
5796-004008 Fl Apocalypse. D $27.95 
5796-004016 Necromancer, D $27,95 
5796-003016 necromancer, T $27,95 
S79B-O030O2 Protector II, T $27,95 

5796-004002 Proloclotlt, D $27.95 

5796-004051 Zeppelin, Disk $27.95 
5796-003051 Zeppelin, Tape $27.95 
5796-003043 BlueMax.Tape $27.93 
S763-1 52401 Ultima II.Dish $43.95 
5783-154201 Crossfire, Disk $23.95 
5763-154202 Crossfire, Tape $23.95 
5763-154251 Frogger, Disk $27.95 

5763-1 542S2 Frogger, Tape $27.95 
5763-1S43S1 Jawbreaker.Disk S23.9S 
5763-154352 Jawbreaker. Tape $23.95 
5763-154801 S. Lighlfool.Disk $27.95 
5763-154803 S, Lighlfool.Carl. $27.95 
4085-002144 TempleApshai.D $31.95 
4085-002143 Tern pie Apstiar.T $31.95 
509B-00O108 Apple Panic. Disk $23,95 
5098-000120 Choplilter, Disk S27.95 
5098-000126 AE. Disk $27.95 

4325-012001 SubCmdr.Carl $35.95 
4325-012005 River Rescue, Carl. $31.95 
5574-392422 CaaleWoSenslein D $23.95 
5574-197681 Zanxon. Disk $31.95 

5574-197572 Zaxxon.Tapc $31.95 

4O70-O01 906 Minor 2049er, Carl $39.95 
4770-020008 TypeAllack.Disk $31.95 
477D-02O010 CnlicalMass.O $31.95 
4770-020011 Repton Disk $31.95 

477O-O20014 Wawy Navy. Disk $31.95 
4770-199378 Aslrochase. Disk $37.95 
5432-245101 Suspended. Disk $39.95 
5432-245212 Oeadline.Disk $39.95 
5432-245309 Slarcross. Disk $31.95 
5432-245420 Wllness.DiSk $39.95 

5432-245424 Planetfall. Disk $39.95 



SPECIAL! 
BUY ONE. GET ONE FREE! 



4325-01 1010 Jigsaw, Eur. » 1 , T $29.95 
4325-011006 Humpty Dumply, T $29.95 
4325-011011 Jiqsav..Eur « 2,1 $29.95 
4325-011007 Hckorv Ockory T $29.95 
4325-01 1014 Conip4/RBv.T $29.95 
4325-011008 Jigsaw, Bril "IT $29.95 
4325-011013 FigureFun.T $29.95 

4325-011009 Jigsaw.Bril #2 T $29.95 

BUSINESS/ATARI' 

5098-000081 aankSlW'iter C $59.95 
5501-028091 Llr Pfct 40,80, D $139 95 
5094-202981 Mil Sik Mkl D $59 95 
5206-001090 TexlWizard.Oisk $79.95 
5206-001 175 Spell VVuafd D $49 95 
5206-004011 File Mgr , Disk $79.95 

VDLKBMODEM 

LigMwetght, compact madam. Voice/ 
Data Switctt; Full/Half Duples Switch: 
300 Baud: Bell 103 Compatibte. Req. 

9 Volt Battery (Not Included) 
5042000009 $69.95 

INTERFACE CABLES 
5042-000021 For Atari $12,98 

5042-000022 For TRS-80. IS IH $12.98 
5042-000023 For Commodore $12.98 
5042-000024 FoflBMPC $12,98 

5042-000025 ForTI99/4 $12.98 



VISIT OUR FIRST STORE— JUST 
MINUTES WEST OF O'HARE-WE 
SUPPORT: APPLE-. ATARI, IBM". 
FRANKUN', COMMODORE , RACJIO 
SHACK, TEXAS INSTRUMENTS". 
TIMEX'/SINCLAIR' S More! 



PACE MICRO SOFTWARE CENTER 

345Ea!!lliwigRa(k Road. Wood Date. Iieoigt 

PHONE: (312)595-3860 



APPLE II APPLE 11 + 

5899-119425 VisifileA/isiploL O $186.0O 
5899-580124 Viseat Bus Fore. D $78.00 
5899-580014 ViSilrend/Plot D $223,00 
5899-580013 Visiplol. Disk $156.00 
5899-436278 VisiCalc, Oisk $17B.0O 
5899-580016 Visilerm, Disk $74.40 
5899-109385 Visidex. Disk $186.00 
5899-580023 Visiscbedjle D S223.0O 
57770OO101 PFSFile.DiSk $100,00 
5777-001022 PFS Report. D $lO0.00 
5777-000403 PFS Graph, O $100.00 
5098-000080 BiinkSl Wriler, D $59.95 

GAMES/APPLE' 

5763-104051 Apple Cider Spider. D $27.95 
5763-104201 Crossfire. Disk $23.95 
5763-104251 Frogger.Disk S27.9S 

5763-102401 Ultima II. Disk $43.95 
5763-104801 S Lightfool. D $27.95 
4085-002134 Tenple Apsbai, □ $31.95 
4085-005834 Jumpman. Disk S31.9S 
5094-202819 MilliDnairc.D $47.95 

509B-DO00OB Apple Panic, Disk $23.95 
5096-000020 Ctioplilter, Disk $27,95 
5098-000022 Seatox, Disk $23.95 

509BOO0O24 AE.OiSk $27.95 

5098-000030 Lode Runner, D $27.95 
5574-392418 Caslle WoUenstein. D $23.95 
S20B-1 97224 Zaxion, Disk $31.95 

5539-000022 Miner 2019er. D $31.95 
4770-010032 Repton. Disk $31,95 

4770-010033 TypeAllack, □ $31.95 
4770-010036 Wavy Navy.Disk $27.95 
4770-010037 Cnlical Mass, $31,95 



DUST COVERS 

410B-OOS600 VIC-20/C-S4 Kybrd $10.98 
4108-005700 Comm. Dataselte $ 4.98 
4108-005820 Comm »lS25Pmlr.$10.98 
4108-005850 Comm »154l/l540$ 9.98 

Disk Drives 
4108-000800 For Atari 400 $11.98 
410B-000810 FDrAtari410 $ 4.98 

4108-000820 For Atari BOO $12.98 

410B-D00B30 ForAtariaiO $ 7.98 

41O8DO0845 For Atari B20 $ 8.98 

41 0B000B50 For Atari SJ2 $ 7.98 
4108-000860 For Atari B25 $11.98 

4108-000865 For Atari 825 W/Hbr $1 1 .96 
4108-000600 For Apple I II $15.98 

4108 000310 For Apple II $15.98 

4108-000300 FarApp[ellKybrd$ 9.98 
4108-000320 For Apple II Single $ 5.98 

Disk Drive 

4108-000330 rorOblDisk $ 9.98 

ALSO FOR RADIO SHACK, IBM, 

TEXAS INSTR. S MORE! 



BOOKS/C-64" 

4560-000034 ElemenlaryC-64 $14.95 
4760-022056 C-64 Prog. Ret Ode S19.9S 
4105-000020 isl Book OICBM-64 $14.95 
4250-OOOiaO More 32 Prog C-64 $29.95 

(Willi Disketiei 
4690-000380 C-64 User's Guide $14.95 
4690-1S2306 C-B4Compuling $12.95 
4690-838136 Spnle GtaptijC64 $15.95 
4690-940072 Using C-64 at Home $10.95 
4760-022010 C-64Usersede $ 9.95 
4795-000116 C-64 Base HrWbl^ $ 9.95 
4795-000126 EnsyGde 10C-64$ 7,95 
4800-001640 GraoWSountJ Proa $14.95 

BOOKS/ATARI' 

4105-000000 1 si Book of Atari $12.95 
4105-000002 InsideAlariDOS $19.95 
4105-IX)0006 2ndBooko1Atari $12.95 
4105-000008 Isl Bk Atari Graph $12.95 
4105-000015 Alan Ba&c Srcebk $12.95 
4198-000022 Computers for Kids 5 4.95 
4198-000034 CrealiveAtari $15.95 
4250-000084 3?Prog-Atari $19.95 
4250-000172 32Piog.Alari $34.95 

[With Diskelle) 
4525-049194 Hands On Basic $19.95 
4525-068579 Learning w/Logo $1 4.95 

BOOKS /VIC-20- 
4105-000007 1slBookVic-20 $12.95 
4105-000013 lstBKVic-20Games$12.9S 
4105-00016 2ndBk.olVic-20 $14.95 
4250-000059 32 Prog Vic-20 $19.95 
4250-000181 32Prog Vic-20. $29.95 

IWith Diskelle) 
4410-001057 VicGraphlcs $12.95 

4410-001058 Vic Revealed $12.95 
4560-000056 KidsSlheVic $19.95 

BOOKS /Texas Instr. " 

4105-000012 Prog.Ref. Gde. $14.95 

4105-000017 tslBk.olGames $14.95 

4250-000188 3ZBasicProg $34.95 

IWitn DisKeltel 

4410-005185 InlrotoBasic $12.95 
4525-068560 Learn W/TI Logo $14.95 

4S6D-DO00S9 Kids&lheTI $19.95 



NEW NEW NEW NEW NEW 



HOW TO*' operating manual for The 
Commodore 1 54t Oisk Drives. Written 
by Nancy Wilmont. a professional in- 
structor, in clear, concise, siep-by-stepi 
format with sample programs, (ncludes 
diskette wttti sample programs. A MUST 

for Commodore Disk Drive owners! 
0001-B00001 OueEarlya^ S15.98 



COUPON Please Send Me: 



DESCHIPTION 

































IKinoil R«iid«ntt PlAABir Add S'^ SiPlai Tax 
FofBign Order*. (All ouiiide Contmenial US|. Add 

\Q^ Shipping (Minimum $4 0O| 
CitiloQi Shipped Poitagn Paid 


SHIPPING 


S 2.50 


TOTAL 





PAYMENT ENCLOSED IJCASH ;1CHECK HMONEY ORDER 
PLEASE CHARGE TO MY 'MASTERCARD rVISAIMin Chfl $251 

CARD NUMBER 

EXPIRES INTRBNK # 



STREET ADDRESS 

cirr 



^STATE_ 



pace^ 



micro softuxire centen 



DEPARTMENT: C-P 

Lock Box 328 
Bensenville, IL 60106 



•^ 




Craftsmen Need Precision Tools • . . 
Programmers! Demand Precision Software! 



BASIC XL has twice the speed and twice 
the pKw^r of Atari® BASIC. And yet, as 
befits a fine craftsman's tool, BASIC XL is 
even easier to use and more dependable, 
while including such outstanding major 
additions as structured programming, 
string arrays, programming aids, enhanced 
graphics, and business capabilities. 

Atari BASIC is a good starting point. We 
should know. We wrote it in 1978. Buy 
BASIC XL. Take advantage of five more 
years of experience! 

So, prepare yourself for some explor- 
ation into imaginative programming with 
BASIC XL! Cartridge, excellent tutorial, 
reference manual . . . $99- 



^ 



OSS^ 



Precision Software Tools 

1 173D S. Saratoga/Sunnyvale Road 
San jose, CA 95129 • (408) 446-3099 



1 1 Functional, honest, and beautiful 
U describe the simple lines of a crafts 
^K man's tools. For the jeweler these 
^ V tools are an extension of the human 
I I hand to better execute complex 

\ y designs. For you, the programmer, 
Precision Software T(x)ls keep cam- 
plications out of your programming while 
allowing you to produce intricate 
programs. 




See the complete colleaion of OSS 
Precision Software Tools!'" 
MAC/65: The fastest 6502 macro 

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cartridge... $99. 
BUG/65: A powerfiil debugger. On disk, 

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C/65: The first native mode "small c" 

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ACTION!: The fastest, small computer 

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cartridge at only . . . $99. 

All products on disk include OS/A+ and 
also require 48 K. 

SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER! 

Call or write for informative brochures. 



ATARI and Am£ II. arc trademarta iif Aiari. Inc. and Apple 
CompuKT, Inc.. respcctMy. MAC/(o. Bld/fil C/65. BtSIC 
XL. OS/A*, and OSS PRECISION SOFTflARt TOOLS™ are 
iradmariB nf OSS. \>iC. ACTION! Is a Irademark iif Anion 
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Super Software in a Super Cartridge! 

Expand usable memory by as much as 50% ONLY with the 

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Pack up to 24,000 bytes of code into only 8K of your 

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aTKI 



Only OSS can offer you these Precision Software Tools in the most 

advanced cartridge available. 



BASIC XL 


ACllONI 


MAC/65 


BUY THE BEST and on!y complete 


PROGRAM WITH ACTION!— the newest 


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compatible enhancement of Atari BASICI 


and fastest Precision Software Tool from 


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BASIC XI makes programming easier for 


OSS. ACTION! is an amazingly complete, 


you more than speed. It makes assembly 


both the beginner and experienced pro- 


consistent, and properly struaured 


language programming easier and more 


grammers by adding dozens of powerful 


language which combines features from C, 


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features. 


Pascal, Ada, and even BASIC, 


USE SOPHISTICATED MACROS to take 


LEARN TO PROGRAM in only 30 days 


WRITE THE FASTEST GAMES ever written 


the drudge work out of assembly language. 


with our FREE tutorial — the best yet for 


in a high-level language for 6502-based 


Build macros libraries to make easy and 


ALL Atari® Home Computers. 


computers. Speeds 100 to 200 times faster 


readable code. 


BE MORE PRODUCTIVE by using 


than BASIC are standard in ACTION 1 


EDIT, ASSEMBLE, AND DEBUG QUICKLY 


automatic line numbering and renum- 


programs. 


because the program line editor, macro 


bering, automatic string alloation, 


EDIT Wmi EASE thante; to ACTIONI's 


assembler, and a very effective debugger 


intelligent file name reco^ition, and more. 


built-in screen editor which compares 


are always just a command away in this 


RUN PROGRAMS FASTER with BASIC 


favorably to even the best word 


OSS SuperCartridge. 


XL's exclusive FAST mode. Two to four 


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COMPARE FEATURES. No other complete 


times— or even more — faster than either 


PRODUCE MORE CODE faster and easier 


6502 assembly language package offers all 


of Atari's BASICS. 


using ACnONl's program monitor and 


of MA(y65's advantages. It even includes 


1»R]TE BETl'ER PROGRAMS with string 


built-in library of support routines. 


support for the 65C02 CMOS micro- 


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GET A FOUR-INONE DEAL unlike 


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an advanced PRINT USING, extensive 


anything ever offered. Editor, compiler, 


ADDED BONUS: Buy MAC/65 and get a 


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monitor, and library all in an OSS 


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Ask for details. 


FIND OUT MORE than we can possibly 






put In this ad by calling or writing for a 






complete catalog. 






All OSS SuperCartridges are $99 each and 






will work in any Atari computer with at 


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least I6K RAM. Disk or cassette highly 




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recommended. 


Use DOS XL with a SuperCartridge and 


save an extra 5K of valuable RAM. Retail 


^m Precision Software Tools 


\Tm is a irademarii rf Atari, Int BASIC XL DOS XL. 
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two OSS SuperCartridges. 


San Jose, CA 95129 • (408) 446-3099 



DDR-BEG+I-i , A ( I ) : NEXT I 
550 ADDR = ADDR + t; IF ADDR<^FIN THEN 37 


56,0 GOTO 710 
570 N=0:Z=0 
580 GET #1,A:IF A=i55 OR A=44 OR A=3 

2 THEN 670 

IF A<32 THEN N=-A:RETURN 

IF A< >i26 THEN 630 
610 3DSUB 690: IF 1=1 AND T=44 THEN N 

--1:'^ CHR* ( 126) ;: GOTO 690 
620 6DTO 570 
630 IF A<48 OR A>57 THEN 583 

? CHR4 ( A+RF) ; : N=N» 1 0+A-48 

IF N>255 THEN ? CHR* ( 253 ) ; : A= 1 26 

:GDTO 600 

Z=Z+1:IF 2<3 THEN 5B0 



590 

6 00 



640 

650 



6 60 
670 



THEN 



CHR$ (253) ; : GOTO 



IF 1 = 



680 ? ",*':: RETURN 

690 POKE 752, I: FOR 1=1 TO 3:? CHR4(3 

0);:GET #6,T:IF T<>44 AND T<>53 

THEN ? CHR* (A) ; :NEXT 1 
700 POKE 752,0 

RN 
710 GRAPHICS 0:PaKE 7 10,26 

26: POKE 709,2 
720 IF flEDI A = ASC ■: "T 
730 REM ■tliUlM 
740 IF READ THEN ? 



" ; CHR$ ( 1 26) ; : RETU 
POKE 7 12, 
) THEN 890 



750 
760 



770 



:? "Load File":? 

IF DTYPE< >A3C < "F" ) THEN 1040 

" :? "Enter AUTORUN.SYS for auto 

matic use":? :? "Enter -filename" 

: INPUT T$ 

F*=TS:IF LEN(T*)>2 THEN IF T*(i, 

2)<>"D:" THEN F*= " D : " : F* ( 3 ) =T* 
780 TRAP 870:CLaSE #2:0PEM tt2,a-4*RE 

AD,0,F*:? :? "Working..." 
790 IF READ THEN FOR 1=1 TO 6:GET »2 

jAsNEXT I:SaTD S20 
800 PUT #2,255:PUT #2,255 
810 H=INT (BEQ/256) : L=BE6-H*256: PUT tt 

2,L:PUT #2,H:H=INT(FIN/256) :L=FI 

N-H«256:PUT «2,L:PUT «2,H 
820 6DSUB 970: IF PEEK(195)>1 THEN 87 


830 IF STARTADR=0 OR READ THEN 850 
840 PUT *2,224:PUT #2,2:PUT «2,225:P 

UT #2, 2: H=INT CSTARTADR/256) : L=ST 

ARTADR-Ht256: PUT #2,L;PUT *2,H 
850 TRAP 32767:CLDSE #2:? "FinishBd. 

'■:IF READ THEN ? :? :LET READ = 0: 

GOTO 360 
860 END 

870 ? "Error ";PEEKC195);" trying to 
access";? F*:CLOSE #2:7 : GOTO 7 

60- 
880 REM ■ Tifi'mjilJ ■ 

IF READ THEN ? :? "Read Tape" 

? :? :? "Insert, Rewind Tape.":? 
"Press PLAY ";:IF NOT READ THE 

N ? "St RECORD" 



390 
900 



910 ? :? "Press l:Ji*<IT:J: when ready:"; 
920 TRAP 960:CLOSE «2:0PEN #2,8-4»RE 

AD, 1 28, " C: " : "^ :? "Working..." 
930 GDSUB 970: IF PEEKC195)>1 THEN 96 


940 CLOSE #2:TRAP 32767:? "Finished. 

":? :? :IF READ THEN LET READ=0: 

GOTO 360 
950 END 
960 -^ : -^ "Error " ; PEEK ( 1 95 ) ; " when r 

eading/Mriting boot tape":? :CLO 

226 COMPUTE! December 1983 



SE #2:G0T0 B90 
970 REM 



CIO Loadz-saue F± le»2 



REHD-e for- wr-itei 



i -TJ.Tj:] 



9B0 X=32:REM File#2,*20 

990 ICC0M=B34: ICBADR=B36: ICBLEN=B40: 

I CSTAT = S35 
1000 H=INT (ADR (BUFFERS) /256) :L=ADR(B 

UPPERS) -Ht 256: POKE I CBADR h- X , L : F 

QKE ICBADR+X-i-1 , H 
1010 L = FIN-BEG-H : H=INT (L/256) : L = L-H* 

256:P0KE I CBLEN + X , L : POKE ICBLLN 

-l-X-H , H 
1020 POKE ICCDM-4-X , 1 1 -4*READ: A = USR i AD 

R ( C I f ) , X ) 
1030 POKE 195, PEEK < ICSTAT ': RETURN 
1040 REM ■feia.^i:!]?^*;^.! ! 
1050 IF READ THEN 1100 
106 ? :? "Format Disk In Drive 1? ( 

Y/N) : " ; 
1070 GET #1,A:IF A-. >7S AND A-'>39 THE 

N 1070 
1080 ? CHR*;A):IF A=78 THEN 1100 
1090 ? :? "Formatting. ..": X 10 254, #2 

,0,0,"D:":? "Format Complete":? 



1 1 00 



1110 
1120 
1 1 30 

114 
1 1 5 fii 
1 1 60 
I I 7 
118 
1 190 
12 00 

1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
1270 
1280 

12 90 

1300 

13 10 
1320 
1330 
13 40 

13 50 

1360 
1370 
1380 
13 9 

1400 
1410 



NR=INT ( iFIN- 
RS (FIN-BE6 + 2 
HEN ? "Readi 
? "Writing., 
FOR 1=1 TO N 
IF READ THEN 
( I *12a-127) = 
SECTDR*=BUFF 
GCSUB 1220 
IF PEEKfDSTA 
NEXT I 

IF NOT READ 
? :? :LET RE 
? "Error on 
y need -forma 
REM 



BEG-HI27) 
) =CHR* C0 
ng . . . " : G 

R: S=I 

GOSUB 1 
SECTOR*: 
ER« (1*12 



/■ 1 23) : BUFFE 
) : IF READ T 
OTO 1120 



220: BUFFER* 
GOTO 1160 
8-127) 



TS: 



•1 THEN 1200 



THEN EN 
AD=0: GOT 
disk ace 
1 1 i n g 



D 

360 

ess.":? "Ma 
GOTO 1040 



REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 
REM 



SECTOR ncces-s s ubroutxh 



Drive ON 
Pass buf 
sector # 
READ=1 f 
READ=0 f 
BASE=3t256 
DUi\iIT = BASE-t-l 
TS=BASE+3 
DBUFLO = BASE-<- 
DBYTLO = BASE-t- 
DAUX 1=BASE+1 
REM DIM DSKI 
DSKINVt="hLS 
28) 

POKE DUN I T, 1 
NT (A/256) : L= 
POKE DBUFHI, 
POKE DBUFLO, 
POKE DCOMND, 
POKE DAUX2, I 
1 , S-PEEK <DAU 
A = USR < ADR (DS 
RETURN 



E 

f e r in S 

in V a r i 

or read, 

or write 



ECTOR« 
abl e S 



DCDMND=BASE+2: DBTA 



4 : DBUFHI 
8: DBYTHI 
0: DAUX2= 
NV« ( 4) 
: D3K INV 



= BASE-<-5 
= BASE-fr9 
BASE-^l 1 

* ( 4) =CHRt ( 2 

ECTOR* ) : H=I 



: A=ADR (S 

A-256*H 

H 

L 

a7-5»READ 

NT (S/256) : POKE DAUX 

X2) *256 

K INV*) ) 



COMPUTE! 

The Resource, 



«ia 



CodeWritlr 



Jeffand Marilyn Mitchell 
"designed" their new program 
themselves. CodeWriter wrote 
all the computer code. The 
Mitchells* dream is thriving on 
fulfilling other people's wishes. 
H Their new home business needs 
~ very special information fast: 
^1 Which fantasies are still open? 
What's our next completion date? Can we get a list of 
all fantasies needing out of state travel? 
They got it all— with no computer hassle. 
And you can too, with CodeWriter. No 
programming. No. 'computerese'. At home or at the 
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or church records— always organized your way. 
You work with CodeWriter in plain English. 
Simply 'draw' any screen layout, add any calculations 
you'-d like done— or help messages you need— and 
you're done. CodeWriter writes all the BASIC code. 

"This is our first business, 
our first computer, ^ 

and our first program — ' 
and we really did it 
ourselves!" 




In minutes you've got YOUR OWN PROGRAM on 
YOUR OWN DISK. You don't need CodeWriter again 
until you want a new program. 

You can begin with HOme 

PiOeWriter'^" and expand to 
more complete business systems 
with full report and menu 
design features. 

You can get CodeWriter for 
the Commodore 64®, Atari®, 
Apple®. IBM PC®, Commodore 

Business Machine®, Victor 

9000®. and Kav Pro 11®, computers. Prices range 
from $69 to $249. 

You think this much power can't come this easy? 
There are thousands of CodeWriter systems in use all 
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CodeWriter writes solutions the 
first time you try! 1 



FileWriter 



Iteil^/vMIXna 



' ■'I'^M 






^ A Dynatech Company 



CodeWriter 

sVideoConcepts. 



7847 N. Caldwell Ave. Niles, III. 60648 
TM Dynatech Microsoftware Inc. Toil-Free 1-800-621-4109 (in 111. 312470-0700) 



AVAILABLE AT 



Your Home Entertainment Store 



® 180 STORES NATIONWIDE 



c 



OMMODORE 



64 



(mora powar than Appla II at half th* priea) 



COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE 

CHRISTMAS SALE 



$99. 



50* 



WEHWE 
have! HAVE 
the! THE 
« best! LOWEST 

• TRACTION FRICTION PRINTER t119.00 SERVICE | PRfCES 



• 170K DISK DRIVE SI 59.00 



( * with software savings applied) 



COMMODORE 64 COMPUTER S9S.50 

You pay only $199.50 when you order the powerful 
84K COMMODORE 65 COMPUTER! LESS the 
value of the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we 
pack with your computer that allows you to SAVE 
OVER 1100 off software sale prices!! With orvly 
$100 of savings applied, your net computer cost Is 
$99.50!! 

SOFTWARE BONUS PACK S29.95 

Wfien you buy the Commodore 64 Computer from 
Protecto Entsrprizes you qualify to purchase ONE 
SOFTWARE BONUS PACK for a Special price of 
$29,951! Normal price Is S49.95 (40 programs on 
disk or 24 programs on 5 tapesj. 

170 DISK DRIVE S1 59.00 

You pay only $259.00 when you order the 170K 
Disk Drive! LESS the value of the SPECIAL SOFT- 
WARE COUPON we pack with your disk drive that 
allows you to SAVE OVER $100 off software sale 
prices!! With only $100 ol savings applied, your 
net disk drive cost is $159.00. 

TRACTION FRICTION PRINTER $119.00 

You pay only $219,00 when you order the Com- 
star T/F deluxe line printer thai prints 8 1/2 x 11 
full size, single sheet, roll or fan lold paper, 
labels etc. 40, 56, 80, 1?2 columns. Impact dot 
matrix, bi-directional, 80 CPS, LESS the value of 
the SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON we pack 
with your printer that allows you to SAVE OVER 
$100 off software sale prices!! Wi!h only $100 of 
savings applied your net printer cost is only 
$119,00. 

SO COLUMN BOARD $149.00 

Ydu pay only $149,00 for this 80 Column Board. In- 
cluded with this board is word processor pack, 
Bleclfonic spread sheet and mail merge data base 
on two tapes. List $249.00. Coupon Price $139.00 
(Disk add $10.00). 

SO COLUMN 
WORD PROCESSING PACKAGE $79.00 

SCRIPT 64 EXECUTIVE WORD PROCESSOR is 
the finest available for the COMMODORE 64 
Computer! THE ULTIMATE for PROFESSIONAL 
word processing application. DISPLAYS 80 COL- 
UMNS IN COLOR. Featuring simple operation, 
poweHul text editing with a customized 250 
word dictionary, complete cursor and in- 
sert/delate key controls, line and paragraph in- 
sertion, automatic deletion, centering, margin 
settings and output to all printers. Included is a 
powerful MAIL MERGE When used with THi 
COMPLETE DATA BASE PACKAGE. List $99.00. 
Sale $79.00. Coupon Price $59.00. (Disk only). 



SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON 


Wa pack a SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON | 


with e¥ery COMMODORE 


S4 COMPUTER- ■ 


DISK ORIVE-PRINTER-MONITOR we salll ■ 


This coupon allows you 


to SAVE 


overH 


$100 OFF SALE PRICES 


$200-$300 sav-V 


Ings are possible!! (example) 


I 


PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE ■ 


COMMODORE 64 




NllTM 


Llal 


Coupon 


Execul Ive Word Ptoeosjor 


S99.00 


$59,00 


Complslg Data Bau 


»9-l» 


$46 00 


Electronic SproadshHl 


J89-00 


$46,00 


Accounling Pack 


M9 00 


$32,00 


Total £.2 Word Proc939or— Plus 






Tap» 


$69.00 


$37,00 


Disk 


J79.95 


$42,00 


Total Tail 2.6 Word Procaaior- 






Tap» 


M4 96 


$28 00 


Disk 


149.95 


$26,00 


Tol»IUb»l2.8 


KiK 


$1200 


Disk 


$29.85 


$15.00 


Quick Brown, Fox Word 






Processor 


$69.00 


$4000 


Programmers Reference 






Guide 


J2O.05 


$12.50 


Programmers Helper 


169.00 


$29.95 


BulcTuioi 


129 95 


$t500 


Typmg Teacher 


J29 95 


$16-00 


Sprile Designer 


J16.95 


$10-00 


Medicinemen 


S19.95 


$12.00 


Weather War II 


$19.95 


$12.00 


Music-Maker 


$19.95 


$12.00 


EDU-Pack 


$24.9S 


$1300 


3D Maze Craze 


$24 95 


$1300 


Profess lonal Joy Stick 


$2495 


$12.00 


Ught Pen 


$39.95 


$20.00 


DeluieOusI Cover 


$ 6.95 


$ 460 


fBn0 marty of^or itemsi 




Write or call for 




Sample SPECIAL SOFTWARE COUPON! ■ 




^^^^H 


I^^^^^H 



PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
EXECUTIVE QUALITY BY TIME WORKS! 

The Cadillac ol business programs 

for Commodore 64 Computers 

Item List 'SALE 

Inventory Managemeni $89. 0€ $69.00 

Accounts Receivable $89.00 $69.00 

Accounts Payable $89.00 $69.00 

Payroll Management $89.00 $69,00 

Cash Flow Management $89.00 $69.00 

Sales Analysis $89.00 $69.00 

General Ledger $89.00 $69.00 
(•COUPON PRICE $59.00) 



VIC-20 

(a real computer at the price of a toy) 



$77. 



00* 



• 40-80 COLUMN BOARD 9BS.O0 

• VOICE SYNTHESIZER S5g.00 

* with Cassette and Gortek purchase) 



VIC-20 COMPUTER $77.00 

You get the Commodore VIC-20 Computer for 
only $77.00 when you buy at sale prices: Tfie 
Commodore Data Cassette for onfy $69.00 and 
Ihe Goriek Introduction to Basic program for on- 
ly $1995. TOTAL LIST PRICE $302.95. SPECIAL 
PACKAGE SALE PRICE $165.25. 



40-80 COLUMN BOARD $89.00 

A lanlaslic price breakthrough tor VIC-20 owners 
on Ihis most wanled accessory!! "Now you can 
get 40 or 80 Columns on your T.V. or IMonitor 
Screen." Plus we add a word processor with 
mail merge, electronic spread sheet, lime 
manager and terminal emulator!! These PLUS 
programs require 8K or 16K RAM memory. (Disk 
adO $10.00). 

VOICE SYNTHESIZER $59.00 

Volrax Based. Make your VIC-20 COMPUTER 
TALK! Has (ealures equivalenl to other models 
costing over $370.00. You can program an 
unlimited number ol words and sentences and 
even adjust volume and pilch. You can make 
adventure games that talk! A must for enhanc- 
ing your prograrnming creativity and pleasure. 

60K MEMORY EXPANDER S59.00 

Sixslot — Switch seleclable — Reset button — 
Ribbon cable. A must lo gel the most out of 
your VIC-ZO Computer. Includes FREE $29.95 
adventure game. 

8K RAM CARTRIDGE $39.95 

Increases programming power 2 1/2 times. Ex- 
pands total memory to 33K (33,000 byles). 
Memory block switches are on outside o( cover! 
Includes FREE $16.95 game. 

16K RAM CARTRIDGE $69.00 

Increases programming power 4 times. Expands 
total memory to 41K (41,000 bytes). Memory 
block switches are ari outside cover! Includes 
FREE $29.95 adventure game! ! 

12' GREEN SCREEN MONITOR $90.00 

Excellent quality GREEN PHOSPHOROUS 
VIDEO MONITOR with antiglare, 1920 characters 
(80 characters x 24 rows). Save your TV! a must 
lor 80 column word processors. PLUS $9.95 for 
VIC 20 or Commodore 64 Cable. 



12' AMBER SCREEN MONITOR $119.00 

Premium quality AMBER VIDEO MONITOR With 
antiglare, |80 characters x 24 rows), exceptional- 
ly clear screen, faster scanning, 1000 lines. 
PLUS $9.95 for VIC 20 or Commodore 64 Cable. 



] 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



I Add $10.00 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents 
I please add 6% tax. Add $20.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII 
j orders. WE DO NOT EXPORTTOOTHER COUNTRIES, 
I Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days 
I for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day exoress mall! Canada 
I orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA — MASTERCARD - CO.D. 



^|^^^^p|^l7p^ (WELOVEouncusTQirfEns) 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/302-5244 to ordar 



COMPLETE WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

(Everything you need for word processing — LIST PRICE '1800.00) 



SALE 



$995 



00 



COMPLETE SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEM 

(Everything you need to computerize your business — LIST PRICE *2200.00} 



SALE 



$ 



1195 



00 



LOOK AT WHAT YOU GET WITH EACH SYSTEM 
PACKAGE!!! 



• The powerful 84K Commodore 64 Computer! 
(More features than Apple II) 

• 170K Commodore 64 Disk Drivel 

• Box of 10 "Loran" Disks! 

• Gemini 10X Starmicronics 10" Carriage Deluxe, 120CPS, 
Dot Bit Addressable Tractor-Friction Printer! 

• Deluxe Cardco Printer Interface! 

• Box of Printer Paper! 

• Your choice of 12" Green Screen or Amber Screen Monitor! 




The ^995 complete word processing system includes: "Script-64 Executive Word Processor Program, 80 
columns in color, 20,000 word customizable dictionary, powerful mail merge" — List Price $130) 

The '1195 complete small business system includes: "General Ledger, Accounts Payable and Check Writing, 
Accounts Receivable, Payroll, Inventory, Database Manager" — List Price $595) 

15 DAY FREE TRIAL We give you 15 days to try out these SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGES!! If it doesn't meet 
your expectations, just send it back to us prepaid and we will refund your purchase price!) 

90 DAY IMMEDIATE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY If any of the SUPER SYSTEM PACKAGE equipment or 
programs fail due to faulty workmanship or material we will replace it IMMEDIATELY at no charge! 

Add $50.00 for shipping and handling!! 



• LOWEST PRICES • 15 DAY FREE TRIAL • 90 DAY FREE REPLACEMENT WARRANTY 
• BEST SERVICE IN U.S.A. • ONE DAY EXPRESS MAIL • OVER 500 PROGRAMS • FREE CATALOGS 



] 



WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES EXCEPT 
CANADA. 

Enclose Cashiers Check, Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 
14 days for delivery. 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express 
mall! Canada orders must be in U.S. dollars. We accept Visa 
and MasterCard- We ship COD- 



F ™ |FRPR|7FS '^^ '■°^^ °^" CUSTOMERSI 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/382-5244 to order 



List And Scrol I 

For The VIC And 64 



Tom Forsythe 



This utility program — an excellent tool for debugging 
BASIC programs — separates a BASIC listing into 
single statements, and sets off FOR-NEXT loops and 
IF-THEN statements for readability. You can also scroll 
in either direction to scan the listing. 



Are you tired of typing LIST or trying to read 
BASIC statements that are lumped together on 
the same line? This machine language program 
allows listing and scrolling of BASIC statements. 
It prints each statement on a separate line and 
provides indents during FOR-NEXT loops and 
after IF-THEN statements, making your BASIC 
listing more readable. 

For example, a normal screen listing looks 
like this on a VIC: 

10 A = 10rFORJ = lTO4:FORI 
= 0TO10:PRINTI;:PRINTA* 
B:NEXTI:PRINT"PASS "J" 
OK":B = A + B;NEXTJ:IFJ = AT 
HENA = B:GOT05:END 

with "List And Scroll' it would look like this: 

10 
A = 10: 

F0RJ = 1T04: 
FORI=0TO10: 
PRINTI;: 
PRINTA*B: 

NEXTI: (j 

PR1NT"PASS "J"OK": 
B = A + B: 
NEXTJ: 
IFJ = ATHENA =B: 
G0T05: 
END 

Simple Operation 

operation is easier and faster than the normal 
LIST; just type a period (.) followed by an optional 

230 COMPUTE! December 1983 



line number. Without the line number, the listing 
will begin with the first line of your BASIC pro- 
gram. To scroll forward or backward through the 
listing, use the cursor up or down keys. Pressing 
the RETURN key or scrolling past either end of 
the BASIC program will automatically return con- 
trol to BASIC. You'll know this by the presence of 
a flashing cursor. 

After typing in Program 1 (VIC version) or 
Program 2 (64 version), be sure to SAVE it to tape 
or disk. Then you must do one of the following: 
Type SYS 6769 or type in, SAVE, and RUN Pro- 
gram 3. The first option is fine if the BASIC pro- 
gram you'd like to examine with List And Scroll is 
not more than 2K (2673 bytes) for the VIC, or 4K 
(4021 bytes) for the 64. However, you must use 
Program 3 if your BASIC program exceeds the 
limits mentioned above. 

If you SYS 6769 and your BASIC program is 
too long, it will write over List And Scroll and 
render it useless. So, if in doubt, use Program 3. 
After you type RUN, there will be a short wait 
and then you'll see a command to SYS to a 
specified address. Program 3 moves the program 
to a safe location at the top of memory, VIC users 
should remove the Super Expander cartridge be- 
fore using Program 3. 

Program 1: List And scroll CVIC version) 

10 1=6768 

20 READ A: IF A=256 THEN 40 

30 POKE I,A:CK=CK+A:I=I+1:G0T0 20 

40 IFCK<>51983THENPRINT"tCLR}ERROR IN DAT 

A STATEMENTS " : END 
50 END 

6768 DATA 1,113,26,173,113,26,133 
6776 DATA 55,133,51,173,114,26,133 
6784 DATA 56,133,52,234,234,234,169 
6792 DATA 76,133,124,173,147,26,133 







FEATURING PROGRAMS 

FOR THE VIC-20 AND 

THE COMMODORE 64. 



\ 



BOUNTY HUNTER $19.95 ] 



An adventure in the Old West. Journey back with 
us into the days of Jessie James and Billy the Kid 
where the only form of justice was a loaded 
revolver and a hangman's noose. In this full-length 
text adventure, vou play the role of Bounty Hunter, 
battling against ruthless outlaws, hostile Indians, 
mid animals and (he elements of the wilderness 
with only your wits and your six gun. Average 
solving time: 20-30 hours. If you love adventures, 
this one is a real treat. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and the VIC-20 
(with 8K or 16K expander). Available on TAPE or 
DISK Played with JOYSTICK. 



KONGO KONG 



$19.95 



Climb ladders, avoid the barrels the crazy ape is 
rolling at you, and rescue the damsel, Commodore 
64 version features 4 different screens! 
Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK. 



GRAVE ROBBERS 



$14.95, 



Introducing the first GRAPHIC ADVENTURE 
ever available for the VIC-20 or COMMODORE 64! 
With realistic audio-visual effects, you explore an 
old deserted graveyard and actually see the perils 
thai lie bevond. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with KEY- 
BOARD 



r" 



CHOMPER MAN 



$19.95 ] 



J. 



Don't let the bullies catch you as you gobble the 
goodies! This program has 8 screens and still fits in 
the standard memory. 

Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK or KEYBOARD. 



Victory 
Software 



WOULD LIKE TO WISH OUR CUSTOMERS 


H 


• 


A 


• 


P • 


P 


• 


Y 


H 


O 


L 


I 


D 


A 


Y 


S 



AND THANK THEM FOR THEIR 
PATRONAGE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. 



^THE ' EARTH 



WARRIOR 



METAMORPHOSIS 



You stumbled into the nest of the Cyglorx and 
find yourself fighting off robot tanks guarding 
the Cyglorx eggs. You think you have everything 
under control and then the eggs start hatching. 
Available for COMMODORE 64 and VIC-20. 
Available on TAPE or DISK Played with JOY- 
STICK 




CREATOR'S REVENGE 



$19.95 



The creator assembled a massive army of robots and insects to take 
revenge on the earth. Destroy insects, got treasures, and get the neutron 
bomb deactivator. Battle robots and destroy the neutron bomb before it 
annihilates your city. Miss and you must face the mutants. Features 4 
different screens. 

Available for COMMODORE 64. Available on TAPE or DISK Played 
with JOYSTICK 



7- 



LABYRINTH OF THE CREATOR $19.95 ^ 




Journey into the most complex and dangerous 
fortress ever built by the creator. You will en- 
counter deadiv robots, skulls, lakes, avalanches, 
false creators, and a creature who roams 256 
rooms relentlessly pursuing you. 
Available for COMMODORE 64. Available on 
TAPE or DISK Played with JOYSTICK 



ILLUSTRATIONS: LLIZABETl! HAUCK 



Check your LOCAL DEALER or order directly. 

ORDERING: We accept personal checks, money orders, VISA, and MasterCard. 

Charge orders please include number and eMpiralion dale 

OVERSEAS ORDER: Please use charge, or have check payable through a U.S. 

bank 

CANADIAN CUSTOMERS: if you wish to write a check drawn through a 

Canadian l>ank please multiply the total order by 1.25 for proper conversion. 

Add J1.50 postage and handling per order. PA residents please add 6% sales tax. 



VICTORY SOFTWARE INC. 

7 Valley Brook Road 
Paoli, Pennsylvania 19301 

(215) 296-3787 




Fast, Fast 
Relief From Expensive 
Software Blahs. 



COMMODORE 64 

Lisi Price But for You! 
HESWARE 

Coco ICT) WS $29 

Maze Master (CT) $35 $23 

Turtle Tutor (CT) $40 $26 

Turtle Trainer (CT) $40 $26 

Paintbrush (CT) $30 $19 

Home Manager {Dl $50 $33 

Time & Money Manager (D) . . $70 $45 

Hesman 64 (CT) $40 $2& 

Gridrunner (CT) $40 $26 

64 Forth (CT) $60 $39 

Turtle Graphics II (CT) $60 $40 

Multiplan (D) $100 $79 

Omnicalc (D) $50 $37 

Bengi (D&C) $45 $28 

Attack Mutant Camel (CT) . . . S30 $19 



SEGA 

Congo Bongo (CT) 
Buck Rogers (CT) . 
Star Trek (CT) ... 



$40 $25 



$22 



SYNAPSE 

Protector (D&C) 

Shamus(D&C) 

Sentinel (D&C) 

MorgollD&C) 

Drelbs (D&C) 

Fort Apocalypse (D&C) 

Pharoah's Curse (D&C) . . . $35 

Protector II (D&C) 

Blue Max (D&C) 

Surviuor (D&C) 

Shamus 11 (D&C) 



INFOCOM 

Planet Fall (D) 

Witness (D) 

Enchanter (D) $50 $33 

Infidel (D) 

SPINNAKER 

Aiphabet Zoo (CT) $35 $23 

Cosmic Life (CT) $35 $23 

Delta Drawing (CT) $40 $26 

Delta Music (CT) $40 $26 

Pacemaker (CT) $35 $23 

Fraction Fever (CT) $35 $23 

Kids on Keys (CT) $35 $23 

KindercomplCT) $30 $19 

Story Machine (CT) $40 $26 

Up For Grabs (CT) $40 $26 

BRODERBUND 

Choplifter (CT) $45 $29 

Seafox(CT) $40 $26 

Serpentine (CT) $40 $26 

David Midnight Magic (D) ....$35 $23 

Bank St. Writer ID) $70 $45 

Lode Runner (D) $35 $23 

Spare Change (D) $35 $23 

Drol (D) $35 $23 

CREATIVE 

Aslroblilz (CT) 

Save New York (CT) $35 $22 

Pipes (CT) 

SpiibalMCT) 




COMMODORE 64 Cont'd. 
EPVX 

Jumpman D&C $40 $25 

Temple of Apshai (D&CI $40 $25 

Upper Reaches Apshai (D&C) $20 $13 

Curse of Ra (D&C) $20 $13 

Starfire & Fire One (D&C) ... $40 $29 

Jumpman Junior (CT) $40 $29 

Lunar Outpost (D&C) $40 $25 

Dragonriders of Pern (DfiC) . . $40 $25 

Gateway to Apshai (C&D) ...$40 $25 

Pitstop (C&D) $40 $25 

Cru6h.Crumble,Chomp(C&D)$30 $19 

Fun With Art (CT) $40 $27 

Fun With Music (CT) $40 $27 

Facts (D&C) $30 $19 



"$u<ph-A-Dcal! 
$oftware." 

903 S. Rural Rd. «tl02 
Tempe.AZ 85281 

TO ORDER FAST, FAST 

CALL TOLL FREE: 

1-800-431-8697 

For Information Only Call 1602) 968-9128 
We sell mail order only! 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



COMMODORE 64 Cont'd. 

And Incredible Savings On: 

Data 20 Word Manager (C) Just $27 

Data 20 Business Manager (D) $89 

Timeworks Data Manager (D&C) $17 

Timeworks Money Manager (D&C) $17 

Timeworks Programmer Kit (D&C) $17 

Continental Home Accountant (D) $49 

Lightning Mastertype (D) $27 

Sirius Wayout (D) $27 

Sirius Gruds in Space (D) $23 

Sublogic Pinball (C) $20 

Acess Neutral Zone (D&C) $23 

Practicalc (D&C) $35 

Programmable Spreadsheet $55 

Datamost Kids & The 64 (book) $14 

Commodore 64 Rel. Guide (book) $17 

Access Beachead (D&C) $23 

Datasoft Pooyan (D&C) $19 

Datasoft Zaxxon (D&C) $25 

Datamost Swashbuckler (D) $25 

Datamost Aztec (D) $25 

Sierra OnLine Threshhold (CT) $27 

Timeworks Programmer Kit II (D&C) $17 



COMMODORE VIC 20 

List Price But For You! 
HESWARE 

Robot Panic (CT) $20 $13 

Slime (CT) $20 $13 

Predator (CT) $20 $13 

Coco II (C&D) $20 $14 

UzerZone(CT) $30 $19 

Necromancer (CT) $30 $19 

Pharoah's Curse (CT) $30 $19 

Attack Mutant Camel (CT) ... $30 $19 

Kindercomp (CT) $40 $26 

Pacemaker (CT) $40 $26 

Story Machine (CT) $40 $26 

SEGA 

Congo Bongo (CT) . . . 
Buck Rogers (CT) .... 
Star Trek (CT| 

BRODERBUND 

A.E.(CT) 

Seafox (CT) 

Mastertype (CT) 

Lode Runner (CT) . . . 



$40 $25 



$40 $24 



EPVX 

Temple of Apshai (C&D) $40 

Sword of Pargoal (C) $30 

WIZWARE 

Electronic Party (C| 

Square Pegs (C) 

Turtle Tracks I C) 

Your Vic 20 (C) 



$24 
$19 



$30 $19 



SIERRA ON LINE 

Lunar Leeper (CT) 

Crossfire (CT) 

Threshhold (CT) $30 

Cannonball Blitz (CT) 

CREATIVE 

Choplifter (CT) $30 

Home Office (C) $30 

Home Office (D) $35 



$18 



$19 

$19 
$22 



ORDERING & TERMS: Send cashier check, monev order; pcrsonalcompany checks allow 3 weeks bank clearance. VlSA^MaslerCard accepled , Prouide phone number wjifi order. SHIPPING : 
Software add $3.00; Hardware add S3-00 or 3% whichever is greaser. Arizona residenls add 6". sales las , Returns must have authorization number (call 602%8-9 128) for aulhonzation number). All 
relumed merchandise subject to resiociting fee and must come with all original packajing. No returns allowed after 30 days from shipping date. Prices are for cash; VISA and MasterCard add 3%, 
Prices subiect to change uithoul notice. All products subject to availability from manufacturers and/or suppliers. (C) = Tape (D) = Dish (CT) = Cartridge 



$uit:h A Deal 

Others Claim The Lowest Prices 
We'll Prove It. By Beating Anyone's Price!* 



ATARI SOFTWARE 

List Price But For You! 

Temple ot Apshai {D&C) . . . S40 $25 

Gateway to ApshaMCTl . . . $40 $27 

Upper Reaches Apshai (D&C) $20 $13 

Silicon Warrior (CT) $40 $27 

PitstopfCT) $40 $27 

DragonridersofPern(D&C) $40 $25 

Jumpman Junior (CT) S40 $27 

Fun With Art (CT) S40 $27 

MJtfJ 

Congo Bongo [CT) 

Buck Rogers (CT) $40 $25 

Star Trek (CT) 

UMMm 

Pacemaker (CT) $35 $23 

Delia Drawing (CT) $40 $26 

Alphabet Zoo (CT) $35 $23 

Slory Machine '(CT) $40 $26 

Kindercomp(CT) $30 $19 

Dimension X (D&C) $35 $22 

New York City (D&C) $35 $22 

Rainbow Walker (D&C) .... $35 $22 

Quasimodo (D&C) $35 $22 

Zeppelin (D&C) $35 $22 

Blue Max (D&C) $35 $22 

Drelbs(D&C) $35 $22 

Syn-Cak (D) $100 $75 

Syn-File(D) $100 $75 

Syn-Trend (D) $100 $75 

Syn-Comm (D) $35 $22 

SynGraph (Dl $60 $39 

SynMail(D) $50 $33 

SynStatlD) $70 $45 

Syn-Stock (D) $70 $45 

Pooyan |D&C) $30 $19 

Letter Wizard (CT) $70 $45 

Money Wizard (D) $70 $45 

Zaxxon (D&C) $40 $25 

Maniac Miner (D) $20 $12 

Sea Bandit (D&C) $17 $11 

Spider Quaker (D&C) $17 $11 

Rosens Brigade (D) $17 $11 

l;l;M.lJ;l=lli;i.l 

Choplifter (CT) $45 $28 

Arcade Machine (D) $60 S39 

Matchboxes (D&C) $30 $19 

Operation Whirlwind (D) ... $40 $26 

(C) = Tape <D) = Disk (CT) = Cartridge 



List Price Bui For YOU! 

Zork 1, 11, 11 each D $40 $26 

Deadline (D) $50 $33 

Witness (D) $50 $33 

Starcross (D) $40 $26 

Suspended <D) $50 $33 

Planet Fall (D) $50 $33 

Enchanter (Dl $50 $33 

Infidel (D) $50 $33 

Square Pairs (C) $30 $19 

Turtle Tracks (D&C) $30 $19 

Microzine (D) S40 $26 



We Take the Byte Out of 
Apple Software Prices! 



(si] disks) 



But For YOU! 



Datasoft Zaxxon $26 

Epyx Temple of Apshai $26 

Epyx Jumpman $26 

MicroFun Miner 2049 $26 

Muse Know Apple HE $19 

Infocom Zork 1, II, III ea $26 

Inlocom Witness $33 

Infocom Planet Fall $33 

Infocom Enchanter $33 

Infocom Infidel $33 

Sir Tech Wizardry 1 $33 

S.T. Wizardry II Knight 1 $23 

S.T. Wizardry III Legacy $26 

Spinnaker Delta Drawing $39 

Spinnaker Facemaker $26 

Spinnaker Snooper Tps i $29 

Spinnaker Snooper Tps II $29 



More Byte For Your 
Buck Specials! 

Floppiclene Disk Drive Cleaner , . , . Just $22 

Innovative Concepts Flip 15 $ 7 

Flip 25 (locking) ... $18 
Flip 50 (locking) ... $25 
Flip Atari Cart $19 

Maxell Disks MDI (10) $23 

MD2(10) $39 

MR Ftoppy Disk ea. J2.25 

$u(h A Deal 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-431-8697 
Orders Only! 

For Information, 

Release Dates, Availability 

Call 

602-96S-9128 



Rock Bottom Prices 
on Peripherals! 

BMC 12" Green Just $79 

BMC 12" HiRes Green $125 

BMC 12" Amber $89 

BMC 12" HiRes Amber $129 

BMC 13" Composite Color $249 

Vic 40-80 Display Manager $79 

C64 Video Pak 80 $139 

includes Word Manager Free 
Parallel Printer Interface $45 

Vic 3 Slot Motherboard $26 

Vic 6 Slot Motherboard $65 

Vic 5 Slot C64 Motherboard $45 

Printer Utility Software $17 

Numeric Keypad C64 $29 

C64 5 Slot $45 

Graphic Printer Interface $69 

Economy Printer Interface $39 

The Boss $14 

Bat Stick $19 

Red Ball $21 

Track Ball.. $30 

Vic, C64, Atari $79 

Apple, IBM $99 

Hescard 5 Slot VIC *39 

HesModem VIC & 64 $49 

msEsm 

Alphacom 40 Column $119 

Alphacom 80 Column $179 

includes Vic, C64, Atari cable 
Cardco DMl Two <2olor Impact . . $119 
Okidala, Epson, Citoh — 

call 968-9128 

Rana 329.00 

Trak Single Density w/Printer Port . . . 429.00 

Trak Double Density 379.00 

Trak Double Density w/Printer Port , . 459.00 

li'iM'Hi'iH 



Novation, Hayes 
Anchor Call 602-968-9128 



. $AVE 



'TERMS OF OFFER: U you ftrKla prke for aiiy software or peripKeral in IhU iuue that is kiwer 'han our advertised phce, vwl) ^ijaraniEe lo beat it! Valid (^ 
Valid only on product in feirrutar in-stock conditkjns. Valkj or^ on prices appearing in print. 



125,173,148,26,133,126,96 

149,26,201,46,208,9,72 

173,122,0,201,0,240,9 

104,201,58,144,1,96,76 

128,0,169,2,141,251,0 

32,115,0,240,14,176,21 

32,107,201,32,209,26,32 

215,202,76,42,197,169,0 

133,20,133,21,24,144,238 

76,8,207,234,234,234,32 

19,198,160,2,177,95,133 

20,200,177,95,133,21,160 

0,177,95,201,0,208,47 

200,177,95,201,0,208,40 

240,69,169,0,197,20,208 

6,197,21,240,59,198,21 

198,20,32,19,198,160,2 

177,95,197,20,208,231,200 

177,95,197,21,208,224,32 

95,229,24,144,201,32,93 

2 7,32,228,255,201,0,240 

249,201,145,240,204,201,80 

234,234,234,201,13,240,8 

230,20,208,160,230,21,208 

156,96,56,233,127,170,132 

73,160,255,202,240,8,200 

185,158,192,16,250,48,245 

200,185,158,192,48,6,32 

210,255,208,245,96,164,7 3 

41,127,32,210,2 55,96,160 

2,32,215,202,230,199,177 

95,170,200,177,95,32,205 

221,198,199,32,215,202,166 

251,32,228,27,169,0,133 

253,160,3,200,177,95,201 

0,240,83,166,253,208,4 

201,128,176,27,32,210,255 

201,34,208,8,72,165,253 

73,1,133,25 3,104,201,58 

240,38,208,220,234,234,234 

234,234,234,201,130,208,6 

206,251,0,206,251,0,72 

32,54,27,104,201,129,240 

36,201,167,208,191,230,252 

230,252,24,144,184,32,215 

202,169,0,133,253,165,251 

101,252,170,32,2 28,27,24 

144,166,169,0,133,252,133 

253,96,230,251,2 30,2 51,208 

153,224,0,240,7,32,63 

203,202,24,144,245,96,217,256 



Program 2: List And scroll [64 version) 

10 1=6769 

20 READ A: IF A=256 THEN 40 

30 POKE 1, A: CK=CK+A: 1=1+1; GOTO 20 

40 IF CK<>51322THENPRINT"Eclr}ERROR IN DA 

TA STATEMENTS " : END 
6769 DATA 113,26,173,113,26,133,55 
6777 DATA 133,51,173,114,26,133,56 
6785 DATA 133,52,234,234,234,169,76 
6793 DATA 133,124,173,147,26,133,125 
6801 DATA 173,148,26,133,126,96,149 
6809 DATA 26,201,46,208,9,72,173 
6817 DATA 122,0,201,0,240,9,104 
6825 DATA 201,58,144,1,96,76,128 
6833 DATA 0,169,2,141,251,0,32 
6841 DATA 115,0,240,14,176,21,32 
6849 DATA 107,169,32,209,26,32,215 

234 COMPUTE! December 1983 



6800 


DATA 


6808 


DATA 


6816 


DATA 


6824 


DATA 


6832 


DATA 


6840 


DATA 


6848 


DATA 


6856 


DATA 


6864 


DATA 


6872 


DATA 


6880 


DATA 


6888 


DATA 


6896 


DATA 


6904 


DATA 


6912 


DATA 


6920 


DATA 


6928 


DATA 


6936 


DATA 


6944 


DATA 


6952 


DATA 


6960 


DATA 


6968 


DATA 


6976 


DATA 


6984 


DATA 


6992 


DATA 


7000 


DATA 


7008 


DATA 


7016 


DATA 


7024 


DATA 


7032 


DATA 


7040 


DATA 


7048 


DATA 


7056 


DATA 


7064 


DATA 


7072 


DATA 


7080 


DATA 


7088 


DATA 


7096 


DATA 


7104 


DATA 


7112 


DATA 


7120 


DATA 


7128 


DATA 


7136 


DATA 


7144 


DATA 


7152 


DATA 


7160 


DATA 


7168 


DATA 


7176 


DATA 


7134 


DATA 


7192 


DATA 


7200 


DATA 



170,76,42,165,169,0,133 

20,133,21,24,144,238,76 

8,175,234,234,234,32,19 

166,160,2,177,95,133,20 

200,177,95,133,21,160,0 

177,95,201,0,208,47,200 

177,95,201,0,208,40,240 

69,169,0,197,20,208,6 

197,21,240,59,198,21,198 

20,32,19,166,160,2,177 

95,197,20,208,231,200,177 

95,197,21,208,224,32,68 

229,24,144,201,32,93,27 

32,228,25 5,201,0,240,249 

201,145,240,204,201,80,2 34 

234,2 34,201,13,240,8,230 

20,208,160,230,21,208,156 

96,56,2 33,127,170,132,73 

160,2 55,202,240,8,200,185 

158,160,16,250,48,245,200 

185,158,160,48,6,32,210 

25 5,208,245,96,164,73,41 

127,32,210,255,96,160,2 

32,215,170,230,199,17 7,95 

170,200,177,95,32,205,189 

198,199,32,215,170,166,251 

32,228,27,169,0,133,2 53 

160,3,200,177,95,201,0 

240,83,166,2 5 3,208,4,201 

128,176,27,32,210,2 5 5,201 

34,208,8,72,165,253,73 

1,133,253,104,201,58,240 

38,208,220,234,234,234,234 

2 34,234,201,130,208,6,206 

251,0,206,251,0,72,32 

54,2 7,104,201,129,240,36 

201,167,208, 191,230,2 52,230 

252,24,144,184,3 2,215,170 

169,0,13 3,2 53,165,251,101 

252,170,32,2 28,2 7,24,144 

166,169,0,13 3,252,133,253 

96,230,251,230,2 51,208,153 

224,0,240,7,32,63,171 

202,24,144,245,96,256 



Program 3: Relocater (VIC or 64) 

10 REM MOVE 'EZLIST/SCROLL TO MEMORY TOP. 

20 : 

30 LB=6769:REM PROGRAM ADDRESS IN LO MEMO 

RY 
40 : 
50 HB=PEEK(56)*256+PEEK(55)-399:REM PROGRA 

M ADDRESS IN HI MEMORY 
60 : 

70 REM MOVE BIT BY BIT 
80 READA: REM LOC TO CORRECT 
100 FORI=0TO382 
103 POKEHB+I,PEEK(LB+l) 
105 IFAOLB+1GOTO170 

110 V=PEEK { A ) +PEEK ( A+1 ) * 2 56 : A=V+HB-LB 
120 POKEHB+I, A-INT(A/256 ) *256 : 1=1+1 : POKEH 

B+I,INT<A/256) :READA 
170 NEXT 
180 PRINT" {CLRJTO ENABLE E3-LISTER 

{3 SPACES}TYPE SYS"HB+2 
190 END 

195 REM OFFSET VALUES 

200 DATA6769, 67 72, 6779, 6793, 6798, 6803 
210 DATA6842, 6935, 7029, 7091, 7122,0 @ 



6857 


DATA 


6865 


DATA 


6873 


DATA 


6881 


DATA 


6889 


DATA 


6897 


DATA 


6905 


DATA 


6913 


DATA 


6921 


DATA 


6929 


DATA 


6937 


DATA 


6945 


DATA 


6953 


DATA 


6961 


DATA 


6969 


DATA 


6977 


DATA 


6985 


DATA 


6993 


DATA 


7001 


DATA 


7009 


DATA 


7017 


DATA 


7025 


DATA 


7033 


DATA 


7041 


DATA 


7049 


DATA 


7057 


DATA 


7065 


DATA 


7073 


DATA 


7081 


DATA 


7089 


DATA 


7097 


DATA 


7105 


DATA 


7113 


DATA 


7121 


DATA 


7129 


DATA 


7137 


DATA 


7145 


DATA 


7153 


DATA 


7161 


DATA 


7169 


DATA 


7177 


DATA 


7185 


DATA 


7193 


DATA 


7201 


DATA 









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PracliCalc 20" t and PracliCalc Plus"*: 

Complete electronic spreadsheets that 
turn the Commodore VIC-20 into a busi- 
ness computer. {$39.95' TD and $49.95* 
TD, respectively.) 

PractiCaic 64"; The computer spread- 
sheet lor the Commodore 64 with over 20 
mathematical functions and the ability to 
graph, sort, and search for entries. 
($49.95* TD) 

PS: The Programmable Spreadsheet": 
Rnally, a computer spreadsheet which 
can handle the most complicated opera- 
tions within the structure of a spreadsheet 
- since you can program it with BASIC, 
Available for the Commodore 64 ($79.95 D) 
& Apple lie ($79.95 D). 
Rabbit Base™ t : A data-f i le manager for the 
Commodore VIC-20 with simple screen 
instnjctions for efficient use. ($29.95 T) 
Inventory 64": A smart inventory-tracking 
system for the Commodore 64 that handles 
650 parts. ($39.95 D) 

C-64 Analyst; A diagnostic program which 

tests the Commodore 64 and its periph- 
erals to detect hardware defects. An 
invaluable tool for C-64 users! ($19.95 D) 



t SK RAM reauired - J 16K RAM required 

• Price given for tape version. Disk version slightly higher 

T Available on tape - D Available on disk 

Prices stKwn are manirfacturer's retail prices. 



Total Health": For fitness and health 

enthusiasts, a program which monitors and 
encourages proper nutrition. (For the 
Commodore VIC-20: $24.95 T and C-64 

$29.95 D) 

AND LEARN FROM . . . 

Math Duel": A math program for ages 5-1 2 
that combines classroom learning with 
gameroom fun! Available for the 
Commodore VIC-20. ($19.95 T) 

Sprlntyper"; A typing tutorial for the 
Commodore VIC-20 that encourages 
speed and accuracy in both the novice 
and experienced typist. ($19.95 T) 
Tiny Tutor" ; A p re-school er prog ram with 
fun graphics and sound to teach simple 
math. ($19,951) 

Composer" ; A simple music composition 
program for the Commodore VIC-20 that 
teaches musical notation and allows 
'melodies' to be saved to tape for later 
recall. ($19,951) 

^^ COMPUTER 
■B SOFTWARE 

^W ASSOCIATES 

50 Teed Drive, Randolph, 
Massachusetts 02368 



AND PLAY WITH . . . 

Zeppelin Rescue": An intelligent rescue 
game for the Commodore 64 with arcade- 
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for those with persistence & skil I . ($24.95 D) 
Skramble": You're lost in enemy territory. 
But before leaving for home, you can play 
havoc with their airfields and oil supply. 
Are you ready for the challenge? (For the 
Commodore VIC-20; $19.95 T) 
Barrel Jumper" t: For the Commodore 
VIC-20, this game confronts you with a 
pyramid of steel girders. The present King 
of the Hill is an angry ape who's hurling 
barrels at you. Step lively! ($19.95 T) 

See your local dealer for CSA programs or 
order directly by calling toll-free: 

1-800-343-1078 

For more information about these and 
many other programs for your home 
computer, write to CSA. 

Programmers with programs to market are 
encouraged to send copies for review to 
CSA. 



Dealer & distributor inquiries are welcomed by: 

Micro Software Intemational he 

The Silk Mill 44 Oak Street 

Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts 02164 



Commodore Files 
For Beginners 

Part 2 



Jim Butterfield, Associate Editor 



Expanding on his program examples from last month, 
Associate Editor Jim Butterfiehi suggests ways to im- 
prove and safeguard your files. For disk and tape users. 

Creating A File By Program 

We can repeat the file creation that we performed 
last month with direct statements, but this time 
we'll do it in a more typical way: as part of a pro- 
gram. Here come the statements we have seen 
before, with a few small enhancements: 

100 PRINT "FILE CREATION" 
110 INPUT "NAME OF FILE";N$ 

When the program runs, we must type in a 
file name. This might be the same name we used 
previously (STUDENTS). It's wise to choose a 
name that hasn't been used before. In fact, with 
disk it's mandatory: we cannot have two files 
with exactly the same name on one disk. 

Now for the OPEN statement. For disk, we 
type: 

120 OPEN 1,8,2, "0:'"+N$+",S,W" 

For tape, we make line 120 read: 

120 OPEN 1,1,2,N$ 

Now to write the data. Since we're writing a 
generalized program, it might be wise to ask the 
user to input the data. As soon as it is received, 
we'll write it to the file: 

130 INPUT "NAME"; A? 

140 INPUT "STUDENT NUMBER" ;B$ 

150 INPUT "MARK";M 

160 REM PRINT IT 

170 PRINT* 1,A$;CHR$( 13)? 

180 PRINT#1,B$,-CHR$(13)? 

190 PRINT#1,M;CHR${13),- 

We could make the program more friendly 

236 COMPUTi! December19e3 



by asking ARE YOU SURE? in line 155, so that 
the user could reenter the information if a mistake 
had occurred. 

Now that the record is written, we need to 
ask if there are any more: 



200 PRINT 

210 INPUT "MORE";X$ 

220 IF X$="Y" OR X$="YES" 



GOTO 130 



When we get beyond this point, the user has 
signaled that the job is completed. All we need to 
do is CLOSE the file, and we're finished: 

230 CLOSE 1 

240 PRINT "FILE ";N$;" IS WRITTEN" 

Trimmings For Disk 

If we are using disk, we might add disk error 
checking. This tells us if we have problems — it's 
especially important at the time of opening the 
file. The extra lines for this would be added to the 
above program: 

90 OPEN 15,8,15 
95 PRINT#15, "10" 

125 INPUT#15,E,E$,E1,E2 

126 IF E THEN PRINT E$ : STOP 

Lines 125 and 126 may be repeated after each 
disk activity, so we could see the same instructions 
at lines 205 and 206, and again at 235 and 236. 
You could put these two lines in a subroutine, but 
they are brief enough to repeat at the appropriate 
places. Finally, we should CLOSE the command 
channel with: 

250 CLOSE 15 

Always OPEN the command channel at the 
beginning of a program and CLOSE it at the end. 
Closing a command channel causes the disk to 
close any other channels it might have going; it 



UST AS THE DRUIDS COMPILED 
THE FIRST COMPUTER (Stone- 
henge) so they also brought the first deco- 
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continue their special ways. LISTEW . . . 

CASSETTALOG! 

ID YOU HEAR IT? Imagine a cassette containing • Descriptions of 
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FROM YOUR FIRST ORDER! Actually, the very fun of our cassettalog would 

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standard VIC 20'"" 




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The first 250 orders over $20 placed from this advertise- 
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Now you can get 40 or 80 Columns on your TV. or monitor at one time! No more 
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You can program an unlimited number of words and sentences and even adjust volume and pitch. 
You can make: • Adventure games that talk • Real sound action games 

This voice synthesizer is VOTRAX based and has features equivalent to other models costing over 
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sentences with easy to read, easy to use symbols. The data from the voice editor can then be easily 
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VIC 20 COMPUTER 40-80 COLUMN BOARD LIST $149.00 SALE $89.00 



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could give you real trouble if performed too early. 

Trimmings For Tape 

You could remove the ;CHR$(13); ending from the 
PRINT#1 lines if you wish. But it might be best to 
leave it in place, so that your programs can be 
converted to disk operation without fuss. 

If you have an original small-keyboard PET, 
you can't write to disk at all and may have trouble 
with cassette tape (blocks written too closely to- 
gether). If you're serious about files, you might 
want to upgrade your machine. 

A cassette tape file doesn't need to have a 
name, but use one anyway. 

Reading It Back 

It would be nice to bring the file back using direct 
statements, as we did the first time we wrote the 
information. However, we can't use INPUT# in 
direct mode, so we must write a program. Much 
of it will look familiar. First, we OPEN the file, 
then ask for the name: 

100 PRINT "FILE READER" 
110 INPUT "FILE NAME";N$ 

For disk, we would write the OPEN statement as: 
120 OPEN 1,8,2,N$ 

We don't need to specify the drive number as 
both will be checked. We don't need to specify 
,S,R for sequential read because these options 
will be assumed. It doesn't hurt to specify every- 
thing, however. 

For tape, we would OPEN with: 

120 OPEN 1,1,0,N$ 

In fact, if there's only one data file on the 
tape, or if the one we want is the first, we could 
write OPEN 1 and everything else would be 
assumed. 

130 INPUT#1,A$ 
140 INPUT#1,B? 
150 INPUT#1,M 

Now that we've input a record, let's print it out: 

160 PRINT "NAME: {3 SPACES}"; A? 

170 PRINT "NUMBER: ";B$ 

180 PRINT "MARK: t 3 SPACES} ";M 

Are there any more records? The computer 
knows; and if we know how, we can ask the 
computer. 

There's a variable in the computer called ST 
or STATUS. After every file operation — or more 
exactly, after every input/output operation — 
variable ST will be set as follows: 

ST equals 0: file OK, more to come 
ST equals 64: file OK, no more to come 
ST other than or 64: file has a problem 

240 COMPUTE! December 1963 



For our simple reading program, we can type: 

190 IF ST=0 GOTO 130 

Thus, if the file is OK and is not at the end, we'll 
go back and get another record. 

Finally, we CLOSE the file with: 

200 CLOSE 1 

RUN the above program, and the information we 
wrote to file STUDENTS will be recalled and 
printed out to the screen. 

Try Your Hand At Ttiese 

Our file program is a good working example. You 
might like to see if you can write some of the fol- 
lowing variations: 

If you have disk, add error checking. Then 
try creating errors (bad names) and see what 
happens. 

Modify the program to print only student 
records for students named JONES. 

Modify the program to count the number of 
students. 

Modify the program to calculate an average 
grade. 

We'll look at other aspects of sequential files 
next time around. © 




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PHOFESSIOhfAL FEATURES INCIUDE: 

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• OBJECT CODE COMPATIBLE with standard PROM PROGRAivlMERS to produce 
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Rated THE BEST educational 
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Commodore 64 version: 'Ttiis 

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In daily use by schools across the USA. 



TYPING TUTOR + WORD INVADERS 

The proven way to learn touch typing. 
COMMODORE 64 Tape $21.95 
COMMODORE 64 Disk $24.95 
VIC20(unexpanded) Tape $21.95 





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IFR 

(FLIGHT SIMULATOR) 

CARTRIDGE 
FOR THE VIC 20 



$39.95 

JOYSTICK REQUIRED 



Put yourself in the pilot's seat! A very challenging realistic 
simulation of instrument flying in a light plane. Take off, 
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Full aircraft features. Realistic aircraft performance — 
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COMMODORE-64 

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Feotures: High quoiify pfint heod- MCBF equol 10 
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reproduce the entire 20/64 graphics set, dot addressoble 
graphics, supparts custom character capability, reverse 
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PRINTER-S219.00 

The Comstar T/F is an excellent addition to 
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• LONG LIFE PRINT HEAD: 100 million 
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. THREE SELECTABLE LINE SPACINOS: 6, B 
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132 columns maximum. Double-width font also 
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OTHER OPTIONS 

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Block Graphics 



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$379. 



Now you can save big on the Corn-Star 15" dot matrix printer 
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AdC $17.50 for shipping, handling and insurance. Illinois residents 
please add 6% tax. Add $35.00 for CANADA, PUERTO RICO, HAWAII 
orders. WE DO NOT EXPORT TO OTHER COUNTRIES. 

Enclose Cashiers Check. Money Order or Personal Check. Allow 14 days 
for delivery, 2 to 7 days for phone orders, 1 day express mail! Canada 
orders must be in U.S. dollars. VISA — MASTER CARD — C.O.D. 



ClUTPDpDI^p^ IWEIOVEOUR CUSTOMERS] 

BOX 550, BARRINGTON, ILLINOIS 60010 
Phone 312/362-5244 to order 



MACHINE LANGUAGE 



Jim Butterfield, Associote Editor 



Hopping Around 



Transfer of control — jumping and branching — 
seems to be easy and straightforward to accom- 
plish. In 6502 programming, you can make a 
decision-based branch, which will take you for- 
ward or backward a hundred-odd locations; or an 
unconditional jump, which will take you any- 
where you want to go. 

Yet there are a number of techniques that 
transfer control in unusual ways. Often they may 
seem like tricks, but they can be useful in achieving 
programming objectives: speed, flexibility, or 
compactness. We'll look at some of these tech- 
niques here. 

The Long Branch 

If you want to use a branch to implement a deci- 
sion, your range is limited to slightly over 120 
locations forward or backward. We often want to 
get around this limitation. It may be argued, by 
the way, that well-organized programs should 
never need to branch over any great distance; 
that your programs should be organized into sub- 
routine modules so that transfers of control will 
always be short and visible. 

For the moment, let's look at an example: 

2000 LDX #$20 

2002 BIGLOOP LDA #$0D 



20C0 
20C1 
20C3 



DEX 

BNE BIGLOOP 



We have a problem here. We can't branch over 
the needed range — about 190 bytes. The simple 
way is to insert a JMP: 



20C0 




DEX 




20C1 




BEQ 


SKIP 


20 C3 




JMP 


BIGLOOP 


20C6 


SKIP 


*i I 





Another way is more subtle and must be used 
with care. It avoids the JMP, and thus makes a 
routine more easily relocatable. Let's assume 
that somewhere in our program sequence we 
have a BNE: 

244 COMPUTE! December 1983 



2000 LDX #$20 

2002 BIGLOOP LDA #$0D 



2065 LDA $027A 

2068 BNE STEP 



Now, immediately after the BNE at address 
2068, another BNE instruction would never 
branch. After all, if the Z flag is clear, we wall take 
the previous branch to STEP. And if the Z flag is 
set, neither branch will be taken. So we might use: 



2000 
2002 



BIGLOOP 



2065 
2068 
206A LINK 



20C2 
20C3 



LDX #$20 
LDA #$0D 



LDA $027A 
BNE STEP 
BNE BIGLOOP 



DEX 

BNE LINK 



As the program executes in the area of 2065, 
it will never take the branch to BIGLOOP. But 
when we get down to the bottom, the instruction 
at 20C3 will (if conditions are right) branch to 
LINK, and will immediately branch again to BIG- 
LOOP. Each branch is now a shorter hop and 
easily within range. 

Hidden Instructions 

Suppose you need a series of PRINT subroutines, 
one to print a RETURN (SOD), one to print a space 
($20), and another to print an exclamation point. 
You could write three subroutines; or you could 
write the three Load commands and then branch 
to a common point; or you could do this: 



2000 


A9 OD 


LDA 


#$0D 


;return 


2002 


2C A9 20 


BIT 


$20A9 


;hidden space 


2005 


2C A9 3F 


BIT 


$3FA9 


,hidden question mark 


2008 


20 D2 FF 


]SR 


PRINT 


;print it 


200B 


60 


RTS 




;return 



What happens when we call address 2000? 
We load the RETURN character, perform two 



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is available in 
Microform. 




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International 

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for 



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State 



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Thrill Your Friends 
This Christmas 



with a gift 
from 

bitCards 

PERSONALIZED 
SOFTWARE 

Only $18.50 



Christmas draws near. Santa has disappeared from his ice- 
castle, The player can solve the mystery using the available clues, 
Along the way he'll discover that this is no ordinary adventure 
game: In a storage room, he'll find a shimmering package 
addressed to him. And in Santa's coat pocket, a scrap of a note 
signed by you! Santa's computer will call upon him by name to 
help solve the mystery. 

And that's just the start of it. We've designed "A Christmas 
Adventure" to be fun, Graphics, humor, action sequences and 
many other features and surprises to charm seasoned adventurer 
and novice alike. We'll even include your own personal greeting 
message— right in the program! 

A bitCard is the perfect gift for everyone on your list who has 

access to a micro. They'll love being part of their own adventure. 
And they'll love youforstuffingtheirstocking with this Christmas 
delight. 

BitCards. A personalized greeting card, A customized gift. 
Now isn't that a better idea than a polka-dot tie? 

Cassette versions available for Commodore-64S and for VIC-2C® (specify 5K or 5K+8) 

48K disk versions available for Alari® 800 and Apple® II (all models and compatibles) 

16K cassette versions available for Atari® 400/800 and ThS-80® Models I, III and Color 

P.S. Why not order one for yourself too. You'll love the adventure. 

TO ORDER A CUSTOMIZED BITCARD: 

BY PHONE: (Visa or M/C accepted) call 1-800-555-1212 and ask for the TOLL 

FREE NUMBER FOR BITCARDS. 

BY MAIL: (money order or MasterCard/Visa number & exp. date) use seperate 

sheet for each bitCard ordered. Give your name and address and following Info 

about recipient: (1} name (2) address (3) computer (e.g., TRS 80® IVIodel I) (4) 

(optional) his/her phone number. Also include your personal message to 

recipient (25 word max,) (We'll supply standard message if you prgter). Indicate if 

you want bitCard sent to you or directly to recipient. Order should arrive before 

Dec. 12. Send order or requests for Info to: bUCards, 120 S. University Dr., Suite 

F-6, Plantation, FL 33317. Canadian orders welcome. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 
Ot*l*r> only: Write to Charlscen Data. Inc.. 1 130 Lajoie. Suite 5. Monireai, Canada HZV 1 NB {514| 274-1 103 

Apple is a trademark ol Apple Corfiputing, Inc. Vic-20 and Commoaore-64 are trademarks o1 Commodore 
Business Machines, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. TRS-BO is a registered trademark ot 
Tandy Corp. 



Hewlett Packard 

Write or call for prices 



CVl 



SPECIALS 


on INTREGATED ClflCUITS 


6502 


7.45 


10/6.95 50/655 100/615 


6502A/6512A 


a-4U 


10/7.95 50/7.35 100/690 


6520 PIA 


5.15 


10/4.90 50/4.45 100/4.15 


6522 VIA 


6.45 


10/6-10 50/5.75 100/5.45 


6532 


/.90 


10/7.40 50/7.00 100/6.60 


2n'!-L200 




2.45 25/2.30 100/2.15 


2716EPROM 




4.45 5/4.20 10/3 95 


2532 EPROM 




5,90 5/5.75 10/5.45 


6116 2KX8CM0SRAM 


6.45 5/ 6.20 10/5,95 


41 16 RAM 




8 lor 14 


4161 RAM 




6,50 


Zero Insertion Force 24 pin 


Socket jScanbe) 200 




Anchor 
Automation 
Signalman 
Modems 

FREE SOURCE MEMBERSHIP WITH SIGNALMAN 

All S ignalm,an Modems are D irecl Connect, and Include cables 
to connecl lo your computer and to the telephone. Signalman 
Modems provide the best price-perlormance values 

Dealer and OEM Inquiries Inirlled 
Volkstnoilem (79| 

l<SZ3Z or Alari Cable for Valksinodein 
Mark I fiS232 (99) 

Mark VI for IBM Personal Computer (279) 

Mark VII Auto Dtal/Auto Answer (159) 

Mark XII Sman Model 1200/300 (399| 



59 
9 

59 
179 



DC HAYES SmartmotJein 

DC Hayes Smartmodem 12OO,.'30O 



295 

529 




PHOKI QUEEN for V!C 
Apple Emulator for Commodore B4 
STAT Statistics Package lor C64 
Solid Oak 2 Level St>nd for C64 or VIC 

C64/VICSwitcti {networking) 

BACKUP Vt.O tape copier for C64 or VIC 

CARDBOAflD/6 Motherboard - VIC 
CAROBOARD/5 Mottierljoard - C64 
CARD PRINT G Printer Int. with Graptiics 
CARD PRINT B Printer Interface— C64/VIC 
CARDB0ARD/3S Motherboard - VIC 
CARDCO C64/VIC Calculator Keypad 
CARDRAM/1 6 RAM Expansion ■ VIC 

Complete CARDCO Line In stock 

CIE and VIE IEEE Interfaces in stock 
MAE Assembler (or 064 + CBM 



170 
Call 
95 
29 

125 
20 

64 
56 
72 
40 
32 
32 
50 



89 



APPLE— FRANKLIN ITEMS 



KHAFT Apple Joystick 
Kraft Apple Paddle Pair 
SPINNAKEH Software In stock 
Broiiertiund Saltware in stock 

16K RAM Card tor Apple 

Multiplin — Microsoft 

Solid Oak Z Level Stand for Apple 

Serial Card for Apple 

MCP RAM/SO coluirn card for lie (AP/TXTl 

Z80 Softcard and CP/M (Microsoft) 

RANA Elite I with Controller 

Parallel Printer Interface/Cable 

Microtek inlerfaces In stock 

Apple Oumpfln; with 16K Buffer 

Grappler + Interlace 

Kralt Products tor Apple m stock 

DC Hayes Micromodem II 

PES: File 

PES: Report 

Vides 80 Column Card 

Hayden Software for Apple 20% OFF 

Apple Blue Book 



215-822-7727 

252 Bethlehem Pike 
Colmar, PA 1891 5 



40 

30 



59 

IBS 

29 

99 
139 
235 
389 

79 

160 

129 

299 
95 
95 

209 



Qcommodore 

See us for Personal, Business, and Eitucalional 
requirements. Educational Discounts available. 

PETSCAN I $245 base price 

Allovjs you to connect up to 3D CBM/PET Computers lo 
shared disk drives and printers. Completely transparent to the 
user. Perfect for schools or multiple word processing con- 
figurations. Base conliguralion supports 2 computers. Addi- 
tional computer hookups S100 each. 



COMPACK/STCP 



$115 



[ntelllgent Terminal Package for PET. CBM, C64 

Includes ACIA Hardware / STCP Software 

VIDEO EMNCERforCDmioIofeeT 69 

Realize video quality equal or letter than composite monitor 
using standard color TV 

SCREENMAkERBQIColuninAifapterforC64 145 

Provides big screen capability for business applications, 

GENESIS Computer Cirp 

ViControfler (for CG4 as well] 50 

combine with BSR modules lor fiome or business control 

CDMSENS£HenioteSensin9AdapterforC64orVIC 35 

COM VOICE Synthesizer lor C54 or VIC 139 

includes software for test lo speech, pitch, etc 
COM CLOCK Real Time Clock willi batterv backup 45 
VIC 20 Products and Software in stock 
Tfioro EMI Software UMI Software 

ABACUS Software HES Software 

16K RAM lor VIC 64 Vanilla Pilol 

VICTORY Seftware for VIC and C54 



Street Sweepers (VIC) 
fJight Rider (VIC) 
Annthilator 
Adventure Pack II 
Educational Pack I 
Strategy Pack I 



Kongo Kong (VIC) 

Cosmic Debris (VIC) 

Adventure Pack I 

liietamorphosis 

Trek 

Grave RoObers 



27 

16 
12 
IB 
11 
12 
12 



PAPER CLIP Word Processor 

ORACLE Data Base from Batteries Included 

Super BusCard from Batteries Included 1 79 

Commodore 64 Programmers Reference Guide 16 

MicroChess for C64— B feveis of play 1 9 

excellent graphics and coor 
SPINNAKER Software C64, Apple, IBM, Atari 

Computels First Book of PET/CBM 1 1 

Ce4 or VIC SWITCH 125 

POWER mM Utilities for PET/CBM 78 

WordPro 3+/64 witli Spelimaster 85 

WordPro 4+ - 8032, disk, printer 295 
SPELIMASTER spelling cheotter for WordPro 

VISICALC (or PET, ATARI, or Apple 1B9 

PET-TflAX PET to Epson Graplilcs Software 40 

SM-KIT enlianced PET/CBM ROM Utilities 40 

Programmers Toolkit - PET ROI^ Utilities 35 

EASY CALC for C64 65 

PET Spacemaker II ROM Svntch 36 

COPYWRfTE R Word Processor tor CB4 69 

2 Meter PET to IEEE or IEEE to IEEE Catjie 40 

Dusi Cover for PET. CBM, 404O, or B050 8 
CmC Interfaces lADAISDO. ADA! 450. SADI In stocl^ 

Programming tfie PET/CBM (Ctinipulel) — R. West 20 

Compute" First Book of VIC 1 1 

OMNiCALC (HESI 79 

HES MDOEM with Software 65 
HES Software and Hardware in stock 
UMI products In^ stock 

GHIDRUNNERfHES) VICorC64 29 

COCO (HES) Tutorial lor C64 39 

Pirblic Domain Disks fir C64 65 

Agressor(HES) 29 
HES Turtle Graphics VIC 29 C64 49 
HES Writer VIC 30 C64 34 

Grand Master Chess (DMI| C64 or VIC 27 
Renaissance (UMI) VIC 29 064 24 

SynlhBEOjnd (HES) 44 

HESMON VlCQrC64 29 

6502 Professional Developemeni System (HESI 24 



Robot Panic 29 



Pirate's Peril 29 




DISK ■• 

SPECIALS 

Scotch (3M| 5" ss/dd 10/ 2 20 50/ 2.00 100/ 1.95 

Scotch |3M1 5" ds/dd 10/3.05 50/2.80 100/2.75 

Scotch (3MI 8" ss/sd 10/2.30 50/2.10 100/2.06 

Scotch (3M] 8" ss/dd 10/2.85 50/ 2,70 100/2 65 

We Stock VERBATIM DISKS 

Write lor Dealer and OEM prtties. 

Sentinal 5" ss/dd 10/1,90 50/1.35 100/1.80 

Sentmal 5" ds/dd 10/2,55 50/2.50 100/2.45 

We stock Dysan disks 

Wabash 5" ss/sil 10/ 1.60 50/1.55 100/1.45 

WabashS" ss/dd 10/1.90 50/ 1.B5 100/175 

Wabash 8" ss/S!J 10/2.00 50/1.95 100/1.85 

We stock MAXELL DISKS 

Write for dealer and OEM prices. 

Disk Storage Pages 1 for S5 Hub Rings 50 lor S6 
Disk Library Cases 8"— 3.00 5"— 2 25 
Head Cleaning Kits 1 1 

CflSSEHE TAPES— AGFA PE-6 11 PflEMIUH 

C-10 10/61 50/ .58 100/ .50 

C-30 10/ .85 50/82 100/ 70 

DATASHIELD BACKUP POWER SOURCE 265 

Battery back up Uninlerroplible Power Supply with surge and 
noise liltering. The answer lo your power problems 

Zenith ZVM-1 21 Green Phosphor Monitor 95 

Zenith new color and monochrome ntonitors in stock 

MulliPlan— IBM orAiple IBS 

Quatl board for IBM available 

Peachteit 50D0 Soflwaro Package 2t9 

PFS Software for IBM and Apple in stock 

VOTRAX Personal Speech System 280 

BMr'^-g] Color Monitor 199 

BM . ,i?A 12" Green Monitor 85 

Dynax IBnitfiei) DX-1 5 Daisy Wheel Printer 469 

Itch Prowhter Parallel Printer 379 

Panasonic tQ90 Printer willi Correspondence Mode 279 

USI CompuMOD 4 R F Modulator 39 

Daisywriter 2a00with48K buffer 1050 
Many printers available |Gemini-Star. Broifier. OKI. etc.) 
We Stock AMDEK Monitors 

Amdek DXY-IOQ Plotter 590 
A P Products 15% OFF 

Walanabe Intelligent Plotter 990 6-pen 1290 

BPOOKS 6 Ootlet Surge Suppressor/Noise Filter 54 
We stock Electrohome Monitors 

Synerlek SYM-t Microcomputer 1B9 

l*!:^™'!^.!''! SO ™* I'J..!'!' ICESDISCOUNTED 

Panasonic 12" t^onilor (20 MHz) with audio 129 

Panasonic CT-160 Dual Mode Color Monitor 245 

USI Video Monitors— Green or AMBER 20 MHz hi-res. 
Dealer and OEM inquiries invited 

ttfttm I data 

systems 

HEBO 1 Robot (factory assembled) 2145 

229 Terminal (DEC and ADM conipatlblel 6BQ 

ZT-1 Intel Terminal willi Serial Port 340 

Z1 00 1 6-blt/8-bit Systems in stock CALL 

We slock entire Zenith line. 

f" ■"•'I \ H 

ATARP 

SPECIALS 

WE STOCK ENTIRE LINE— write iDr prices. 
SPINKAKER BDiJ Bnitlertund Softwai^ in Stock. 




A B Computers 



WHITE FOR CATALOG. Add S1.50 per order tor United Parcel. 
We pay balance of UPS surface sfiipping ctiarges on all prepaid orders 
(add extra for mail, APO/FPO. air). Prices include cash discoLnt. 
Regular prices slightly higher, Prices subject to change. 



OAK STAND-C64, VIC, Apple, Atari 29 

Beauliful natural solid oak two-level stand, fiesis on lable 
atiove computer Holds disk drives/cassette deck, as well as 
your monitor/TV- 

KMMM Pascal iV.1 forPET/CBM/C64 $95 
Full-leatured Pascal for Coniinodore Computers. 

Now suitable lor all Advanced Placemeni Courses 
Includes all lealures o( lull Jensen-Wirlh Pascal except WiTH. 
SETS. RECORD VARIANTS (plus tias STRING enlensionj 
Includes machine language Pascal Sc-urce Editor (wilti syntax 
checking), machine language P-Code Compiler, P-Code to 
machine language Translator or optimized ob|ect code Run- 
time package. User Manual, and sample programs 
Requires 32K Please specily condgurallon. 

EARL for PET (disk file based) $65 

Editor, Assembler, Relocater, Linker 

Generales relocatable object code using MOS TectJfiology 

mnemonics. Disk tile input (can edit lites larger than memory]. 




Paper Clip (Batteries Included) S)09 

Extremely comprehensiveword processor (or Commodoreand 
Commodore 64 computers Has lealures of WordPro, plus 
advanced funclKXis like horizontal scroll, column move, column 
arithmetic, column sort, and comprehensive printer support. 

Delphrs ORACLE (Batteries Included) $125 

Comprehensive Data Base. Report Writer, Mail Label system 
allowing large record size (over 8000 characters) with the 
number of records in a tile limited only by disk capacity (7.5 
MB on 9090 drive). Fast machine language routines, including 
full multilevel sorts. 

Super BusCard (Batteries Included) $179 

• full buffered I EEE488 Duster speed 

• cartridge extension slot. 

• parallel printer port. 

• DOS ■wedge" commands included. 

• machine language monitor included 

• room for 24 K ROM BASIC 4 (optional) 

RAIVI/ROM for PET/CBM 

4K or 8K bytes of soft ROM optional battery 
backup. 

Use RAM/ROM as a Software development tool to store data 
or machine code beyond the normal BASIC range, or to load a 
ROM image to avoid ROM socket conflicts. Possible appli- 
cations include machine language sort (such as SUPER- 
SORT), universal wedge Exiramon, etc, 
RAM/ROM -4K $75 RAM/ROM — 8K 90 

Battery Backup Option 20 

PORTMAKER DUALRS232 SERIAL PORT $63 

Two ports with full bipolar RS232 txiffering. Baud rates from 
300 to 4800- For PET/CBM, AIM, SYM. 

SuperGraphics 2.0 

NEW Version with TURTLE GRAPHICS 

SuperGraphics, by John Fluharty. provides a 4K machine 
language extension which adds 35 commands to Commodore 
BASIC to allow fast and easy plotting and manipulation of 
graphics and shapes on the PET/CBM video display 

SOUND commands allow you !o initiate notes or songs 
from BASIC, and then play them in the background mode 
without interfering with your BASIC program. 

Additionally, seven new TURTLE commands open up a 
whole new dimension in graphics. 

Specify machine model (and siiel. ROM type 
SuperGraphics in ROiVI (SAOOO or $9000) $45 
Voiume discounts available for schools. 




NEW 
VERSION 2 

now for C64 



lir FET/CBM Compillin 
FLE X-FI LE IS a set ol flexible, friendly programs to allow you to 
set up and maintain a data base. Includes versatile Report 
Writer and Mail Label routines, and dxu mentation for pro- 
grammers Id use Data Base routines as part ol other pro- 
grams 

RANDOM ACCESS DATA BASE 
Reoxd sue limit is 256 characters.Ttie number of records per 
disk IS limited only by record Si;e and free space on the disk 
File maintenance lets you step fonvard or backward through a 
file, add, delete, or change a record, go to a numbered record, or 
lind a record by specified field (Of partial field). Field lengths 
may vary to allov* maximum inlormaUon packing Both sub- 
totals and sorting may be nested up to 5 fields deep. Any field 
may be specified as a key. Sequential file input and output, as 
wel 1 as f ileoutput in WordPro and PaperMate format is suppor- 
ted Record size, fields per record and order of fields may be 
changed easily. 
MAILING LABELS 

Typical mail records may be packed 3000 per disk on 8050 
(1400 in 4040). Labels may tie printed any number wide, and 
may begin in any column position. There is no limit on the num- 
ber or order of fields on a label, and complete rxord selection 
via type code or field condition is supported. 
REPORT WRITER 

Flexible printing format, including field placement, decimal 
justification and rounding. Define any column as a series of 
math or trig functions performed on other columns, and pass 
results such as running total from row to row. Totals, nested 
subtotals, and averages supported Complete record selection, 
including field within range, pattern match, and logical func- 
tions can be specified 

FLEX-FILE 2 by Michael Riley $1 1 

CB'i^64._P_ET/CB_M/y[C— 32.KOis^ 

SCREEN MAKER (cgrs microtech) $149 

BO CDlumn Adapter for CommodDre 64 

Expand your computer lor business applications. Provides 80 
column X 24 line display m a 2K video RAM. Linking 
software provided. 

Copy-Writer Word Processor $69 

Full-featuTed professional word processor with over 800 lines 
of text per menxjry toad on C64. Has features not available in 
many word processors such as double column printing, built in 
graphic capability, shorthand notations, and ability to support 
all printer codes 

SPECiALCbMBiNflflON PACKAGE SZOO 

Includes SCREEN MAKER AND Copy Writer for C64 

PROGRAM YOURMnEPROHS $75 

Branding iron EPROM Programmer lor PET/CBM software for 
all ROM versions Includes all hardware and software to pro- 
gram or cop_y 271 6 and 2532 EPROMs. 

bisklclir 540 

Intensive Care Unit by LC, Carglle 

COMPLETE DISK RECOVERY SYSTEM FDR CBM DRIVES 

Edit disk bldcks with ease; duplicate disks, skipping over 
bad blocks, un-scralch scratched files; check and corject 
scrambled liles; recover improperly closed files 

Includes complete diagnostic facilities, extensive treat- 
ment of relative files, optional output to IEEE488 printer, and 
comprehensive user manual (an excellent tutorial on disk 
operation and theory). 

Furnished on copy-protected disk with manual. 
Backup disk available. SIO addiltonaf 

CBM Software 

SDBSORTIor PET/CBM 35 

-excellent general purpose machine language sort rouline. 

COMAL Package lor CBM 25 
-includes software on disk, and Comal Handbook 

BASIC INTERPRETER lor C8M 8096 $95 
PEDISK II Systems fmni i:grs Micmtech available. 
FILEX IBM 3741/2 Data Eichaiige Softivare availibic 
JINSAM Ml Bise Maftagement System for CBM. 

CASH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM lor CBM $45 

Petspeed BASIC Compiler 120 

Integer BASIC Compiler 120 

BPI Accounting Modules 280 

UCSD Pascal (without board] 135 

Wordcraft 80 or 8096 265 



FORTH for PET $50 

BY LC. Cargiie and IVIictiaei Riiey 
Features include 

- lull FIG FORTH model 

- all FORTH 79 STANDARD extensions, 

- structured 6502 Assembler with nested decision macros. 

- lull screen editing dust as in BASIC) 

- auto repeat key 

- sample programs. 

- standard size screens (16 lines by 64 charactersl. 

- tSO screens per disk on 4040. 480 screens on 8050. 

- ability to read and write BASIC sequential files. 

- introductory manual and reference manual 

Fa- Commodore 64, or any 16K/32K PET/CBM with R0M3or 
4. and CBM disk drive Please specify configuration when 
ordering 

Metacamiiiier tor FDRTH S30 

Simple metacompiler lor creating compacted object code 
which can be run independently (without FORTH system), 
nojtinj Point for FORTH KO 



PageMate 

60 COMMAND 

WORD 

PROCESSOR 

by MiCtiaei Riley 



ftB m^ 



Paper-Mate is a full-featured word processor for Com- 
modore computers. Page- Male incorporates 60 commands to 
give you lull screen editing with graphics for all 1 BK or 32K 
machines (including 8032). all printers, and disk or tape drives. 
Many additional features are available (including most capa- 
bilities of WordPro 3), 

Page-Mate functions with all Commodore machines with at 
least S6K. with any printer, and either cassette or disk 

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meaningless BIT tests — they set the status flags, 
but we never test them — and then print RETURN. 

But, what happens if we JSR to 2003? That's 
not an instruction — wait — yes, it is. It's A9 20, 
which is the same as LDA #$20. So we load the A 
register with a space character, do one meaning- 
less BIT instruction, and print it. And if we JSR to 
2006, we'll load A with $3F, the question mark, 
and print that. 

What's happening here? By inserting the 
byte 2C ahead of the two extra A9 or LDA com- 
mands, we have made them "invisible." We can 
slide right through them, without needing to jump 
over them. 

The BIT test, $2C, is ideal since it does not 
affect memory or any registers other than the 
status register, which we don't need. Some com- 
puters have a series of NOP commands of various 
instruction lengths, which are useful for "hiding" 
instructions wathin the address field. Sometimes 
these instructions have names other than NOP - 
for example, "Branch Never" or "Rotate Bits" 
— but you get the idea. 

The Invisible Return 

Our last example ended with a JSR and RTS. Think 
about this. We will call a subroutine; it will return 
to us; and then we will return to the routine that 
called us. The return addresses are kept on the 
stack, of course. Suppose we just JMP to the sub- 
routine. When the subroutine is ready to return, 
it will go directly to the routine that called our 
program. Thus, with rare exceptions, JSR and 
RTS are identical to JMP. We've saved a byte and 
a little time. 

Programmers working with limited memory 
find this kind of tightening up useful, and it often 
leads to further economies. For example, if there's 
a routine called DOG and one called CAT; and if 
DOG ends with JSR CAT: RTS; then the first step 
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mediately follow^s. Instead of jumping there, we'll 
just fall into it. Suddenly, two subroutines have 
become one — with two entry points. 

There's another interesting use for this tech- 
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to print a space, and now you want to write a 
subroutine to print two spaces. You might start 
with the sequence JSR SPC:JSR SPC:RTS — but a 
little boiling down will generate the sequence: 



SPC2 


JSR SPC 


SPC 


LDA #$20 




JMP PRINT 



It seems odd to see a subroutine that starts 
out by calling the following instruction as a sub- 
routine. But if you think of the way subroutines 
work, you'll see that it does a simple job: it ex- 

248 COMPUTE! December 1983 



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PROGRAMMING THE Tl 



C Regeno 



Computer Fun 



The best news for TI owners this Christmas season 
is that Texas Instruments lias reduced the price of 
its peripherals. One complaint about the TI-99/ 
4A has been that the cost of the basic computer 
was quite reasonable, but if you wanted to add 
disk drives or a printer, the cost was out of sight. 
But that's not a valid complaint anymore. The 
peripheral expansion box with one disk drive, the 
disk controller card, and the 32K memory expan- 
sion card now have a total list price of $550 — I 
have seen advertisements of prices near $450. 

The RS-232 interface card, needed to add a 
printer or a modem, lists for around SIOO. There- 
fore, since the computer itself sells for about $100, 
you can get a "complete system" for under $700. 
Although you can use other brands of printers 
and modems, the Tl printer has been reduced to 
$500, and the Tl modem to $100. All of this means 
that more TI owners will be getting the peripherals 
and discovering even more ways we can use our 
computers in our homes. 

Computer Choreography 

Since December is a festive time of year, the subject 
of this column is combining music with graphics 
to create a show I call "computer choreography." 
Two months ago 1 wrote about music on the TI-99/ 
4A. This column is a continuation of that topic, 
with an explanation of one way to add graphics to 
the music. Remember, there are many ways to 
program — there's no one "correct" way. Your 
program is "correct" if it works the way you want 
it to when you run it. If it runs properly, you are 
successful. 

Many programming books tell you to plan 
your program carefully by sketching a structure 
chart or writing different sections of coding. High 
school teachers often have students write out the 
program by hand before going to the computer. 
(Actually, often the real reason for this procedure 

252 COMPUn! December »83 



is that the school doesn't have enough computers 
for the whole class.) If you are using a terminal or 
a mainframe computer and need to pay for com- 
puter time, you do need to plan carefully for effi- 
ciency. A home computer allows you to experi- 
ment to your heart's content — and even try out 
your program after every few lines if you wish. 
Although I usually do sketch out my graphics on 
graph paper, most of my programming is done 
by composing right at the console. 

Choreography programs require a lot of ex- 
perimentation, so it is almost better to compose at 
the console rather than plan each statement in 
order. Let's get right to an example. I chose a 
Christmas song that I would like to "play" on the 
computer. I looked up the music in a songbook 
then started translating notes. Each CALL 
SOUND statement contains a duration, a melody 
note and volume, and two accompaniment notes 
with their volumes. The duration is expressed in 
terms of a variable T, which is defined at the be- 
ginning of the program. 

100 REM SILENT NIGHT 

110 T=400 

120 CALL SOUND <T* 1 . 5. 392, 4, 3-30. a. 13 



130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

130 
190 

2 00 

210 

220 



1 , 10) 

CALL 

10) 

CALL 

CALL 

9) 

CALL 

1 , 1 iiU 

CALL 

10) 

CALL 

CALL 

9) 

CALL 

8) 

CALL 

CALL 

9) 



SOUND <T/2, 440, 4, 349, 8, 131 , 

SOUND (T, 392, 4 , 330, 3,13 1,9) 
SOUND (3*T, 330, 4, 262, 6, 196, 



SOUND (T* 1 . 



392, 4, 330, 8, i: 



SOUND (T/2, 440, 4, 349, B, 131, 

SOUND (7 , Z-^-Z, 4, 330, 8, 13 1,9) 
SOUND (3*T, 330, 4, 262, 6, 196, 

SOUND (2«T, 58 7, 2, 349, 4, 247, 

S0UNDCT,587,3,349,5,247,9) 
S0UND(3*T,494,3,294,6, 196, 



Try different values for T in line 110. For 
example, try T = 600. Then try T = 100. By pro- 
gramming the duration in terms of T, you only 
need to change line 110, not each of the CALL 
SOUND statements, to increase or decrease the 
speed of the song. Keep experimenting until you 
find the tempo you like. 

You may write the three notes (frequencies) 
in the CALL SOUND statement in any order you 
wish. I usually write the melody note first so I can 
keep track of the tune. Also, if I later run out of 
memory I can more easily delete some of the 
accompaniment notes because 1 know the melody 
note is the first frequency. 

Each frequency has a corresponding volume. 
I write the melody notes with a louder volume 
than the accompaniment notes in order to bring 
out the melody. Also, many times bass notes 
sound louder to us naturally, so we need to lower 
their volume. 

By the way, our chart's lowest available note 
is low A on the bass clef (frequency 110), and you 
cannot use a fr-equency number less than 110. 
However, it is possible to get tones lower than 
low A. Comparing the tones to an electronic 
keyboard, Jerry Glaze of Las Vegas, Nevada, has 
come up with various numbers to get lower tones. 
He suggests you try this command to hear low G: 

CALL SOUND(2000, 1475, 30, 1475,30, 147 
5,30,-4,1) 

He specifies three music frequencies of 1475 with 
a volume of 30, plus the noise parameter of - 4 
with a volume of 1. Now change each of the 1475 
numbers to 1293 and you'll hear low F (one line 
below the bass clef). Continuing downward, Jerry 
suggests the following numbers: 1227 - E; 1105 - 
D; 990 - C. (You may wish to adjust the numbers 
slightly.) 

Adding Graphics To Music 

Now let's add graphics. The actual picture I plan 
on paper first. I sketch out the main picture 
on graph paper 24 squares by 32 squares to corre- 
spond to the 24 rows by 32 columns on the screen. 
Any pictures that do not fit into the full squares 
are redrawn on 8 by 8 squares for the high resolu- 
tion graphics. Then add line 105 CALL CLEAR 
to clear the screen before running the program. 
Now we're ready to begin by inserting graphics 
commands among the present sound commands. 
First, you need to define graphics characters 
for later pictures using CALL CHAR STATE- 
MENTS. This is where you really need to experi- 
ment. Try adding the following lines: 

122 CALL CHAR ( 12S, "010 1 010303FF7F IF 
.. ) 

124 CALL CHAR ( 129, "0F0FlF3E3a604" ) 

Be sure those are zeros and not the letter O in the 
quotes of the character definitions. Now try 



running the program. It should sound the same 
as when you ran it without any graphics state- 
ments since the TI can play music while it is ex- 
ecuting other commands. Depending on how 
long a note is held, you can define characters be- 
tween sounds. In this case we were able to define 
two characters between the first note and the sec- 
ond. You may be able to define more characters, 
but if you put too many definitions between the 
sounds, there will be a gap between the notes — 
so you need to use fewer definitions or commands, 
I stayed with just the two definitions between 
the first two notes. I decided to put the next defi- 
nition after the third note. Add: 



145 



CALL 
'■ ) 



CHAR ( 130, ■'00a0a0C0C0FFFEFC 



Line 150 is the sound corresponding to the 
word "night" in the song "Silent Night," so right 
after the music is played, I change the screen color 
to black with 



152 CALL SCREENC2) 



This chord has a rather long duration, so let's 
define two more characters. Add: 



154 CALL CHAR(131 
156 CALL CHARC132 



F3F0F8FB3C0Ce'6" ) 
0002040310204" ) 



Next I started drawing a star. In this case the 
screen is black and characters are naturally black 
with a transparent background, so any characters 
placed on the screen won't be seen until the color 
is changed. 1 didn't want the star to actually appear 
until after "holy night." To make the star, add the 
following statements: 

162 CALL HCHAR (3, 25, 123) 

164 CALL HCHAR (4, 25, 129) 

166 CALL HCHAR (3,26, 130) 

168 CALL HCHAR C4, 26, 131) 

and after "night" in line 190, 

192 CALL COLOR ( 13, 16, 1 ) 

You can use this technique of drawing invisi- 
bly by first defining the colors of the character 
with a CALL COLOR statement to match what- 
ever colors are already on the screen; then placing 
the characters on the screen with CALL HCHAR 
and CALL VCHAR; then making the characters 
visible with another CALL COLOR statement 
defining the visible colors. 

After you add a few more character definitions 
and some HCHAR commands to draw on the 
screen, then RESequence the program segment, 
this is how it will look. 

Program 1: "Siient Night" 

100 REM SILENT NIBHT 
110 CALL CLEAR 
120 T=400 

130 CALL SOUND (T«l . 5, 392, 4, 330, 3, 13 
1,10) 

December 1983 COMPtfre! 253 



140 

150 
160 

170 
180 

17 

200 
210 
220 

2 30 

240 
250 
260 

270 
280 

290 
300 
310 

320 

3 30 
340 

35 
360 
370 
380 
390 

4 00 
4 10 
420 
4 30 
4 40 



CALL 

■' ) 

CALL 

CALL 

10) 

CALL 

CALL 

■' ) 

CALL 

9) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

1 , 10) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

10) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

9) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

S) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

9) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

GOTO 



CHAR < 12B, ■'0101010303FF7F1F 

CHAR ( 129, ■■0F0FlF3E3a604" ) 

SOUND(T/2,440,4,349,S, 131, 

SOUND (T, 392, 4, 330, 8, 131,9) 
CHAR ( 130, "008080C0C0FFFEFC 

SOUND (3*T. 3 30. 4, 2 6 2, 6, 196. 



SCREEN <2) 
CHAR ( 131 , 
CHAR (132, 
SOUND (T* 1 



FaF0F3Fa3C0C06" ) 
0002040810204" ) 
5, 392. 4, 330, 8,13 



HCHAR <3, 25, 128) 
HCHAR (4, 25, 129 J 
HCHAR (3,26!, 130) 
HCHAR (4, 26, 13 1 > 
SOUND(T/2,44 0,4, 



:49, 8,131 



SOUND (T, 392, 4, 330, 8. 131,9) 
CHAR < 133, "00 02 0204 04 08 08" ) 
SaUND(3*T,33 0,4,2 62,6, 196, 

COLOR (13,16,1) 

CHAR ( 134, "0020204040808" ) 

SOUND(2*T,537,2,349,4,247, 

HCHAR ( 4, 24 , 132) 

HCHAR (5, 23, 132) 

HCHAR (6, 22, 132) 

SOUND (T, 537, 3, 34 9, 5, 24 7, 9) 

SOUND (3 *T, 49 4, 3, 294, 6, 196, 

HCHAR (5, 25, 133) 
HCHAR (6, 25, 134) 
HCHAR (7, 24, 133) 
HCHAR ( 8, 24, 134) 
4 40 



The last line, 440 GOTO 440, keeps the picture 
on the screen until you press CLEAR (SHIFT C on 
the TI-99/4 or FCTN 4 on the TI-99/4A), I'm going 
to leave the rest of the song up to you. Since I'm 
not an artist, I often look at children's picture 
books or coloring books for picture ideas. For 
Christmas scenes, you can also try tracing Christ- 
mas stencils on graph paper then coloring the 
squares to plan your shapes. Computer choreog- 
raphy can be a lot of fun, and I know many people 
who have gotten interested in programming by 
first designing pictures with music. 

A New Year's Present 

I promised you a Christmas present, but I've de- 
cided to make it a New Year's present instead. I 
got my first computer for Christmas in 1980, and 
one of the first programs I wrote was the music 
for "Auld Lang Syne" with the screen showing 
1980 turning into 1981. Each year I change the year 
and I change the graphics or music slightly. In 1981 
I had TI Extended BASIC and made the number 1 
out of sprites that moved off the screen to make 
room for 1982. This year I'm using the natural 
scrolling of PRINT statements to move 1983 off 

25J COMPUni December 1983 



the screen while bringing in the new year. 

I'm also including a Tl Extended BASIC ver- 
sion (Program 3). To RUN it, you will need the TI 
Extended BASIC command module. It includes 
fireworks and champagne bubbles while the music 
is playing. In the character definitions, up to four 
characters may be defined in one command. 
Trailing REMark statements are allowed with the 
exclamation point, so the words (or syllables) to 
the music are written along with the CALL SOUND 
statements. 

If you want to use these programs right at 
midnight, type RUN then press ENTER at 31 sec- 
onds before midnight for the regular TI BASIC 
program, or 25 seconds before midnight for the Tl 
Extended BASIC program. The year 1984 will be 
in place exactly for the new year. 

Have a happy holiday season! 

Program 2: "Auld Lang Syne" CTI BASIC) 



1 

1 10 

120 
130 

140 

1 5 

160 
170 
180 

190 

2 00 

210 
2 20 

23 
240 
250 
260 

270 

230 

290 

300 

310 
320 
330 
340 

350 
360 
370 
380 
390 

400 

410 
420 



REM AULD LANE SYNE 

CALL CLEAR 

CALL SCREEN(4) 

CALL CHAR(96. " 000 1 1 030307070F " 

) 

CALL CHAR (97, " 0F 1 F 1 F3F3F7F7FFF " 
) 

CALL CHAR(98, " FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF '■ 
) 

T = 600 

CALL SOUND <T* 1 . 1 , 262, 5> 

CALL CHAR (104, '■00030F1F3F3F7F7F 
" ) 

CALL CHAR ( 105, " 7F7F3F 3F 1 F 0F03 " ) 

CALL CHAR (106, "00C0F0FaFCFCFEFE 
" ) 

CALL CHAR (107, "FEFEFCFCF3F0C0") 

CALL SOUND <T* 1 . 5, 349, 5, 262, 12, 1 
75, 15) 

CALL VCHAR (8, 5, 98, 9) 

CALL VCHAR (8, 4, 96) 

CALL VCHAR (9, 4, 97) 

CALL E0UND(T/2,3 49,5,262, 12, 196 
,15) 

CALL SOUND (T, 349, 4, 262, 12, 220, 1 
5) 

CALL CHAR ( 108, " 7F3F 1 F070F 1 F3F7F 
" ) 

CALL CHAR< 10 9, "FEFCFaC0F0F8FCFE 
" ) 

CALL SOUND (T, 440, 5, 349, 12, 175, 1 



CAL 

CAL 

CAL 

CAL 

31 , 

CAL 

CAL 

CAL 

CAL 

CAL 

, 1 

CAL 

5) 

CAL 

CAL 



L H 

L H 

L V 

L S 
15) 

L H 

L H 

L V 



CHAR (8,10,9 8,3) 

CHAR (8,9, 104) 

CHAR (9, 9, 98, 3) 
OUND (1*1.5, 392, 

CHAR (12,9, 105) 
CHAR ( 12, 10, 98, 3 
CHAR (3, 13, 106) 
CHAR (9, 13, 93, 7) 
OUND (T/2. 349, 5. 



330, 12, 1 



!94. i: 



131 



SOUND(T, 39: 



, 5, 330, 12, 131, 1 



HCHAR (16, 13, 107) 
HCHAR ( 16, 10, 98, 3) 



430 
440 
450 

460 
470 
490 
490 
500 

510 
520 
530 
540 
550 

560 
570 

580 
590 
600 
610 

620 
630 
640 
650 

660 
670 
6S0 
690 
700 

710 
720 
730 

740 

750 
760 

770 
780 

790 

800 



810 
820 

830 
840 

850 
B60 
870 
880 

890 



CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

5) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

75, 15 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

, 15) 

CALL 

CALL 

5) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

3) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

10) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 



HCHAR 
HCHAR 
SOUND 

HCHAR 

HCHAR 

HCHAR 

VCHAR 

SOUND 

) 

VCHAR 

HCHAR 

HCHAR 

HCHAR 

SOUND 

VCHAR 

SOUND 

VCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
SOUND 

VCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
BOUND 

HCHAR 
HCHAR 
VCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 



( 15, 9, 9B) 

(16,9, 105) 

CT, 440, 5, 330, 12, 131, 1 



£8, 17, 104) 
(B, 18, 98, 3) 
{S, 2 1 , 106 > 
(9, 21 , 98, 3) 
(T«1.5,349,6,220, 12,1 

(9, 17, 98, 3) 
< 12, 17, 108) 
(12, 18, 98, 3) 
(12,21, 109) 
(T/2,349,6,220, 12, 175 

( 13, 17, 98, 3) 

(T, 440, 4, 349, 12, 175, 1 

(16, 17, 105) 

< 16, IB, 98, 3) 

(16,21, 107) 

(T, 523, 3, 349, 10, 175, 1 



( 13. 21 , 98, 3) 
(9, 25, 98) 
(8 , 25, 104 ) 
(3*T, 587, 2, 349, 

(8, 26, 98, 3) 
(B, 29, 106) 
(9,29,98,3) 
( 12, 27, 93, 2) . 
(12,29, 109) 



8. 233 



VCHAR ( 13 
HCHAR ( 16 
HCHAR ( 16 



29, 

29, 
26, 



98, 3) 
107) 
98, 3) 



HCHAR ( 16, 25, 105) 
HCHAR ( IS , 25, 93) 
S0UNDCT,587,2,349, 



8,233, 10 



10,2 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
) 

CALL -SCREEN (B) 
PRINT " 'bC3 SPACESJhbbbj 
C3 SPACES>hbbb j CS SPACES J a 
CALL SOUND <T*1 . 5, 523, 3, 349 
20, 13) 

PRINT " abC3 SPACES3 b 
<:3 SPACESJb{:3 SPACESIb 
<:3 SPACESJbfS SPACESJb" 
CALL SOUND (T/2, 440, 4, 349, 1 
, 15) 

PRINT " b<.Z SPACES>b 
t3 SPACES>b'[3 SPACES>b 
<3 SPACESJb<3 SPACESJb" 
CALL SOUND (T, 440, 6, 349, 
5) 

PRINT ■■ bC3 SPACESJb 
<:3 SPACESJb^3 SPACESJb 
<:3 SPACES}b<:3 SPACESJb b " 
CALL SOUND (T, 349, 6, 220, 12, 175, 1 
5) 

PRINT '■ bt3 SPACESJibbbb 
C3 SPACESJlhbbm<:3 SPACESJb 
CALL SOUND (T*l . 5, 392, 6, 330, 
31 , 15) 

PRINT " b<7 SPACESJb 
<;3 SPACESJb^:3 SPACESJb 
<3 SPACESJbbtobb" 

CALL SOUND (T/2, 349, 6, 294, 12, 
,15) 



:, 175 



12, 175, 1 



b" 

12, 1 



;, 131 



900 

910 
920 

930 
940 
950 

960 
970 

980 
990 

1000 
1010 

10 20 
1030 

1040 
105 

1060 
1070 
10B0 
1090 

1100 

11 10 
1120 
1 130 

1 1 4 es 

1 150 
1 160 
1170 
1 180 
1 190 
1200 
1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 

1250 
1260 
1270 
12B0 

1290 
1300 

1310 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 

1360 
1370 
1380 
1390 
1400 



PRINT 
{3 SPA 
C6 SPA 
CALL S 
5) 

PRINT 
<:3 SPA 
f3 SPA 
CALL S 
5) 

PRINT 
iZ SPA 
CALL S 
47, 15) 
PRINT 
CALL S 
, 15) 
PRINT 
CALL S 
5) 
PRINT 
CALL 
16) 

PRINT 
CALL 
5, 17) 
PRINT 
CALL 
1 S) 



bC7 SPACESJb 
CESJb^3 SPACESJb 
CESJb" 
DUND(T,392,6,330, 1! 



,131,1 



bC3 SPACESJb 
C:7SJb<:3 SPACESJb 
CESJb{6 SPACESJb" 
DUND (T, 4 4 0, 6, 330, 12, i: 



■i, 1 



bC3 SPACESJibbbk 
CESJibbbk{:6 SPACESJb" 
OUND (T«l . 5, 34 9, 6, 294, 12, 1 



OUND (T/2, 294. 7, 220, 12, 147 



OUND (T, 294, 7, 233, 12, 117, 1 



S0UND(T,262,a,233, 14, 131, 



SOUND(3*T,349,8,220,15, 17 



CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

175, 1 

FOR I 

CALL 

NEXT 

CALL 

CALL 

15) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

131,1 

for' I 

CALL 

NEXT 

CALL 

1,17) 

CALL 

CALL 

17) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

16) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 



SOUND (T, 587, 5, 349, 12, 175, 

COLOR (9,5,1) 

COLOR (10,5,1) 

COLOR (2,7, i ) 

SOUND (T«l . 5, 523, 5, 34 9, 12, 

5) 

=5 TO 25 STEP 5 

HCHAR (6, 1 , 42) 

I 

SOUND (T/2, 440, 6, 262, 15) 

SOUND (T, 440, 6, 349, 12, 175, 



HCHAR (4 

HCHAR (4 

HCHAR <2 

HCHAR (2 

SOUND ( T 

HCHAR (4 

HCHAR (2 

HCHAR (4 

HCHAR (2 

SOUND (T*l . 5, 

6) 

=5 TO 25 STEP 5 

HCHAR( 18, I ,42) 

I 

SOUND CT/2, 349, 6, 



13,42) 

17, 42) 

1 1 , 42) 

19, 42) 

3 49, 6, 110, IB ) 

8,42) 

6, 42) 

22, 42) 

24, 42) 

92, 6, 330, 14, 



?94, 12, 13 



SCREEN (8) 

SOUND (T, 392, 7, 330, 15, 131, 

HCHAR (20, 13, 42) 
HCHAR <20, 17, 42) 
HCHAR'(22, 1 1 , 42) 
HCHAR (22, 19, 42) 
SOUND (T, 587,6, 330, 14, 131, 

HCHAR (20, 8, 42) 
HCHAR (22, 6, 42) 
HCHAR (20, 22, 42) 
HCHAR (22, 24, 42) 
S0UND(T*1.5,262,6,349, 14, 

December W83 COMPlfH! 255 



1410 

1420 
1430 
1440 
1 450 
1460 
1470 
1480 

1490 
1500 
1510 
1520 
1530 
154 

1550 
1560 

1570 
1580 

1590 
1 600 
1610 

1620 

1630 
1640 

1650 
1660 

1670 
1680 
1690 
1700 

1710 
1720 

1730 
1740 

1750 
1760 

1770 
1780 

1790 
1800 
1810 
1820 

1830 
1840 

1850 
1860 
1870 

1880 
1890 

1900 
1910 
1920 



131 , 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

16) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

3,14 

CALL 

CALL 

15) 

CALL 

CALL 

220, 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

5,15 

CALL 

15) 

CALL 

CALL 

15) 

CALL 

CALL 

131 , 



16) 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
COLOR 
COLOR 
SOUND 
SOUND 

HCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
HCHAR 
SOUND 
SOUND 
) 
COLOR 
SOUND 

COLOR 
SOUND 
14) 
COLOR 
COLOR 
SOUND 



(4,3, 42) 

(2, 1 , 42) 

(4, 27, 42) 

C 2, 29, 42) 

(9,7,1) 

(10,7,1) 

(T/2, 440, 7, 131 , 16) 

(T, 440, 6, 349, 14, 175, 

(20, 3, 42) 

(22, 1 , 42) 

(20, 27, 42) 

(22, 29, 42) 

(T, 523, 5, 220, 15) 

(3*7,587,3,349, 12, 23 

(2,16,1) 

(T, 693, 2, 349, 13, 233, 

(2,12,1) 

(T* 1 , 5, 523, 3, 349, 12, 

(9,11,1) 

(10,11,1) 

(T/2, 4 40, 4, 349, 13,17 



SOUND (T, 440, 4, 349, 13, 175, 



COLOR 
SOUND 

COLOR 
SOUND 
15) 



(2,5, 1 ) 

(T, 349, 5,262, 13, 1 10, 

(2, 16, 1 ) 

(7*1 . 5, 392, 5, 330, 13, 



CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

1,15) 

CALL 

CALL 

15) 

CALL 

CALL 

9, 15) 

CALL 

CALL 

9, 15) 

CALL 

CALL 



COLOR ( 
COLOR ( 
COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 



COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

147, 16) 

CALL COLOR ( 

CALL COLOR ( 

CALL COLOR ( 

CALL SOUND ( 

5, 16) 

CALL 

CALL 

17) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

17) 

CALL 

CALL 

5,17) 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 



COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

COLOR ( 
SCREEN 
SOUND ( 

COLOR ( 
SOUND ( 

SCREEN 
COLOR ( 
COLOR ( 



9, 14,1) 

10, 14, 1) 

2,7,1) 

T/2, 349,5,294, 13, 13 

2, 16, 1 ) 

T, 392, 5, 330, 12, 131, 

2, 12, 1) 

T/2, 4 40, 5, 330, 13,13 

2,16,1) 

T/2, 3 92, 5,330, 13,13 

2,3, 1) 

T«l .5,349,5,294, 14, 

9,16,1) 

10, 16, 1) 

2, 16, 1) 

T/2, 294, 6, 220, 14,17 

2,6,1) 

T, 294, 7, 233, 15, 1 17, 

2, 14, 1) 

(11) 

T, 262,7, 165, 15, 131 , 

2, 12, 1 ) 

4«T, 349, 6, 220, 15, 17 

(S) 

9,7,1) 
10,7, 1 ) 



1930 
1940 
1950 
1960 
1970 
1980 
1990 
2000 
2010 
2020 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
GOTO 
END 



COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 

COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 
COLOR (2, 
1930 



16, 
14, 
16, 
11, 

16, 
7, 1 
16, 
6, 1 



Program 3: 

"Auld Lang Syne" (Tr Extended BASIC] 



90 REM TI EXTENDED BASIC 

100 REM AULD LANG SYNE 

CALL CLEAR :: CALL SCREEN (4 
CALL CHAR (96, "0001010303070 
FiFlF3F3F7F7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF" ) 
T = 600 

CALL SOUND <T* 1 . 1 , 262, 5) ' 5H0 
CALL CHAR ( 104, "00030F1F3F3F 
7F7F3F3F1F0F03 0000C0F0FSFCF 
EFEFEFCFCFBF0C000" ) 



1 10 

120 



130 
140 

150 



) 

70F0 

FFFF 



ULD 

7F7F 

CFEF 



160 

170 
180 
190 
200 

210 



230 

240 
250 
260 

270 

280 
290 
300 
310 
320 

330 

340 

350 
360 
370 
3B0 
390 

400 
410 
420 
430 
440 

450 
460 
470 
480 
490 



CALL SOUND (T* 1 . 5, 349. 5, 262, 

75, 15) ! AULD 

CALL VCHAR (8, 5, 98, 9) 

CALL VCHAR CS, 4, 96) 

CALL VCHAR (9, 4, 97) 

CALL SOUND (T/2, 349, 5, 262, 12 

, 15) ! AC- 
CALL SOUND (T, 349, 4, 262, 12, 2 

5) 1 GUAINT- 

CALL CHAR ( 108, "7F3F1F070F1F 

FEFCFaC0F0FBFCFE" ) 

CALL SOUND (T, 440, 5, 349, 12, 1 

5) ! ANCE 

CALL HCHARCa, 

CALL HCHARCa, 

CALL VCHAR(9 

CALL SOUND(T«l. 

31,15) ! BE 

CALL HCHAR C 12, 9, 105) 
HCHAR (12, 10, 98. 
VCHAR (S, 13, 106) 
VCHAR (9, 13, 98, 7) 
S0UND(T/2,34 9,5,29 4,12 
FOR- 
CHAR (94, " 10387CD69 2103 



10,98, 3) 
9, 104) 
9, 98, 3) 

392, 5, 



, 196 
20, 1 
3F7F 
75, 1 



0, 12, 1 



:) 



392, 5, 330, 12,1 



CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

CALL 

,15) 

CALL 

) 

CALL SOUND(T 

5) ! GOT 

CALL HCHAR ( 16, 13, 107) 

CALL HCHAR ( 16, 10,98,3) 

CALL HCHAR ( 15, 9, 98) 

CALL HCHAR(16, 9, 105) 

CALL SOUND CT, 440. 5, 330 

5) ! AND 

CALL HCHAR (8, 17, 104) 

HCHAR (8, 18, 98, 3) 

HCHAR (8, 



,131 
844" 
31 , 1 



131,1 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 



1 , 106) 

VCHAR (9, 21, 98, 3) 

SOUND(T«1.5,349,6,220, 12, 1 
75, 15) !NEV- 
CALL VCHAR (9, 17, 98, 3) 
CALL HCHAR < 12, 1 7, 108) 
CALL HCHAR < 12, 18, 98, 3) 
CALL HCHAR < 12, 21 , 109) 
CALL SOUND (T/2, 349, 6, 220, 12, 175 
, 15) I ER 



256 COMPUTE! December 1983 



500 
510 

520 
530 
540 
550 

560 
570 
5B0 
590 

600 
610 
620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 

710 
720 

730 

740 



750 
760 
770 

780 

790 

800 
810 
S20 
830 

840 
850 

860 
870 

880 

890 
900 



CALL VCHAR C 13, 17, 98, 3) 
CALL SOUND <T, 440, 4, 349, 12, 175, 1 
5) ! BROUBHT 

CALL VCHAR(16, 17, 105) 
CALL HCHAR ( 16, IB, 98, 3) 
CALL HCHAR(16, 21 , 107) 
CALL SOUND<T, 523, 3,349, 10, 175, 1 
3) ! TD 

CALL VCHAR< 13,21 , 98,3) 
CALL HCHAR C9, 25, 98) 
CALL HCHAR C8, 25, 104) 
CALL S0UND<3»T,587,2,349,B,233, 
10) !MIND 
CALL HCHAR(a,26,9a, 3) 

HCHAR<B, 29, 106) 

VCHAR<9, 29, 98, 3) 

HCHAR«12, 27,98, 2) 

HCHAR (12, 29, 109) 

VCHARC 13, 29, 98, 3) 
9, 107) 
6,98, 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 

CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 



:) 



349, B, 233, 10 



HCHAR ( 16, 

HCHAR (16, 

HCHAR ( 16, 25, 105) 

HCHAR ( 15, 25, 98) 

SOUND <T, 587, 
> ! SHOULD 
CALL SCREEN(8) 
PRINT " 'b<C3 SPACES>hbbbj 
<:3 SPACES>hbbb j <:3 SPACES>a" 
CALL SOUND CT«1 . 5, 523, 3, 349, 10, 2 
20, 13) ! AULD 
PRINT " abt3 SPACES>b 
<:3 SPACES>b<3 SPACESD-b 
•C3 SPACES>b-!:3 SPACESJb" 
CALL CHAR (33, " 1010545454545444" 
) 

CALL SOUND (T/2, 440, 4, 349, 12, 175 
, 15) ! AC- 
PRINT " bC3 SPACES>b 
iZ SPACES>b<;3 SPACESJb 
{3 SPACESJb <:3 SPACESJb" 
CALL SOUND (T, 440, 6, 349, 12, 175, 1 
5) I QUAINT- 
PRINT " b<:3 SPACESJb 
<:3 SPACESJbC3 SPACESJb 
CS SPACESJbCS SPACESJb b " 
CALL SOUND (T, 349, 6, 220, 12, 175, 1 
5) ! ANCE 

PRINT " b<:3 SPACESJibbbb 
t3 SPAceSJl bbbm<:3 SPACESJb b" 
CALL SOUND (T«l . 5, 392, 6, 330, 12, 1 
31 , 15) ' BE 

PRINT " b<;7 SPACESJb 
{3 SPACESJb<:3 SPACESJb 
<3 SPACESJbbbbb" 

CALL SOUND (T/2, 349, 6, 294, 12, 131 
, 15) ! FOR- 

PRINT " bt7 SPACESJb 
13 SPACESJb-[3 SPACESJb 
<6 SPACESJb" 

CALL SOUND (T, 392, 6, 330, 12, 131 , 1 
5) ! GOT 

PRINT " hiZ SPACESJb 
C3 SPACESJb<3 SPACESJb 
<3 SPACESJbC6 SPACESJb" 
CALL SOUND (T, 440, 6, 330, 1 
5) ! AND 

PRINT " bvS SPACESJibbbk 
iZ SPACESJibbbk 16 SPACESJb" 
CALL SOUND (T« 1 . 5, 349, 6, 294, 12, 1 
47, 15) !DAYS 



910 P 
920 C 

J 

930 P 
940 C 

5 
950 P 
960 C 

6 
970 P 
980 C 

f 

990 P 
1000 

1010 

1020 

1030 
1040 

1050 

1060 

1070 
1080 

1090 

I 100 

II 10 

1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 
1 160 

1 170 
1 180 
1190 
1200 

1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 

1270 
1280 
1290 
13 00 

13 10 

13 20 

1330 
1340 



RINT 

ALL BDUND(T 
15) ! OF 
RINT 

ALL SDUNDCT 
) ! AULD 
RINT 

ALL SaUND(T 
) .' LANG 
RINT 

ALL SOUND (3 
17) ! SYNE 

RINT : : : 

CALL SOUND( 
15) ! FOR 

CALL COLOR ( 
(10,5,1) 

CALL SOUND C 
175, 15) ! AUL 

CALL MAGNIF 

CALL CHARd 
) 



/2, 294, 7, 220, 12, 147 

, 294, 7, 233, 12,117,1 

,262, 8, 233, 14, 131, 1 

*T, 349, 8, 220, 15, 175 

T, 5B7, 5, 349, 12, 175, 

9,5,1):: CALL COLOR 

T»l . 5,523, 5, 349, 12, 

D 

Yd) 

20, "92442B922B4 



(#1 ,94, 13, 192, 1 

(**2a, 33, 16, 198, 

:T/2, 440,6,262, 1 
:T, 440, 6, 349, 12, 



492" 
15,- 
115, 



CALL SPRITE 

9,0) 

CALL SPRITE 

-9,0) 

CALL SOUND (T/2, 440, 6, 262, 15) 

CALL SOUND(T,440, 6,349, 12, 17; 

15) ! LANG 

CALL CHAR( 124, "003C424242423C 

) 



131,1 1350 



1360 
13 70 

1380 



CALL SOUND ( 
CALL SOUND ( 
131, 16) !SYN 
CALL DELSPR 
FOR 1=1 TO 
CALL SPRITE 
NEXT I 
CALL SOUND ( 
1,17) !MY 
CALL SCREEN 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL SOUND ( 
17) ! DEAR 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL SOUND ( 
16)1 FOR 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL MOTION 
CALL SOUND ( 
131,16) ! AUL 
CALL COLDR( 
(10,7,1) 
FOR 1=1 TO 
,0,0):: NEX 
CALL SOUND ( 
CALL SOUND ( 
16) ! LANG 
FOR 1=6 TO 
1,0,0)-.: NE 
CALL SOUND( 
CALL SOUND ( 
3,14) ! SYNE 
C=16 



T,349, 6, 110, IB) 

T«l .5,392,6,330, 14, 

E 

ITE (#1 ,#28) 

10 

(«I , 120, 7, 90, 1 15) 

T/2, 349, 6, 294, 12, 13 

(B) 

(#1,-10,-10) 

(#2, -10, 10) 

T, 392, 7, 330, 15, 131 , 

(#3,-10,5) 

(#4,-10,-5) 

(#5,-10,0) 

(#6, 10,-10) 

(#7,10,10) 

T, 587, 6, 330, 14, 131 , 

(#8, 10, -5) 

(#9, 10,5) 

(#10, 10,0) 

T«l . 5,262,6, 349, 14, 

D 

9, 7, 1 ) 1 : CALL COLOR 

5 : : CALL MOTION («I 
T I 

T/2, 440, 7, 131,16) 
T, 440, 6, 349, 14, 175, 

10 : : CALL MOTIQrM(» 
XT I 

T, 5 2 3, 5, 2 20, 15) 
3*T, 587, 3, 349, 12, 23 



December1983 COMPUTE! 257 



1390 CALL SPRITE (ttl 1 . 42, C, 90, 1 15, -1 

0,-16) 
1400 CALL SPRITE ( ttl2. 42, C, 90, 1 15, -1 

0, 13) 
1410 CALL SPRITE (#13, 42, C, 90, 1 15, -1 

1 , -8) 
1420 CALL BPRI TE (# 1 4, 42 , C. 9fct, 1 15. -1 

1,3) 
1430 CALL SPRITE (#15, 42, C. 90, 1 15. -1 

2,0) 
1440 CALL SPRITE (#16. 42, C, 90, 1 15, 9. 

-16) 
1450 CALL SPRITE (#17, 42, C, 90, 1 15, 9, 

IS) 
1460 CALL SPRITE (#ia. 42, C, 90. 1 IS, 13 

1470 CALL SPRITE (#19, 42, C, 90, 1 15, 13 

,9) 
1480 CALL SPRI TE (#20, 42, C, 90, 1 15. 15 

,0) 
1490 CALL SOUND ( T , 693, 2, 349, 13 , 233, 

15) ! WE^ LL 
1500 FOR 1=11 TO 20 :: CALL MDTIDN( 

#1,0,0):: NEXT I 
15 10 CALL SOUND (T* 1 . 5, 523, 3, 349, 12, 

220, 14) ! TAKE 
1520 CALL COLOR (9. 1 1 , 1 ) : : CALL COLD 

R ( 1 , 1 1 , 1 ) 
1530 CALL SOUND (T/2, 440, 4. 349, 13, 17 

5, 15) i A 
1540 CALL SOUND (T, 440, 4, 349, 13, 175, 

15) !CUP 
1550 CALL SPRITE (#21 , 124, 5. 192. 30, - 

12,0) 

1560 CALL SPRI TE (#22, 124, 5, 192, 240, 

-7,0) 
1570 CALL SPRITE (#23, 124, 5. 192, 64, - 

20, 0) 
1580 CALL SPRITE (#24, 124, 5, 192, 192, 

-24, 0) 
1590 CALL SOUND (T, 349 , 5, 262, 13 , 1 10, 

15)!0' 
1600 CALL SPRITE (#25, 124, 5, 192, 103, 

-14,0) 
1610 CALL SPRITE (#26, 124,5, 192, 164, 

-30, 0) 
1620 CALL SPRI TE (#27, 124 , 5, 192, 120, 

-23,0) 
1630 CALL SOUND (T* 1 . 5, 392, 5, 330, 13, 

131,15) ! KIND- 
1640 CALL COLOR (9, 14, 1 ) : : CALL COLO 

R(10, 14, 1 ) 
1650 CALL SOUND (T/2, 349, 5, 294, 13, 13 

1,15) : NESS 
1660 CALL SOUND (T, 392, 5, 330, 12, 131 , 

15) ! YET 
1670 CALL SOUND(T/2,440,5, 330, 13, 13 

9, 15) ! FOR 
1680 CALL SOUND(T/2,392,5.330, 13, 13 

9, 15) 
1690 CALL SOUND (T* 1 . 5, 349, 5, 294, 14. 

147, 16) f AULD 
1700 CALL COLOR (9, 16, 1 ) ; ; CALL COLO 

R ( 1 , 16, 1 ) 
1710 CALL SOUND (T/2, 294, 6, 220, 14, 17 

5, 16) 
1720 CALL S0UND<T,294, 7,233, 15, 1 17. 

17) : LAN6 
1730 CALL SCREEN(ll) 
1740 CALL SQUNDtT, 262, 7, 165, 15, 131 , 

258 COMPUTE! December 1983 



17) 
1750 CALL SOUND (4*T, 349, 6, 220, 15, 17 

5, 17) ; SYNE 
1760 CALL SCREEN(B) 
1770 CALL COLOR (9. 7, 1 ) : : CALL COLOR 

(10,7, 1 ) 
1780 FOR 1=1 TO 20 

, 16) : : NEXT I 
1790 FOR 1=1 TO 20 

, 14) : : NEXT I 
1800 FOR 1=1 TO 20 

, 12) : : NEXT I 
1810 FOR 1=1 TO 20 

, 7) : ; NEXT I 
1820 GOTO 1780 
1830 END 



CALL COLOR(ttI 

CALL COLOR(ttI 

CALL COLOR(#I 

CALL COLOR ( # I 




ALPHABLITZ! 

;;;;^ an exciting arcacie 
y)) word game. . .S9.95 

ANIMAX COMPUTER 

1111 Las Vegas Blvd. South 
Las Vegas, NV 89104 

OTHER ANIMAX GAMES; 
STARDROPPER... 

A CUTE GAME FOR CHILDREN 
OF ALL AGES.. .$7.95 

MAKE-A-GAME... 

LEARN THE FUNDAMENTALS OF 
CREATING A GAME. . .S9.95 (KITS) 




14 SESSIONS ON VIDEO TAPE 



I) What Is A Commodore 64? 

ZlCeltingSlarled 

3} Lets Run Programs 
4-AI Whal Makes Programs Work? 
4-BI Pulling Programs To Work 

3} Sloring infomtalion 

61 The Commodore 64 
As A Learning Tool 









''^''■'J^rjii^: 



7J Computers Talking to Cotnpulers 
8) Commodore 64 Language 
9/ Graphics 

10} Commodore 6J Working For Yaii 

Hi Commodore 64 Music 

I2f Computer Games And Simulations 

13! ^ow Witat? 









ART 

MUSEUM 



Floyd Beaston 



Both the Commodore VIC and 64 have graphics charac- 
ters right on the keys. This program lets i/ou tal<e ad- 
vantage of these graphics by albwing you lo SAVE and 
LOAD screen pictures made using character graphics. 



My eight-year-old son loves to "draw" artwork 
on the screen using combinations of the graphics 
symbols on the keys. Because the "artworks" 
vanished forever when we turned off the com- 
puter, mv son became more and more frustrated. 

These programs for the VIC and 64 were 
written to help with this problem by allowing 
you to SAVE and LOAD all characters, including 
graphics symbols, on the screen. 

To use the VIC version, first remove any ex- 
pansion board and then type in Program 1. Then 
enter this line: 

CLR:POKE46,PEEK(46) -t- 4 
and SAVE to disk or tape. 

Operating The VIC Version 

If you wish to draw a picture (to later SAVE), 
LOAD the program and change line 1 to: 

1 REM 

Next, clear your screen and begin drawing. When 
you are finished, change the cursor color to match 
the background color, then type RUN. (You won't 
be able to see the command RUN since it will be 
the same color as the background.) In a few sec- 
onds, change the cursor color back to a visible 
color and then SAVE the program to tape or disk. 
Your screen will also be saved. 

To retrieve your picture, LOAD the program 




"Art Museiun" can save any screen drawing to tape or disk. 
64 version. 

from tape or disk and change line 1 to: 

1 GOT020 

This will magically return your picture to the 
screen. 

Program 1: Art Museum CVIC Version) 

S=7680:C=38400:GOSUB63999 

1 GOTO20 

10 FORJ=0TO505:POKEML+J,PEEK(S+J) :POKEML+ 
506+J , PEEK ( C+ J ) : NEXT : END 

20 FORJ=0TO50 5 ; POKES+ J , PEEK { ML+ J ) : POKEC+ J 
, PEEK ( ML+506+J ) : NEXT : PRINT " { HOME } " ; 

21 G0T021 

63999 ML=PEEK(61)+PEEK(62)*256+31 iRETURN 

Program 2: Art Museum (64 Version) 

1 aOSUB4010; INPUT " {WHT} {CLR}L0AD FILE";W 
$ : IFW$="N"THENPRINT" ICLR} " : END 

December 1983 COMPUTE! 259 



64 Notes 



The 64 version of "Art Museum" (Program 
2) stores the contents of screen memory at 
16384 ($4000) and the contents of color mem- 
ory at 1750. To use this version, first type in 
and SAVE the program, then draw your pic- 
ture on the screen using the cursor control 
keys and character graphics. When your 
picture is complete, change the cursor color 
to the background color and then invisibly 
type GOTO 10 and press RETURN. Then 
press S (for SAVE). This saves your screen 
creation at 16384. After a wait of about 25 
seconds, change the cursor color to a visible 
color and clear the screen. 

If you wish to SAVE your screen to tape 
or disk, type GOSUB 4010:GOTO 1000 and 
press RETURN. You will then be prompted 
for filename and storage medium (tape or 
disk). After responding to these prompts, 
your screen will be saved to disk or tape. To 
LOAD a file, type RUN and the program will 
prompt for filename and storage medium. 
Once your file is loaded, type GOTOIO and 
hit any key except S. Your stored file will 
gradually appear on the screen. 



2 INPUT"DISK OR TAPE" ; E? : IFE$="D"THENE=8 : 
GOTO1900 

3 E=1:GOTO1900 
10 POKE55,255:POKE55,63 

FORT=0TO200 : NEXT 
GETA$ : IFA5= " "THEN30 

CO=5 5 296:SC=1024:DR=16 384:CR=DR+1024 
0N( (A$="S")+2)GOTO100, 200 
FORT=0TO999 : POKEDR+T, PEEK ( SC+T ) 
POKECR+T , ( PEEK { CO+T ) ANDl 5 ) 
NEXT : PRINT " { HOME ] " : END 
FORT=0TO999 : POKESC+T, PEEK( DR+T ) 
POKECO+T , PEEK ( CR+T ) 
NEXT: PRINT "{home}" : END 
REM SAVE SCREEN 
INPUT"SAVE 5CREEN Y OR N";S$ 
IF S$="N"THEN END 
POKE2 50, : POKE2 51 , 64 
POKE2 52,0;POKE253,96 
INPUT"FILE NAME FOR SCREEN" ;F$ 
F$="0: "+F$ 

INPUT" tWHTlOISK OR TAPE" f E? : IFE$="D" 
THENE=8;GOTQ1040 
E=l 

0PEN1,E, 1,F$:SYS49152:CL0SE1:END 
I NPUT " F ILENAME " ? L? : L| = " : " +L5 
OPENl , E, , L$ J SYS49162 : CLOSEl i END 
1=49152 

READ A: IF A=256 THEN RETURN 
POKE I,A!l=I+ltG0T0 4020 
DATA 166,252,164,253,169,250,32 
DATA 216,255,96,165,184,166,186 
DATA 160,255,32,186,255,169,0 
DATA 162,0,160,64,32,213,255 
DATA 96,256 © 



20 

30 

35 

40 

100 

110 

120 

200 

210 

220 

1000 

1010 

1020 
1021 
1022 
1030 
1035 
1036 



1037 

1040 

1900 

2000 

4010 

4020 

4030 

49152 

49160 

49168 

49176 

49184 



romputen 
r jetuiork 



BUSINESS APPLICATIONS FOR THE 
COMMODORE 64 AND VIC 20 

RELIABLEll NEWil 



PARALLEL INTERFACE —$49.95 • NewfromData20,aParallelinterfacefortheunbGlievablelowpriceofS49.95IIEasyto 
use, simply plug It In— no softwore to toad or switches to configure. Translates the Commodore character set to ASCII — 
appears to the s>^tem as a 1525 Printer. Make printing with your Commodofe 64 EASY. 

INVENTORY MANAGER SOFTWARE — $99.95 • Having trouble keeping track ofyour Inventory or hobby collections? If so, 
our "Inventory Manager" will solve your problems. The Inventory Manager Is designed to work with either the Commodore 64 
or the VIC 20 with 16k & 40/80 Column expander. It gives you complete control of 2500 separate item files with 99,999 Items 
per file. Generate feports by vendor or department, 1000 vendor possibilities, one-step posting process. 

THE BESTWORD-PROCESSORFORCOMMODORE 64 -ONLY $29.95 • The Data 20Wordmanagerhasfeaturesfound 
in word processors costing many times more. Features like on-screen editing (what you see is what you get), right justify, 
search & replace, block move and copy as well as many more. This package also includes integrated mailing list 
system —produces form letters fast. All files compatible with 80 Column version that comes free with Data 20 80-Column 
products. (See below) 

80-COLUMN SCREEN EXPANSION FOR COMMODORE 64 OR VIC 20 • install the Data 20Dlsplaymanager in your VIC 
20 and you will upgrade your system to 40 or 80 Columns, plus ASCII tefmlnal emulator, saeen print feature, and 
Wordmanager software for 80-Column wordprocesslng. 8K of expansion RAM optional. 

The Video Pak 80 and the Z-80 Video Pak are designed for the Commodore 64, giving you all the above listed features, also 
Including the FREE Wordmanager Software and Integrated Mall List Program. The Z-80 Video Pak Includes all the standard 
features, but adds a Z-BO microprocessor and a CP/M compatible operating system. 



The Computer Network 

P.O. Box 9W0 
Founfain Volley, CA <?2708 



Call Toll free 800-221-9948 
in Colltornla 714-855-1366 



II you want your 64 to do more than 

ploy gomM, Tti« Computer Network 

hai what you wantll 




Computerized Finance 
Can Be Quite A Headache! 

Now "COMP-U-CHECK" Spells Relief. 

By HOT DATA 

For COMMODORE 64* 
sug. retail $64.95 



Features; 

• Check writing 

• Unlimited number of checking accounts 

• Account balancing and reconciliation 

• Unlimited number of budget categories 

• Easy auto teller transactions 

• Unlimited credit account management 

• Tax reports in minutes, including 
checking and credit 

• Supports all printers and interfaces 

Plus: 

• Simple (letter format) word processing with 
automatic addressing (form letters, too) 



Single disk drive required 



• Suitable for both home and business 

Coming soon: 

• Automatic bill paying with our expansion 
chassis light and appliance controller 
Controls lights and appliances while 
running other programs. 

Watch for us 

We re HOT DATA 

Santa Monica, CA 

Ask your dealer, or 

Call us direct at (213) 393-6405 

VISA and MC 



■Commodore 64 is a registered trademark of Commodore Business Machines, Inc. 




i 



fe-* 



V 



MOOEMS 

HAVES 

Sman 

Smarl 1 ^00 1 1 200 Baud) 
Cntonogfaph 
Micromodem TOO 
Micfomodem li 
Uic'Dmoden^ll [wiihle'Ti] 
Smart Com U 
Smart 1 300P 

NOVATIOM 
J Cat 
CaT 
D Cai 

103 Sman Cat 
Apptp Car M 
1 03 217 Smafl Car 
21 7 Apple Car tl 
ApDipCalM ?l 7 Upgrade 
AfMCHQR 
Marh I [flS 2321 
Mark II (AUn] 
Mark l\\ iT I 991 
Marh EV ^CBM PETi 
Mark V (OiDOfnei 
Mar^ VI [iBU PCl 
MaiVVIMAuru Ani AulO DtAI] 
Mark VIII 

THS ao Color Compuli-' 
9 Voll pQwei SuppW 

ZEISJITH 
ZT1 T..rniin.H 



S7^ 00 

S79 00 
5 109 OO 
$125 00 

$95 OO 
$ I 79 00 
"si 19 OO 
$2&9 00 

S99 00 
%9 00 

SJ69 00 



iSil HEWLETT 
PACKARD 




Pr 1. 9' G S99.00 

Pi i. 12- G $119.00 

Pi 3. IS' A SI 49.00 

Pi 4, 9" A SI 39. 00 

14D0Calor S2?9.0O 

ZENITH 

ZVM I 22 A S1 09.00 

ZVM I23G S99.00 

BIVIC 

12 Green S85.00 

9191 AU 13 ■ Colo> .- S243.0O 

TAX AN 
12 N Ctecn S129 00 

1? A Ambc. S139 00 

PANASONIC 
tR 120 Hi res Green $14900 

CT 160 Dust Mode Color S279 00 



JB 1201 5149. 00 

ja 1205 SI 59.00 

JC 1215 S299.0O 

JC1216 5429. 00 

JC 1 203 , . . , S469 .00 

□ □ R 1 1. LA 
1 2 Green 339.00 



EPSOIM 
COMPUTERS 



m 



HP 7S S "7*19. DO 

HPdIC $146 00 

HP IOC i:>7 00 

HP 1 ic $t]y OO 

HP 12C $97 OO 

HP 15C $9? 00 

HP 16C $9? 00 

Foi MPdl J 1 CV 

HRIt Module $94 00 

HI IL Cati&eiie or Pimlei S;i&9 00 

C. rd fle^dei ii •u OO 

filpndtdFunci.onsMorttjli' %^4 OO 

Tirt\p Moduli' Sli4 00 




CALL 
CALl. 



Tl-aO 
COIVIPACT 



COIVIPUTEn 



SS09 



TIMEX 

SINCLAIR CALL 

1 ooa 

16K Memorv 529.95 

J040 Punier 199 95 

«ii Cfllt SI T 95 

Mir^dwsif Primer S99 00 



AST RESEARCH, INC. 

Six Pak Plus. -.(ram S279.00 

Combo Plus II. ..from.. .5279. 00 

Mega Plus.,,lrom S3O9.00 

I/O Plus 1 1... from SI 69.00 

C3UADRAM 

Quadiink SS49.00 

Ouddboard...3sloMias.. .5309.00 
Quad 51 2 Plus...as lovu as...S259.00 
Qu3dcolor...aslowas . ..3219.00 

Chronogfaph SS9.00 

Parallel Interface Board. ..S89.00 
64K RAM Chips Kit 579.00 

rviicno PRO 

Word Sl^i tjlail Merge 5319 00 

InloSrai SJ99 00 

Saell Slar S 1 59 00 

CallSlar S] 59 00 

MlCROaTLIP 
Crosstalk 5129.00 

MICROSOFT 

Mulliplan S1 79.00 

ABHTON-TATE 

D Base II 54 19 00 

lUS 

EasyWriler II S2 19.00 

EasySpeller 51 19.00 

EasyFiler 5239,00 
COWTiryEPJTAL SOFTWARE 

IslOlass Mail Form Letter S79.00 

Ttie Home Accountant Plus 599.00 

SYNAPSE 

File Manager S99.00 

LOTUS 

123 S329.0O 

PF5 

APDLE IBM 

File $79.00 SB9.00 

Report 579.00 S79.D0 

Graph 379.00 S89,00 

Wnie n.a 389.00 

KRAFT 
IBM Joystick 555 00 

IBM Paddles $39 00 

FSRIDFESSiawaL SOf^TWApe 

PC PlusWord Processing 3299,00 



=:^ 




PC-1500A S1BS.OO 
Racket Computer 

PC-T ssoA sas.oo 

l25Prinler HicroCassetle S12900 

150 Pnnter Plonei.Cassene 51 72.00 

152 Cassette RecorrSer 562 00 

155 SK RAM 594 00 

15a fiK RAM Batlerv 5129 00 

161 16K RAM S139 00 



MBC-555PC ...CALL 

MBC 1 100 51599.00 

MBC1150 52099-00 

Mac 1200 51999.00 

MBC 1250 . 52399 OO 

FDD 3200-32OK Drive . 5399 00 

FDn64O0 64K Drive $499 00 

PR 5600 Printer S699 00 

PRINTERS 

EPSON 

MXBO FT, MX I 00, RXBO, 

FXeO. FXlOO CALL 

OKIDATA 

02 33 B4. 92. 93 CALL 

STAR 

DcllatO SS59.0D 

Gomrni lOX 5299.00 

Gomini PIS S449.00 

Serial Board S75.00 

SMITH CORONA 

TP1 5469.00 

TP-2 CALL 

Tractor Feed 51 19. 00 

C.ITOH 

Gorilla .....5209.00 

Prowrilcr a510P 5379.00 

Prowrder t550P -. ...£669.00 

Slarwriter F10-40P 51149.00 

Prinlmasler FIO-SSP ,51569.00 

Traclor Feed 5199.00 

DAISY\A/RITER 

2000 Letter Quality S999.00 

2500 NEW CALL 

Tractor Feed S109OO 

OIABLO 

620 . . 5949 00 

630 SI 769 00 

lOS 

Can tor ALL Configurations on 

IDS PRISM PRINTERS. 

NEC 

8023 5399.00 

8025 S729 00 

3510 51449.00 

3530 51499,00 

3550 ,., 51799.00 

7710-7730 . ,51999 00 

BMC 

401 Letter Quality 5699.00 

fix -BO $259.00 

COMREX 

Comwriter II Parallel Printer . . ,3499.00 

CABLEB & CDIMrstECTIDAJS 

Atiln to P.irah^l S29.00 

Alan to Serial 529.00 

Apple to Parallel 569,00 

Apple to ParallelrGraphtcs. . .599.00 

Apple to Serial $69,00 

IBM to Parallel 535-00 

I BM to Serial $29.00 

Paiallel to Parallel 529-00 

Serial to Serial 529,00 

GrapplerPlus 512900 

PKASO 5139,00 

Alan to Modem Cable .529 00 

CBM 64 to <EEE Boatd 579 00 

Apple Bo-Column Card 5159 00 

CBM Pet to Parallel 599.00 

CBM Pet lo Serial 589.00 

PAPER SUPPLIES 

1or2 Address Label5(Tract,Feedl $9 95 
15 ReponPaperfTractFeed) 524.95 
S' > Bink Writ l^pertTract Feed) 519 95 



1-800-6'V8.35tt i-800-268*559 f-800-233-8950a 



In PA call (717)327-9575, Dept.1206 
477 E. Third St. Wllllamsport, PA 17701 
Order Status «: 327-9576 



In NV call |702)SB8-5654, Dept. 1206 In Toronto call (416)828-0866, Dept. 1206 In PA call (717)327-9575. Oept.1206 

■ P.O. Box 6689, Stateline, NV 89449 2S0S Dunwin C«.,Unit 1 B, 477 E. Third St. Wllllamsport, PA 17701 

9 Order Status *: 568-5654 MIsslssauga, Ontario, Canada LSLPTI ' Order Status «: 327-9576 

I OrderStatus*: 628-0866 

No risk, no deposit on C.O.D. orders. Pre-paid orders receive tree shipping iwithin the UPS Continental United States vvith no waiting period for certified 
checks or money orders. Add 3% {minitnum S5. 00) shipping and handling on all C.O.D- and credit card orders- Larger shipments may require additit^nal 
charges. NVandPAresidenlsaddsalestax. All Items sublect to availability and pricechange. We stock manufacturer's and third party sottware lor mostall 
computers on the market. Call today tor our net* catalog. 



COMPUTER MAIL ORD 



P^FRAMKUH 




CALL 

ACE 1000 Coto^ Compulef 
ACE 1 100 Dii»c * Cayerfor ACE 1000 
ACE ] 200 Computer wilh Disk Olive 
ACE PRO PACK 

ACE 1000. Disk Ddvc. 

BO Colamn Card. flCECatc S 

flCEWrile/ II 

MICRO-SCI 

Apple & Franklin 

A2 S2t9.00 

A40 S29 9.00 

A70 ...S319.00 



C2 Conlroiier 


S79 00 


C47 Conifoller 


se^.oo 


RANA 




Elite 1 lAppl^/Fi'anklin) 


S279 00 


Elite II (AppleTranklin} 


S319.00 


Elite 111 (AppleFranKIm) 


S569.00 


visiconP 




FOR APPLE, IBM & FRANKLIN 


Vi5it]e« 


.S1B9 00 


Visidio 


siag.oo 




.SI 59 00 


Vi^iteim 


...SS9.00 




.S229.O0 




S2;9.oo 






VisicalciAqple IBM.CeMi 


S1 79.00 


Visicaic 4 [IBM) 


S209 00 


Visi<;^lc Advanced lie 


S309,00 


Stretch Caic 


S 89.00 


yi^jcorp prices tor IBM may v 


arysligtllly 


LJK 




Leiier Peireci Apple 


SI 09 DO 


Data Periect Apple 


S75 00 


AXI-OIM 




Apple Franklin 1J8K Ram 


S299.00 


AppleFrarihlin Ram Disk 


S729 00 


rvioc 




Bu&d>»k(l2aKNo>'iVoli(aFei 


S6d9 00 


JOYSTICKS 


wica 










.. S23.9b 


Power Grip 


..S21.95 



f S commodore 



593 



Three-Way Deluxe S22.95 

Aiari.'VIC TrackBalt. -831.95 

Apple Trackball S59.95 

KRAFT 

Alan Single Firo,. - S13.00 

Alan Swilch Hitlei S1 6,00 

Apple Joystick S44 00 

Apple Paildles S39,00 



APPLE/PDANKLIN 

I ChophMei S27.O0 

: Bank Street Wirlei SSS 00 

3. PFS; File $89.00 

d. Vmtale St 79.00 

5. Home Accountant S55.O0 

6. Za"Dn S29.00 

7 Most Amazing Thing $28-00 

B- Visihle S1B9.00 

9. Fathoms 40 S19-00 

10 Dendlme S35.00 

II PFS: Report 188,00 

12 Zork III S29.00 

13.Fro99ei $24. OO 

Id Pacemaker S24.00 

15. Snooper Troops »^ S32.00 

16. Delia Drawing -.S35.00 

17 Caslle Wollensline S24.ao 

ia. Wayout 129.00 

19. Canyon Climber 519.00 

20 Bandits S2«.0O 



CBIV16 4 .. .SS1 9 
VIC SO S99 

CALL ON 
EHecutiuH G4 Portable 

1 520 Color Prinler/Plotler S169 00 
1 525 80 Column Primer S219 00 

1536 S319 00 

1530 Oalaseite S69 00 

1541 Single Qiik Olive S249 00 

1600 VIC Modem $59 00 

1650 AD AA Modem $89 00 
1702 14 Col£3r Monitor S?49Q0 

Pel 54 S569 00 

Pel 4032 S599O0 

ceMe032 S599 00 

Supi?r Pel ' S999 00 

8128-00 S769 00 

BI256 BO S969 00 

2031 $299 00 

4040 *599 00 

8050 $949 00 

6250 SI 199 00 

9060 $1999 00 

9090 $2199.00 

4023 $379 00 

5400 $1399 00 

54K Upgrade $269 00 

Spell Master S149 00 

Z Ham $549 00 

Silicon Olhce S749 00 

The Managei $209 00 

Soil Bom $129 00 

Jmi^am CALL 

CallRe5ull64 S I 39 00 

PROFESSIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

WoiO Pro 2 Plus 5159 00 

Word Pro 3 Plus $189 00 

Wore Pro 4 Plus $279 00 

Worrl Pro 5 Plus $279 00 

InloPro $179 00 

Administralq' $399 00 

Power S79 00 

Word Pro 64 Plus $55 00 

OAROCO 

for VIC aO/B4 

Light Pen $32 00 

Cassette Irlertace ... 329 00 

Parallel Printer Inlertace S69 00 

3SlotEipans lntenace|20| S32.00 
eSlot Ex pans In1erlaeel20) S79 QO 

C.M.O. 

CBM ea 

1- Wore Pro 64 $65.00 

2 Jumpman $29.00 

3. Gort (20/641 $14 95 

4. Uiciatpei:Oat>Base64 .-$69 00 
5-L09064 $39. 00 

6, Microspet: Gen. Ledgflr64 . . $79 OO 

7, Zork III $29.00 

8, Frogger |64| $23,00 

9.0uickBiownFoit20/e4) . $49,00 
to. Shamus $2900 

11. Deadline S29.00 

12. Assembler 64 $14.95 

13. Zork II $29.00 

14 3-D Man St 4.00 

15 Proleolor 532.00 

1 6. Starcross S29.00 

17. Easy Mail 64 $14.96 

13- Crave Robber $1 1,00 

19. Wall Street SI 9.00 

20 Trash Man $32,00 



ATARI HOME COIVlPUTERSi 



A 

ATARI 




ATARI eoaXL SI 43 

ATARI aOOXL SS6S 

ATARI 1 SOOXL CALL 



ATARI 400 
ATARI BOO 



CALL 
CALL 



1010 Prografn Recorper 


$74 00 


1O204OCOI Pnnter.'Plotter 


$249 00 


1025 80 Col Printer 


$449 00 


1027 LelterOualitv Printer 


$299 00 


1050 Disk Drive 


$379 00 


1 030 DirectCt>nn eel Mode 


m CAUL 


CX30 Paddles 


$12 00 


CX40 Joystick 


58 00 


CX42 Remote Joystick 


CALL 


CX77 Touch Tablet 


569 00 


CXBO Trak Ball 


$49 00 


CXBS Keypad 


$105 00 


CX4 1S Home Manager 


$69 00 


CX46S Communicator II 


52J9 00 


KX7098Atari Accountant 


$209 00 


KX71D1 Enlenamer 


$69 00 


KX7102 Arcade Champ 


575 00 


ALIEN 




Atari Voice Sox 


$119 00 


Apple Vuice Box 


5149 00 




IVlEMOnV BOARDS 

A. Ion 32K Ram S59 00 

Axlon 4eK Ram 599 00 

Axlon12BKRam S299 00 

Intec 32K Board $59 00 

Intec 48K Board. $85.00 

Intec 54K Board (400 only) 59900 
Iniec Real rime Clock 539 00 

OISK a CART HOLOERS 
Flip-n-File 10 $4 00 

flip-nFileSO S I 9 00 

Flip-n-File 400/800 Can SI 9 00 



ATea-St $329-00 

ATe8-A2 S269.00I 

AT88-S2 S569.O0I 

ATSa-SI PD S469-00l 

AXaB-DDA SI 45.00 I 

RFD40-S1 S449.00| 

RFD 40- At S279.00 I 

RFD40-S2 $729.00 I 

RF0 44-S1 $539,00 I 

HFD44.S2 $869.00 I 

rx 99-St S279-00 I 

RAMA 
1000 Atari Disk Drive.. $319 00 

PLOPPY OISKS 
MAXELL 

MO-l $29-00 

MD2 $44 00 

F 0-1 IB I $40 00 

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INSIGHT: Atari 



Bill Wilkinson 



This month I will discuss extended memory man- 
agement on the Atari computers. Before I start, 
though, I would like just to chat for a bit. (If you 
are waiting for the last part of the series on self- 
relocatable code, be patient. It's just bigger than I 
expected it to be, so I've got to massage it a bit 
more.) 

Some Small Talk About Computers 

Today I read an interview with Alan Kay in Tech- 
nology Illustrated. As many of you probably know, 
Alan Kay was perhaps the most instrumental 
person in the development of the Smalltalk lan- 
guage. (Or is it an operating system? Or is it more 
properly called simply an "environment"?) 

The work he did on Smalltalk while at Xerox 
caused him to believe that computers were des- 
tined to become a household tool, as common as, 
say, the television set. (Which may seem a mun- 
dane belief today, but Kay was saying such things 
five to ten years ago.) Well, Atari apparently liked 
Kay's philosophy, vision, and capabilities, and 
hired him awhile back. 

The article I read interested me in two ways. 
First, it labeled Kay "Atari's Chief of Games." 
Well, I had been led to believe that he had been 
brought to Atari to head research and develop- 
ment, presumably to lead Atari into the generation 
beyond Smalltalk (a logical presumption, since 
he'd stated that he felt Smalltalk had served its 
purpose, was obsolete, etc.). 

Anyway, with my orientation toward lan- 
guages and systems, I saw "Chief of Games" as a 
step downward. Yet the interview made it clear 
that Kay felt he was in perhaps one of the most . 
challenging positions possible. Hmmm. What has 
changed? Are games truly the most useful purpose 
of a computer right now? The marketplace cer- 
tainly seems to think so. It is food for thought. 

The second thing in the article which really 
got my CPU stirred up was Kay's view of the com- 
puter. I had always been under the impression 
that he believed his real goal in life was to enable 

264 COMPUTE! December 1983 



everyone not only to use the computer, but to 
actually command and manipulate it. (1 hesitate 
to say "program it," but then Smalltalk is a lan- 
guage.) In the interview, though, Kay stated he 
was beginning to fear that perhaps the computer 
was not so much a household tool as it was a fine 
instrument, like a violin. He strengthened the 
analogy by noting that very few people can play 
the violin, just as very few people can properly 
use a computer. 

Well, I for one believe that not only is the 
analogy inappropriate, but its projection of gloom 
and pessimism about the future of computers is 
not justified. Granted, the analogy may hold 
today. After all, onlv about 1 percent of the United 
States population can claim to be able to program 
at all (or play "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" on 
the violin). Probably less than .1 percent produce 
acceptable application programs (or play in a 
community orchestra or equivalent). Dare we 
guess that .01 percent are commercial program- 
mers (or make their living playing the violin)? 
Can it be that only .001 percent can actually write 
systems and languages (or are the guest soloists 
of the concert world)? 

Actually, these proportions are just order-of- 
magnitude guesses, but they do seem to support 
Mr. Kay's analogy. But I say that his analogy has 
validity mainly because the computer is still such 
a relatively "rare" instrument. Personally, I prefer 
a different analogy. 

When computers are as much a part of every- 
day life in this country as automobiles are now 
(and I firmly believe that they will be), then I think 
they will be treated much as automobiles are. 

Let me sidetrack a little. Here in California, 
the State has decreed that all high school students 
shall take a course in "computer literacy." So what 
happens? Every high school is scrambling to buy 
one or two computers and begin teaching every kid 
how to program in BASIC. Great, right? Nonsense! 

Two Different Classes 

First of all, I can't conceive of learning how to use 



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or program a computer at all if the student/ 
computer ratio is above 3 to 1. More importantly, 
I think it is senseless to equate "computer literacy" 
with "learning to program in BASIC." After all, 
"automobile literacy" consists of learning traffic 
laws, safe driving techniques, and actually starting 
to drive a car (it's usually called "Driver Training"). 

"Automobile expertise," on the other hand, 
consists of learning what tools do what, the theory 
and practice of internal combustion engines, and 
how to maintain and repair an automobile (and 
this is usually called "Auto Shop"). Does every 
student take driver training? Yes, or nearly so. 
Does every student take auto shop? No. Not by a 
long shot. 

So, 1 believe, it should be with computer lit- 
eracy. Don't teach everyone how to program. 
(What would we do with a nation of programmers? 
The same thing we would do with a nation of 
auto mechanics?) Instead, teach everyone how to 
use a computer to do word processing, to balance 
their budget, to access data bases, and the list 
could be quite long. 

And, yes, keep the computer programming 
classes. But keep them on the same basis that 
auto shop classes are offered — as electives, for 
those interested in learning more than how to 
"drive" their computers or cars. 

Why this confusion of computer literacy and 
computer expertise among schools and teachers? 
Partly because the computer industry has pro- 
moted the view. (Perhaps fearing that current 
applications programs are inadequate to a class- 
room situation?) Partly because of a dismal lack of 
education and information on the part of the 
educators. (Pity the poor math or history teacher 
who is nearing retirement. Suddenly he/she is 
forced to learn enough about these nasty machines 
to be able to teach some kids how to use it. Do 
you wonder that the path of least resistance is 
most often chosen?) Mostly, I suppose, because 
BASIC comes built into each machine, while good 
text processors, spreadsheet programs, etc., cost 
extra, money which most schools don't have. 

So how does this tirade relate to either Alan 
Kay or you, my patient reader? Well, first of all, I 
think the analogy of car and computer is a better 
one than violin and computer. And, perhaps, if 
computer companies started trying to design mass 
consumable "cars" instead of trying to ply the 
public with precision instruments, it is a future 
that will come true. To be fair, I think that com- 
panies such as Atari and Commodore and Apple 
and others are starting to do so already. But my 
cynicism leads me to believe that they are driven 
by the current market, not by the future one. 

You're Ahead Of Your Time 

Perhaps more importantly, though, 1 am trying to 
convey the message that those of you who read 

266 COMPim! December 1983 



this column (and this magazine) are, in some 
sense, ahead of your time. You are, indeed, the 
violinists that Alan Kay perceives. Some of you 
are just learning to play your first notes. Others 
of you are already tackling the great concertos. 
But, when the computer revolution really arrives, 
you will all have the advantage of having already' 
taken at least your first "auto shop" course. So, if 
you enjoy your computer (and particularly if you 
enjoy programming), don't give it up easily. And 
certainly don't give it up now. Someday, others 
will appreciate your art, however humble or glori- 
ous it may be. 

Did that sound like a sermon? If so, I 
apologize. But it's my view of both the present 
and the future of computers and programming. 
One last sidelight before we move on: On hearing 
me espouse the views above, someone once asked 
me what my position in the hierarchy was, as a 
person who helped design (as opposed to pro- 
gram) operating systems and first languages for 
new machines. Actually, that's an easy question: 
I'm simply a composer. And so, I think, are such 
people as Alan Kay. 

You Can Bank On If 

All of the new Atari XL computers (including the 
1200XL) will contain 64K bytes of RAM (the 600XL 
requires an external RAM pack to do so). And all 
contain 16K bytes of Operating System ROM 
space. And, further, all (except the 1200XL) in- 
clude good old Atari 8K BASIC. Let's see here — 
64K plus 16K plus 8K — that's over 90,000 bytes 
of space. 

Wait a minute, though. If I plug in a 16K car- 
tridge (such as AtariWriter or ACTION! or BASIC 
XL), then I could have 104K bytes of RAM and 
ROM. Wow. That's really nifty, right? Well... 

Have you read this column often enough to 
know that "Well..." means "not really" or "there's 
more to come"? No? Well... 

Not really. To begin with, all Atari computers 
are built around the same CPU (Central Processing 
Unit), the 6502. (Which, incidentally, is the same 
chip used in most Commodore computers and all 
Apple machines except the Lisa.) However, there 
is a fundamental restriction involved when using 
a 6502: There is simply no way to access more 
than 64K bytes (65,536 bytes) at one time. How, 
then, can the Atari use 104K bytes? Is someone 
fibbing to us? 

The key here is the phrase "at one time." A 
juggler may be able to juggle only four things at a 
time. Does that mean he always juggles the same 
four objects? Should we presume that the 6502 
must always work with the same 64K bytes? Of 
course not. 

In point of fact, the new XL machines allow 
the 6502 a number of choices about which bytes it 
will "juggle." How the 6502 makes its choice is 



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the subject of this section. 

Actually, there is no magic formula or scheme 
which enables the various choices. In fact, various 
choices are made by differing means. Generally, 
the choice is "consciously" made by the program 
currently in control of the machine. And it makes 
the choice simply by (usually) storing something 
in a particular memory location. Confused? Let's 
digress a little. 

Some CPUs (including microcomputers and 
minis and maxis) treat input/output as a separate 
domain from general memory. For example, the 
8080/Z-80 group of processors allow up to 256 
separate input and output ports, which are com- 
pletely separated from the general RAM/ROM 
memory (they even have special instructions spe- 
cifically for reading/writing these I/O ports). On 
the other hand, many machines (such as the 6800, 
68000, and 6502 families, as well as such giants as 
the PDP-11 series) simply treat input/output ports 
as part of the general machine memory. 

Efficient And Easily Learned 

The advantages and disadvantages of each scheme 
are a subject of hot debate, but I will only present 
a single aspect of each here: Keeping the I/O ports 
out of genera! memory allows a true 64K bytes of 
RAM when using an 8- or 16-bit microprocessor. 
Allowing I/O to be treated as part of memory 
means that any instruction which can access RAM 
or ROM can also access a port, often resulting in 
efficient and easy-to-learn coding. 

Anyway, note that the 6502 does, indeed, 
use what is called "memory mapped I/O," and 
Atari computers do, as a consequence, reserve 2K 
bytes of memory (addressed from $D000 to $D7FF) 
which is specifically designed for I/O port ad- 
dresses. (If losing 2K of your space seems exces- 
sive, pity the Apple owner who loses 4K.) 

In the case of the XL machines, then, one 
simply changes the value in an I/O port — which 
appears to one's program as a memory address — 
and presto, a different choice of "jugglable" mem- 
ory is made. But what I/O port to use? Did you 
notice the fact that Atari 400 and 800 computers 
have four joystick ports while the XL machines 
have only two? Guess which ports are now used 
for memory juggling. Did you need more than 
one guess? 

For the more hardware-oriented of you out 
there, I will note that all four Atari joystick ports 
are actually nibble-sized pieces of a 6820 (or 6520) 
PIA (Peripheral Interface Adapter). The PIA is a 
very flexible chip; it allows each of its 16 I/O pins 
to be separately configured to be either an Input 
line or an Output hne. In the case of the 400 and 
800, all 16 lines are configured as Input, since 
they are all used to read the four directional 
switches of an Atari joystick. In the case of the XL 

268 COMPUn! December 1983 



machines, some of them have been changed to 
Output lines, thus enabling them to act as elec- 
tronic switches. 

On the 1200XL, for example, two of them are 
used to control the LI and L2 status LEDs. And 
(you saw this coming, I presume) two of them 
choose certain configurations of the computer's 
memory. (On the other XL machines, still another 
line is used to control still another possible 
configuration.) 

Since we are discussing memory configura- 
tion choices, I might as well confuse the issue a 
bit more by also mentioning how we at OSS im- 
plemented our new SuperCartridges. It is prob- 
ably no accident that Atari provides the cartridge 
slot on all machines with a line labeled 
"CARCTL", an abbreviation for CARtridge Con- 
TroL. Actually, this line is active whenever any 
memory location from SD500 to $D5FF is accessed. 
Since no Atari cartridges take advantage of this 
line, we thought it was time that we did so. 

One At A Time 

About now, it is past time for a diagram. The figure 
shows all the possible choices of memory config- 
uration by placing them in memory address order. 
Note, though, that the 64K addressing restriction 
of the 6502 applies. Hence, when two or more 
choices are given for a particular address range in 
memory, remember that only one such choice 
may be active at any given time. For each address 
range where a choice is available, there are two 
or more banks of memory. And choosing one 
bank over another is called bank switching or hank 
selection. 

For example, 1 might choose to use BANKl 
of the SuperCartridge while at the same time 
choosing the RAM BANK of system memory. 
The important thing to note here is that each 
set of banks (that is, parallel memory segments), 
as shown in the figure, is independently bank 
selectable. 

Also, some bank choices are not available at 
the software level. For example, when you plug 
in a Microsoft BASIC cartridge, you have 16K 
bytes of ROM from $8000 to $BFFF. You have no 
RAM in that address range. You have no choice in 
the matter. This is, then, hardware bank selection. 

The advantage of hardware bank selection is 
that it is essentially foolproof. If the hardware 
removes a bank of RAM from your program's 
"vision," your program can't get into trouble 
trying to use that bank. 

But the advantage of software-selectable 
banks is, quite simply, that they allow you to ex- 
pand the capabilities of your machine. If you look 
at the figure, you can see that a SuperCartridge 
allows you 16K bytes of programming power while 
occupying only two 4K byte banks at any given time. 



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Bandits -D 27 95 

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CBS 

Solar FoK - Carl 31 95 

Blue Prini • Can 31 95 

Wings - Can 31 96 

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K-Razy Antiks - Can 2995 

K-Star Patrol - Cart 2995 

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FIRST STAR 

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?i)flF:^<y'nJ!^i!:p?s?4^|iS?j(!g{^jffi^iK?s'J/s^ 






Memory Map Of Atari XL Computers (Showing Parallel Memory Banks At Same Addresses) 



FFFF 



FOOD 



E400 
EOOO 

D800 

DOOO 



C400 
COOO 



BOOO 



AOOO 



9000 



8000 



OS 



ROM 



Character Set 

ROM 



Floating 
Point ROM 



Input/Output 

Ports 



OS 
ROM 



lOK 
RAM 



(Selected by 

"turning oft" 

OS ROM 

space — 

uses PIA Port) 



Always (de)se]ected 
together 



International 
Character Set 



8K 
Atari 
BASIC. 
"ROM 



(Not present 
in 1200XL) 



8K 



RAM 



4K 
RAM 



8K 
RAM 



(Selected by 
"turning off' 
Atari BASIC— 
uses PIA Port) 



OSS SuperCartridge 



8K 
ROM 

Cartridge 



(Automatically 

deselects 

RAM and 

Atari BASIC) 



Example: 
Most games 



> 32K < 

"^ RAM ^ 



0000 



57FF 



5000 



Diagnostic 
ROM 



16K 
ROM 

Cartridge 



(Automatically 

deselects 

RAM and 

Atari BASIC) 



4K 
ROM 




(Program can 
select ROM 
or RAM at 

same address) 




4K 
ROM 


4K 
ROM 


4K 
ROM 


Bankl 


Bank 2 


Banks 


"^ ^ 


J 



Program can select 
. any one Bank or RAM 
at same address — 
uses CARCTL port. 



Example: 
Microsoft BASIC 



270 COMPUTE! December 1983 



And the purpose of this discussion? To show 
that the XL machines really do have a lot of latent 
power. How do we make it un-latent? Well.... 

As I write this article, the number of com- 
mercially available programs which allow you to 
take advantage of the extra 14K bytes of RAM on 
an XL machine is countable on the fingers of my 
left foot. Zero. By the time you read this, there 
will likely be products heading your way that will 
justify the purchase of an XL machine (or a 64K 
memory board, such as the one from Mosaic Elec- 
tronics, for your 800). 

Since I am obviously most familiar with DOS 
XL, let me explain a little of how it works. 

When DOS XL boots into an XL computer, it 
first establishes a set of jump vectors for the vari- 
ous interrupt routines. Why? Because any IRQ, 
NMI, or SYSTEM RESET will attempt to jump 
through the vectors which must (by 6502 CPU 
law) be located at addresses $FFF A through $FFFF. 
If we deselect the OS ROM bank in order to enable 
the RAM bank at the same addresses, the contents 
of these critical addresses are unpredictable. We 
must supply some valid routine addresses or the 
system will crash. 

DOS XL puts most of the DOS code in the 
RAM bank which is "under" the OS ROMs. It 
also leaves a piece of itself at the conventional 
DOS load address of $700 (an area of memory 
which is not bank selectable). Then, if there is a 
BASIC cartridge in the machine, it selects the OS 
ROM bank and jumps to BASIC. 

So long as BASIC makes no calls on DOS, all 
is calm and expected. However, watch what hap- 
pens when (for example) we try to open a file 
from BASIC. 

1. BASIC sets up an lOCB with a pointer to 
the filename. Since the filename was specified 
by the user, the pointer will contain an ad- 
dress somewhere between about $A0O and 
$9C0O. BASIC makes a call to $E456, the CIO 
entry point. 

2. CIO determines that the device requested 
is actually the disk file manager and uses the 
"D:" device table to determine the address of 
the disk's open file routine. It passes control 
to that routine. 

3. Note that the "D:" device table and at least 
the first part of the file open routine must be 
in nonselectableRAM(thatis, at or near $700). 
The file open routine is a big one, so it selects 
the DOS XL RAM (disabling the OS ROM) 
and jumps to the main part of the code. 

4. The main code is able to examine the 
filename since it is in nonselectable memory, 
so the file open is performed if possible. The 
main code exits back to the tail end of the 
OPEN code, near $700. 



5. This tail end then simply reselects the ROM 
bank and returns to where it was called (some- 
where in CIO). 

6. When CIO is finished, it returns control to 
BASIC. 

Wasn't that fun? For even more fun, try to 
trace what happens if interrupts occur during any 
or all of the above steps. 

More Space 

But why do we go through all this? Because, even 
though Atari saw fit to include all this good mem- 
ory bank selection capability, they provided no 
software to use it. So why not just forget the bank 
select and pretend we are running on an Atari 800 
or 400? Because the net gain to you, the BASIC or 
ACTION! or Assembler or whatever user, is about 
5,000 bytes of user space. Your programs can be 
5K bytes bigger. Your spreadsheets can contain 
many more cells. You can edit more text. 

Of course, some programs (such as VisiCalc) 
which do not use a standard DOS or which use a 
heavily protected disk (such as the Microsoft 
BASIC extensions) will not be able to take advan- 
tage of the extra memory. But they, too, can use 
these techniques to extend their capabilities if the 
software companies producing them will decide 
that the XL machines are worth the little extra 
effort. @ 



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Deceml3er1983 COMPUTE! 271 




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Commodore 64 
$219 



Avalan Hill Game Company 

S-l Nuclear Bombflr(C) % 12 

MldwayCampaignfC) } 12 

North AtlanilcCon¥oyRalder(C) i 12 

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Planet MInoraiO S 12 

CompularSlDCksiBondsiC) t 15 

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CornputarFoolBallSifaiegytC) % 12 

TelBngard(C) J16 

Broderbund 

David's Midnight Magic i 23 

Chopllfler(CT) % 34 

Serpflnlino ICTI S 27 

Sea FoK |CT) i 27 

Bank Street Writer J 45 

Datamost 

Roundabout S 20 

Mating Zone , $ 20 

Paint Wdafd S 33 

EPYX/Automated Simulations 

JumpMBn(D) S 27 

Human Engineered Software 
(HES) 

6602 Prolessional Dev. System (C) ... J 20 

RelroBalUCRTI $ 27 

Hesmon (CRT) J 27 

Turtle Graphics II (CRT) J .15 

Heswrlter64(0R'n S 36 

Gridrurnor ICRTI S 23 

Infocom 

ZorklJUIl Ea.S 27 

Daadltna |0) $ 34 

Slarcross (0) J 27 

Witness I 14 

Sierra On-Llne 

FroggerfOl j 25 

Crossfire $ 15 

Jaw Breaker j 20 

Threshold (CRT! S 27 

Sammy Light Fool (CRT) S 25 

SIrlus Software 

Btadeof Blackpool8(0) $ 27 

Type Attack (CRT) j 27 

Replon (D) j 27 

CtlKcal Mass{D) , j 27 

Snake BytetD] j 23 

Bandits j 27 

Squish 'em (CRT) j 23 

Final Orbit (CRT) $ 23 

Splnnalcer 

Snooper Troops #1 (D) j 30 

FacemakBr (Dl $ 23 

KInderoomp (6) $ 20 

Hey Diddle DItJdie j 20 

In Search ot the Most Amajing Thing i 27 

Fraction Fever (CRT) j 20 

Alphabet 2oo(CRT) $ 20 

Delta Drawing (CRT) j 20 

Synapse Software 

Ft. Apocalypse (D)J 23, (C) I 23 

Oi»\bi (D)J 23, (C(J 23 

Survivor (0)J 23,(C)$ 23 

Pliaroah's Curse |0) J 23. (C) J 23 

United Microwave 
Industries 

92E-302 Renaissance (Cl _ j 20 

92E-331 Motor Mania (C) [% 20 




1525 Printer $229 

1530 Datasette $ 64 

1541 DiskDrive $249 

leOOPlodem $ 89 

1701 Commodore Plonitor $289 

VIC 1311 Joystick $ 8 

VIC 1312 Game Paddles $ 16 



VIC12103K Memory Expander 
VIC lnOSKMemoryExpander 
VIC 1 n 1 16K Memory Expander . . 
VIC 1011 RS 232 Terminal Interlace 
VIC 1211 Super Expander . 



$34 VT106A Recreation Pack $ 45 

$52 VT 107A Home Calculation Pack ..,..$ 45 

$89 VIC 1600 VIcmodem $ 89 

$43 VM Programmer's Reference Guide . .S 14 

159 Commodore Programmer's Ret. Guides 18 



Educational 

Books 

Kids and iheVfC j ib 

Programmef'sRetefenCflGuide-VIC ..J 14 
Proflrammer's Reference Guld&*4 ...S 18 



NumberChaser j 17 

Number Gulper j 17 



Reading & Language Arts 

Super Hangman(C) s 14 

Simon/H83s(Cl j 13 

Concentration (C) j 13 

Home Babysitter $ 23 

Vi/ord Search j 15 

Pacemaker 94-t 23 viC-t 27 

Klndercomp/64 $ 20 

Snooper Troops 1/64 | 27 

Mathematics 

SkyMalh(C| j ,2 

Space Division $ 12 

aingoSpeetJMathlCT) ......t 23 

Number Crunch ICT) $ 23 



Music 

Fun wilh Music $ 27 

VIC Music Composer (CT) { 42 

H£SSynthesound(CT) .....$ 49 

Programming Tecfinlques 

Intro to Basic Prog. I $ 22 

lntrotoBasicProg.il $ 22 

Programmer's A Id Cart J 22 

Turtle Graphics/Hess (CT) $ 29 

Gorlecki The Microchip { 23 

Kids on Keys/W J 23 

Social Studies/Science 

VislbleSolarSystem $ 23 

ReagonomicsfCT) $ 27 



Commodore Software 



Avenger j 23 

Super Allen j 23 

Jupl)er Lander j 23 

Ofaw Poker j 23 

Midnight Drive j 23 

Radar Rai Race % 23 

Raid on Fort Knox $ 23 

Sargon II Chess $ 29 

Cosmic Cruncher ,......$ 23 

Gof* !!;$ 29 

Omega Race $ 29 

Sea Wolf '']'$ 23 



Advenluraiand ......,,,$ 29 

Pirate Cove % 29 

Mission ImposslblB ( 29 

TheCount j 29 

VoodooCastie j jg 

ThoSkyisFalllng j 23 

MoleAtlack $ 23 

Bingo Speed Math % 23 

Home Babysitter j 23 

VisibloSolarSyslem $ 23 

Personal Finance | 29 

Qu icis Brown Foi $ 56 



Stocking Stuffers 

Koala Touch Tablet $ gg 

Wico "BOSS" Joystick $15 

Elephant Disks s/s $ ig 

Flip 'n File Diskette Box $ 21 



Super IfoUday 
Special 

Commodore 

VIC 20 

Datasette Recorder 

Gorteck and the 

Microchips 

$169 

Avalon Hlli 

Tank Arcade $ 12 

Nuke War $ 12 

Automated Simulations 

Rescue at RigelfC) $ 20 

Ricochet (C) J 20 

Sword o1 Fargoal j 20 

Temple ol Apshal $27 

„ , „ Broderbund 

Martian Raider J15 

MultisoundSynttiesizer $15 

Shark Trap J15 

Sky Blazer |CT1 $27 

Sea Fox (CT) , J27 

A.E.(CT( J27 

Creative Software 

Black Hole (CRT) $ 3e 

Trashman (CRT) $ 35 

Astroblitz (CRT) ' '$ 35 

Oily Bomber iMInolteid (CRT) $ 20 

Apple Panic (CRT) $ 36 

Serpentine (CRT) $ 36 

Chopliftflr(CRT) $ 36 

Terraguard (CRT) ,$ jg 

Household Finance % 36 

HES Software 

HESMonlCT) $ 29 

HES Writer (CT) $ 29 

Synthesound Music SynlhB3izer(CT) .$ 20 

Turtle Graphics (CT) $ 27 

VIC Forth (CT) $ 45 

Victrek(C) $ 15 

Predator (CT) $ 27 

Sirius 

Type Attack (27 

SnakeByte 'j27 

Tliom EMI 

River Rescue [CT) $ 27 

Mutant Herd (CT> $ 27 

Tronix 

Galactic Blitz |C) J17 

Si«arm (Cl £20 

Sidewinder (Cl $20 

GoldFeverlCT) 527 

Deadly Skies (CT| ! ^ ! ^$27 

United Microware 

Spiders of Mars (CT) $ 34 

Meteor Run (CT) ' . j 34 

*'"<>'< (C)J 15 (CT)$ 27 

Alien Blitz (C)J 17 (CT)J 27 

Skymath (C) j 12 

Space Division (C) [ % 12 

Super Hangman (C) ,'/% 14 

The Alien (Cl $ 17 

3D Maze (C) ..'.'.'.. S 12 

Kosmic Kamikaze (C) !!!!!$ 17 

Sub Chase (C) '.'.'.. i 15 

Renaissance j 20 

Cloud Burst (CT) '.'.'....'. ...t 27 

Satellites i Meteorites (CT) $ 34 

Outworld (CT) 134 

Wordcraft ,"_ j gj 



600XL . . . CALL 
800XL . . . CALL 
1400XL . . CALL 
1450XU) ,CALL 

Atari, Inc. 

1010 Recorder * '5 

1050 DISK Drive S359 

1027 Printer Call 

1025Prinlet ..M29 

830 Modem *1*5 

850 Interface t1T9 

Enlertalner System J 6< 

482 Educator SHO 

483 Proarammar i 52 

Communlcalor II S209 

Atari Account Ins S169 

CX4104 Mailing List . S 19 

CXL 4007 Music Composer S 42 

Programming 2S 3 Ea. J 23 

Conversational Languages Ea. $ 45 

CX4018 Pilot S 55 

CX405 Pilot S 99 

CXB126 Microsoft Basic II S B2 

CXL4022 Pac-Man .1 33 

CXL4020 Centipede $ 33 

CXL4006 Super Breakout S 26 

CXL400e Space Invaders S 26 

CXL4009 Computer Chess $ 26 

CXL4011 S!ar Raiders i 33 

CXL4012 Missile Command I 26 

CXL4013 Asteroids J 26 

The Boohkeeper t102 

Home Filing Manager S 38 

Atari Speed Reading S 57 

Home Manager Kit S 55 

Family Finance $ 38 

Time Wise * 23 

Qaiaxian $ 33 

Defender S 33 

Paint t 33 

Qix S 33 

Die Dug S 33 

ETPfioneHome J 34 

Atari Writer S 75 

Donkey Kong J 36 

Donkey Kong Jr $ 38 

Atari Logo S 79 

Mickey In the Great Outdoors/D $ 34 

My First Aiptiabet/D $ 26 

Peter Pan's Daring Escape $ 36 

Business St UUUties 

Vlslcalc 1169 

Compuiari'9 Financial Wizard i 45 

Color Accountant S 65 

Data Perfect i 95 

Letter Perfect $105 

Bank Street Wftler S 45 

Tent Wizard i 55 

Word Wliard * 45 

File Manager 800+ S 65 

DBtasm65J.O S 59 

K.Dos S 59 

Lisp inlerpretar i 79 

BasicCompilof $ 55 

Dalallnk S 27 

Atari World % 39 

Color Pfinl t 27 

Graphics Generator . . . , ^ i 17 

Mlcropalntef I 23 

Graphics Master S 17 

P.M. P. Property Management 1149 

Plodems 

Hayes Smarlmodem 300 Baud S209 

Hayes Smarmodem 1200 J499 

Signalman Modem II % 79 

Atari 830 Modem $155 



■:^^> 



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Educational 



Pro-School 

Sammy the Sea Serpent |C| $ 13 (D) % 19 
Pre-Schooli.CI. Builder ...(C)$ 13|D)$ 24 

My FIrsI Alphabet |D> $ 26 

Allan Counter/Face Flash (D,C) S 26 

HumptyDumpty/JackiJllKCI $ 25 

Pacemaker (D) * 23 

Juggles RaintjowlD, CI $ 23 

Juggles House $ 23 

Alphabet Zoo |CT) .$ 20 

Music 

Music Composer (CT) $ ^2 

Jerry White Music Lessons (C) $ 20 

Magic Melody Box * 1* 

Social Studies and Geography 

GlobemasterlOl $27 

States and Capitals (C) $ 12 

European Countries and Capitals (C) .$ 12 

Math 

Monkey up A Tree(D.Cl $19 

Video Maih Flash CardslD.CI $13 

AigicalciD.Cl ;,-.^, ^ ,1„ 

Compumath-Fractlons (C)$23(D|S29 

Compumath-Decimais (CW23|Dl$29 

GoirClassic/Compubar (Angles). .(D.C)$J6 

CashHeoister (C)$13tD)$19 

Big Math Allack (Cl$17(D)$22 

Computation Concenlralion (C) $13 (D|$15 

Reading and Language Arts 

Wofdmsker |D, Q $ 19 

Spelling Genie (D.C) $ 19 



Com,puread (C) $17 |D1 $ 23 

Let'sSpell(C) $ 13 

Do-it-VourseK Spelling (CI $ 16 

S. A.T. College Board Prep (C) $ 89 

Vocabulary Buiidef (C)$13(D)$ 19 

Hey Diddle Diddle |D1 $ 20 

Snooper Troops 14 2 Ea. $ 30 

Story Machine (D| $ 23 

Cro3Sv*ord Magic |D| $ 34 

Delta Dravi/ing (CT) $ 23 

Speed Read + |D| $ ^5 

Spellloop(er(D) $ 23 

Sky-Writar/Pop'f Spell $ 25 

Proflramming Techniques 

Pilot (Cons, of Educatorl . . |C1 $ 59 (D) $ 99 

invitation to Prog. *2(C1 $22 

InviiationtoProg. «3(C) $ 22 

Tricky TutOfiats — Ed Software 

TT#1 Display Lists (CO) $ 17 

TT#2Horiz/Vert. Scrolling (C,D1 $ 17 

TT#3 Page Flipping (C.D) $ 17 

TTM Basics of Animation (CD) ...$ 17 
TT« Player Missile Graphics (C, D).$ 24 

TT»6Sounp& Music (CDl .' $ 24 

TT»7 Disk Utilities (D| $ 2* 

TT KB Character Grapnics $ 19 

TTIOGTIA $ 19 

TTUlO Sound Eflecis $ 19 

Page 6 $ 20 

The NextSteo * 27 



Super Savers 

Gorilla Banana Printer $209 

Percom Printer Port Drive $495 

Percom Double Density Drive $515 

Rana 1000 Drive $299 

Amdek Color I $299 

Koala Touch Tablet .$ 69 



Stocldng Staffers 

WICO "BOSS" Joystick $ 15.00 

WICO Redball Joystick $ 24.00 

Elephant Disks s/s $ 18.00 

Verbatim Disks s/d $ 24.00 

Disk Savers (Plastic Sleeves) Muiti-Coiored 

1 Doz $ 4.50 

Disk Mailers $ 3.50 

Flip 'n Pile Diskette Holder w/Lock 

(holds 25) $ 18.50 

Flip 'n File Diskette Box (holds 50) $ 21.00 

Library Carrying Case (holds 10) $ 2.50 



Piew nit List 

In Search of Ihe Most Amazing Thing . $ 27 

Witness * 3* 

Cosmic Balance II $27 

Temple of Apshai $ 27 

Raster Blaster $ 20 

Deadline $ 34 

RictiochBt - $ 15 

Wizi Princess $ 22 

All Baba and the Forty Thieves $ 22 

Canyon Climber $ 20 

Crush. Crumble & Chomp $ 20 

Zor)!l.ll&lll ..Ea.$ 27 

f rogger $ 2d 

Chopiifter $ 23 

Curse of Ba $ 15 

Ulysses and the Golden Fleece . . . - .$ 23 

Tigers in ine Snow $ 27 

David's MiQriight Magic (D| $ 23 

Sky Blazer (Dl $ 22 

Serpentine (D) .1 22 

Sea FoK (D) $ 20 

Sands of Egypt (D| $27 

Pool 400 (CT) I 27 

Blue Max $23 

Wizard ol Wor (D)» 27 (CTi$ 30 

Cyborg (D| : . ..$ 23 

Gold Bush (0) $23 

Bandits (D) $23 

Way Out (Dl $ 27 

Fast Eddy(CT) $ 24 

Star League Baseball $ 22 

The Cosmic Balance (0) $ 27 

Chess (01 $ 45 

Checker (D) t 34 

Raplllllan(D,C) » 23 

Submarine Commander (CT) $ 34 

Jumbo Jet Pilot (CT) $ 34 

Soccer (CT) $ 34 

Starcross (Dl .$ 27 

ZaxJton (D.C) $ 27 

Miner 2049ef (CT) $ 34 

Twerps (0) .,.$ 23 

Flip Out (0) $ 20 

Star League Football $22 

Protector II (D|$ 23(CT)$ 29 

Baseball (CT) $ 34 

Preppieil(D.C| $ 23 

Arcade Machine (□) $39 

Cap n' Cosmos (D| I -29 

Spy's Demise (D|- $ 15 

Repton(D) t 27 

Critical Mass(D) $ 27 

Millionaire (D) t 55 

PokerSam(D) $ 17 

Jump Man (D) S 27 

Heilflre Warrior (D.C) $ 27 

Planellall $ 34 

Adventure In Time (O) $20 

Wav<*Navy(D) $23 

Apple Cldef Spider $ 27 

Pharoah's Curse (D,CT| $ 23 

Sammy Ligfitfool I 25 

Printers 

Nec8023A $ 475 

Epson FXBO $ 599 

Epson FX100FT $ 789 

GKldataMLe2A $ 399 

Okldata ML83A $615 

Okidata ML34P $979 

Okidata92 $ 469 

Okidaia93 J 789 

Citoh 6510 Prov^riter $ 365 

fvlannesmann Tally MT160L $ 629 

QumeSptlnlll+ $1429 

Gemini 10X $ 299 

GeminilS $ 439 

Plonitors 

Leading EdgeGoriliaHI'Ras 12" $ S5 

USI Amber $149 

Nee Green Screen $169 

Amdek Color II $659 



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On The 64 



Michael Tinglof 



High-resolution graphics are achieved by bitmapping. 
Here's a tutorial and an explanation ofzvhat happens 
in the 64' s memory as you bitmap. Also included is 
a sample program which illustrates the techniques 
discussed. 



High-resolution images of 320 by 200 point (called 
pixel) resolution are possible on the 64. To create 
these images, the 64's VIC-II video chip uses a 
technique called bitmapping. Simply defined, 
this means that every bit in a selected area of mem- 
ory represents one pixel (the smallest point of 
light) on the high-resolution screen. Thus, by 
setting or clearing appropriate bits, a picture can 
be formed. 

You might ask "Why use bitmapped graphics 
when sprites are available and far more convenient 
to use?" The answer is simple: Each graphics mode 
has its own purpose. Several of the main reasons 
for using bitmapped graphics are to create graphs 
of formulas or statistics, to create high-resolution 
color pictures, and to create a detailed background 
for use with sprites, such as for a game. 

Binary Operations 

Before the bitmapped mode can be used effec- 
tively, it is important to have a basic understanding 
of binary arithmetic (see the section "Binary And 
Bitmapping" accompanying this article) and the 
logical AND and OR commands. Basically, they 
are used to selectively set and clear one or more 
bits in a byte. AND and OR cause a bit-by-bit 
comparison of two bytes to produce a third byte. 
In the case of AND, if both bits are on (1), the 
resulting bit is on; and in the case of OR, if either 
bit, or both, is on, the resulting bit, likewise, is 
on. For example: 

274 COMPUni December 1983 



10101011 
AND 11011011 

= 10001011 



OR 



00110001 
10101010 



= 10111011 



The bits in a byte are usually numbered as 
follows: 

76543210 

AND is used to selectively clear bits, and OR is 
used to set bits. For example: 

Given: 10100101, clear bit 5. To do this, define 
a byte with bit 5 set (0010000), then take the inverse 
(properly termed "complement") of the byte by 
changing all I's to O's and vice versa. Finally, AND 
the calculated byte with the given byte; 

10100101 (given) 
AND 11011111 (calculated) 
10000101 

Given: 10011010, set bit 6. To do this, define 
a byte with bit 6 set. Then OR this byte with the 
given byte: 



OR 



10011010 
01000000 
11011010 



(given) 
(calculated) 



Remember that when BASIC is used, all binary 
bytes must be converted to decimal first. BASIC'S 
AND or OR instructions will then work as de- 
scribed above. 

Setting Up The ViC-li Chip 

With an understanding of ANDs and ORs, a high- 
resolution picture can be created. The first step is 
to select an area of memory 8,000 bytes in length 
for the bitmap. 

The VIC-II chip accesses only one 16K block 
of memory at a time. Upon power-up, the VIC-II 
sees the first 16K from locations to 16383. All 
video operations, including those for screen mem- 



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ory and sprite definitions, access the memory in 
this area. There is no room in this block for an 8K 
bitmap, however, without conflicting with BASIC. 
The best solution is to select a different 16K block. 
(Bits 1 and of address 56576 control where the 
block is placed in memory.) The combinations of 
these two bits and the range of addresses they 
represent are as follows: 

decimal 

1 
2 
3 

Note that each block starts at an even 16K bound- 
ary. To select a memory block for the VIC-II chip, 
use the following command: 

POKE 56576, Y 

where Y is one of the decimal values from the 
above table. The best block to choose when using 
a bitmap and BASIC is number 2: 

POKE 56576, 2 

Within this block, two more areas must be 
selected: one for the 8K bitmap and one for the 
IK screen memory. Address 53272 is used to 
control these two memory regions. One bit in this 
byte controls which 8K section in the 16K block is 
used for the bitmap; four bits control which 1024- 
byte area is used as the screen memory; and three 
bits are not used. The bits are arranged in acidress 
53272 as follows: 



7 6 5 4 
screen memory 


3 
bit- 
map 


2 10 

XXX 

not used 



1 he areas selected must fail on even boundaries 

that is, their starting address must be a multiple 
uf their size. For example, if the 16K block selected 
is fiom to 16383, the screen memorv can fall on 
U„ 1024, 2048, 4096, and so on. The following table 
can be used to determine which block should be 
used for screen memory or the bitmap: 



Base plus 


screen memory 


block 


bitmap block 













1024 


1 






2048 


2 






3072 


3 






4096 


4 






5120 


5 




' 


6144 


6 






7168 


7 






8192 


8 




1 


9216 


9 






10240 


10 






11264 


11 






12288 


12 






13312 


13 






14336 


14 






15360 


15 







where Base is the first address in the selected 16K 
block. To set 53272, use the following formula: 

POKE 53272, screen memory block * 16 + bitmap 
block » 8 

If you are using the bitmap and BASIC at the same 
time, use the following POKE: 

POKE 53272,120 

This sets the screen memory block to seven, and 
the bitmap block to eight. For the 16K block 
suggested for use with BASIC, this means that 
screen memory starts at 23552 and the bitmap 
starts at 24576. 

Once the memory pointers have been set, 
the VIC-II chip must be told to display the bitmap 
on the screen. Bit 5 of 53265 turns on the bitmap 
mode, that is, displays bitmap memory. To set 
this bit, use the following POKE command: 

POKE 53265, PEEK(53265) OR 2-5 

Drawing The Picture 

A high-resolution picture can now be created — 
all you have to do is set and/or clear the appropri- 
ate bits in bitmap memory. The problem is deter- 
mining which bit controls which pixel. This re- 
c^uires an understanding of how the VIC-II chip 
draws the bitmap on the screen. 

The bitmap memory is constructed similar to 
screen memory in text mode — it is broken into 
1000 areas, each eight bytes in size, which we'll 
call ails. 

These cells are arranged contiguously in mem- 
ory — cell 1 follows cell 0, cell 2 follows cell 1, and 
so on. They are arranged in the bitmap in an order 
similar to that of screen memory in the text mode, 
40 cells per row, 25 rows. The whole process, as 
described so far, can be illustrated as follows: 



Bitmap 



Screen Display 




Each cell controls an area of 64 pixels arranged 
in an 8 by 8 matrix. The first byte in the cell controls 
the top row of pixels in that matrix, the second 
byte controls the row beneath, and so on down. 

The eight bits in each byte control one pixel 
in that row — the highest valued bit controls the 
leftmost pixel and so on through the lowest valued 
bit, which controls the rightmost pixel. Graphi- 
cally, the process works as follows: 



2/6 COMfinE! December 1983 



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Bitmap 



6 5 



Bit 

4 3 



Screen 



2 10 



1 

2 

Byte^ 

5 
6 

7 
8 



































1 





1 


1 








1 






















































































128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 









y>^^ 


• •• • 











bitmap mode is available, how- 
ever. This second mode allows 
four colors in each cell rather 
than two colors as demonstrated 
above. There is one catch: reso- 
lution is reduced to 160 by 200 
pixels, and each pixel is twice as 
wide. The multicolor mode is 
enabled by turning on bit 4 of 
location 53270. Use this com- 
mand to enable multicolor 
mode: 



Using X and Y coordinates is cumbersome 
with this system. If this type of plotting is needed, 
the following equations will determine which bit 
to set for the X, Y coordinate: 

Yl = INT(Y/8)*8 determines which row of ceils 
XI = INT(X/8)*8 determines which cell on the 

above row 
AD - Yl*320 + XI + Y - Yl + start of bitmap memory 
determines address of proper byte 
BT = 7-X1 determines which bit to set 

POKE AD, PEEK (AD) OR 2 ' BT sets the bit 

If you have been following our example setup 
commands, use a starting address for the bitmap 

of 24576. 

Adding Color 

Color is an important part of high-resolution 
graphics. Each of the 1000 bytes in screen memory 
controls the color displayed for one cell. Note that 
screen memory controls the color onli/ in bitmap 
mode — in normal text mode, it contains the 
characters displayed on the screen. The bytes in 
screen memory are in the same order as the cells 
in the bitmap (the color of cell 650 is controlled 
by byte 650 in screen memory), hi each byte, 
four bits are used to control the color of each bit 
in the corresponding cell of the bitmap, and four 
bits are used to control the color of bits equal to 
zero. These bits are arranged in each byte of screen 
memory as follows: 



7 6 5 4 
color of bits = 1 



3 2 10 
color of bits = 



The colors and their corresponding values are 
listed on page 159 of the User's Guide. Once the 
values for the desired colors have been found, 
use the following formula: 

(color of bits - 1)*16 + (color of bits = 0) 

POKE this value into the appropriate byte of 
screen memory. Remember that attempting to 
change the color of one pixel will change the colors 
of all pixels in that cell of bitmap memory. 

Note that screen memory for our working 
example begins at address 23552. 

Recall that this method can be used to create 
a picture with 320 by 200 pixel resolution. Another 

280 COMPtnE! December 1983 



Bit Combination 
00 
01 



10 



11 



POKE 53270, PEEK(53270) OR 2 T 4 

Each pixel is now represented by two bits. 
These two bits have four possible combinations, 
resulting in four possible colors. To find the color 
each bit combination represents, several memory 
locations and/or areas are accessed: screen mem- 
ory, color memory (this is always from 55296 to 
55319), and the background color register at 53281. 
Color memory is arranged in the same order as 
screen memory. The following chart shows which 
bit combinations access which areas of memory: 

color from 

background register (53281) 

screen memory (4 bits of greatest value; 

same as bit equal to one in two-color 

mode) 

screen memory (4 bits of least value; as 

bit equal toO) 

color memory 

Remember that three of the four colors 
selected can be different for each cell in the bitmap. 
The method used to draw the bitmap on the screen 
in two-color mode is used in the multicolor mode 
— only now, the bits are grouped together into 
pairs. The pairs are formed sequentially, so that 
bit 7 and bit 6 are paired, bit 5 and bit 4 are paired, 
and so on. 

Protecting Your Picture 

When using BASIC and the bitmap modes to- 
gether, BASIC may have a tendency to use the 
bitmap memory for program and/or variable stor- 
age. To prevent this, change addresses 55 and 56, 
the bytes which point to BASIC'S end of memory. 
Simply change these to point to an address below 
the lowest address you use. Address 56 is equal 
to the last address used divided by 256, and ad- 
dress 55 is the remainder. After changing these 
two bytes, execute a CLR instruction. For example, 
this instruction insures that BASIC will not use 
any memory after address 23552: 

POKE 55, 0;POKE 56, 92:CLR 

To restore your 64 to normal operation, use 
the following commands: 

POKE 53265,27:POKE 53270,200:POKE 53272,20: 
POKE 56576,151 



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BINARY AND BITMAPPING 



Lonce Eiko, Assistant Editor 

The Commodore 64's high-resolution 
graphics screen consists of 64,000 (320 by 
200) dots or pixels. Each one can be turned 
on or off to let you create your own special 
graphics. This technique is called hitmapping. 

At first glance, you might think that if 
there are 64,000 pixels to control, you'll need 
to use 64,000 memory cells (bytes) — but this 
would use more memory than you have avail- 
able. With bitmapping, one byte controls not 
one, but eight pixels. Since there are eight 
bits (a bit is the smallest unit of storage in the 
computer's memory) in one byte, each bit 
represents one pixel on the hi-res screen. So, 
only 8,000 (roughly 8K) bytes are needed for 
bitmapping. Let's see how the computer 
handles these bits and bytes. 

Filaments And Light Butbs 

Computers use the binary numbering system 
rather than the decimal system we're used 
to. A good way to understand how binary 
works is to think of a row of light bulbs, each 
capable of being on or off. The row has eight 
light bulbs and represents a byte; and each 
bulb represents one bit. If they are all off: 

00000000 

we have a value of zero. Now let's turn on 
the right one: 

00000001 

This gives us a value of 1. So far, it's not at 
all tricky. 

The next bulb, counting from the right, 
however, has a somewhat different con- 
struction: It has two filaments. If just this 
bulb is on, it is indicated as: 

00000010 

but, remember, this bulb has tivo filaments, 
so the value here is 2. Let's go back and turn 
on the first bulb, also: 

00000011 

We now have a value of 3. Two bulbs are on, 
but three filaments are lit. The next bulb, the 
third from the right, contains /owr filaments 
(tzoicc the number of the last bulb). So, if this 
is turned on: 
00000100 

we have a value of 4. If we turn on the previ- 
ous bulbs: 

00000111 
we have 6 (4 -I- 2 -I- 1) filaments, but only 3 
bulbs turned on. The binary value of 



00000111, then, equals the decimal value of 
6. We can see a pattern emerging here: Each 
bulb has twice the number of filaments as 
the one before it: 



oooooooi = 1 

00000010 = 2 
00000100 = 4 
00001000 = 8 



00010000 = 16 
00100000 = 32 
01000000 = 64 
10000000 = 128 



Converting Decimal To Binary 

On/off combinations of these bulbs will yield 
any number between and 255 (11111111). 
Let's pick a number, say 209, and figure out 
how to represent that number in binary. In 
other words, if we need exactly 209 filaments 
lit, which light bulbs should we turn on? 

Since we can get 128 of them out of the 
way, let's do that first: 

10000000 (128) 

If we add the next available light bulb, with 
64 filaments, that will get us up to 192 
(128 + 64): 

11000000 (192) 

Now, we can't use the next bulb (with 
32 filaments) because that would exceed our 
requirement of 209; so let's check the next 
one, 16. We can turn this one on because it 
would get us closer to our goal without going 
over (192 + 16 = 208): 

11010000 (208) 

We need only one more to make 209, and 
that's easy because there's only one bulb 
with one filament, the first one we discussed. 
Let's turn this one on: 

11010001 (209) 

and now we have 209 filaments turned on 
with only 4 light bulbs. 

How does all this apply to bitmapping? 
The VIC-II chip, a microprocessor in the 64 
that controls video display, scans an area of 
memory reserved exclusively for bitmapping. 
The chip reads each bit in every byte in this 
area, looking for Is (on) and Os (off). When a 
1 is noted, the pixel it represents is turned 
on, and when a is noted, the pixel remains 
the same as the background color. 

Keeping in mind these points about 
binary numbers, take a look at Michael 
Tinglof's article to see how to control bits 
and bytes for effective bitmapping. He also 
discusses special commands used for manip- 
ulating the binary figures we discussed. You 
might find pages 121 - 28 in the Commodore 
64 Programmer's Reference Guide helpful as well. 



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ENTERTAINMENT 

STUDIO B4 (MUSIC MAKER) • Disk 8, Cass S29 95 

GAME DESIGNER • Disk & Cass, 2b 95 

GRIDRUNNEfi • Carl, 20 25 

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UPPER REACHES OF APSHAI • Disk 13 5U 

CURSE OF RA • Disk 13 50 

ASTHOBIITZ • Cart 29 20 

SAVE NEW YORK • Carl 29 70 

PERSONALITY ANALYZER • Disk 28 DO 

PHANTOM KARATE DEVILS • Disk 29 70 

PLANET FALL • Disk 38 20 

ENCHANTER • Disk 38 20 

SEA FOX • Disk 33 95 

CHOPLIFTER • Disk 33 95 

PROTECTOR II • Disk & Cass. 24 95 

TEIENGARO • Cass 16 95 

FROGGER • Disk & Cass 22 95 

FDRT APOCALYPSE • Disk & Cass 22 95 

ROBBERS OF THE LOST TOMB • Disk 19 95 

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SWOflO OF FARGOAL • Disk & Cass, 20 25 

PAKACUDA • Disk & Cass, 11 9b 

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FINANCE CALC E4 

The deader m home and business financial analysis. You csn \-^ave 
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A perfect, record system for any business or home. It can store 
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CAME CEBIONEn SA 

Use to animate IB sprites and de&gn colorful background screens, 
Several game sub-routmea included. Disk S35p95 



STUDIO 64 BERIEB 

Anyone can now create nxjsic as beautiful ©s the most adv&nced 
programers could one year ago!! Just play and the computer will 
instantly write Che muSic on the screen, included sr^ powerful 
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Learn math, explore the universe, dance to the musfc and watch 
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P.O. BOX 8B1, SUN VALLEY, CA 91353 • [S13) 768-G646 



A Graphics Demonstration 

If all the computations needed to find the right bit 
seem complicated to you, and the two-color mode 
would be satisfactory, use the following utility 
program. It is written in machine language to 
increase speed, and can be used through X and Y 
coordinates. It is accessed from BASIC via the 
SYS command. 

The format of the SYS call is as follows: 

SYS (base address of code), command, operand(s) 

The commands for the utility are as follows: 

• = clear bitmap page (set all bytes to 0) 

• 1 = set screen color. Set all bytes in screen 
memory to the operand. For example, 
SYS(BS),1,32 sets every byte in screen 
memory to 32. 

• 2 = set point. Set a given point according to 
its X and Y coordinates. Note that the upper- 
left corner is (0,0) and the bottom right is 
(319,199). For example, SYS(BS),2,28, 122 sets 
point (28,122). 

• 3 = clear point. The format is the same as 
above. 

This machine language utility is relocatable 
and can be loaded into memory anywhere simply 
by changing the pointer in the BASIC loader. Be- 
fore the utility can be used, however, addresses 
680 and 681 must be set. Set address 680 to the 
start address of the bitmap divided by 256. 
Likewise, set address 681 to the start address of 
screen memory divided by 256. If you have set up 
the bitmap as shown in our working examples, 
use these POKEs: 

POKE 680, 96:POKE 681, 92 

To see how the utility and various aspects of 
bitmapped graphics work, look at the following 
program, which draws a sine curve on the screen. 

Bitmapped graphics are a powerful part of 
the 64's repertoire. Once mastered, the results 
can be spectacular. Remember, the best way to 
learn is by hands-on practice. Once you feel com- 
fortable with the techniques we've covered, try 
some of these ideas: 

1. Draw the picture into memory, then switch 
the pointers to it. This makes the graphics appear 
lightning fast, even from BASIC. 

2. Use several bitmaps and switch the pointers 
between them. Again, this gives the appearance 
of lightning fast graphics. 

3. Use sprites. Since the sprites are totally 
independent of the background, you can create 
some fantastic graphics for games. 

Sine Curve Graphics 

3 REM [2 SPACES} COMMAND: 

4 REM{5 SPACESlXX SYS ( BASE) , OPTION, DATA 

284 COMPimi December 1983 



5 REM{4 SPACESjOPTIONS: 

6 REM SYS B, 0[2 SPACES} -{2 SPACES} CLEAR 
{space} SCREEN 

7 REM SYS B, 1, CL - SET COLOR CL 

8 REM SYS B, 2, X, Y - SET POINT (X,Y) 

9 REM SYS B, 3, X, Y - CLEAR POINT 

10 AD=32768:REM ** BASE ADDRESS 

20 READD:IFD=-1THEN500:REM ** JUMP TO USE 

R ROUTINE 
30 POKEAD, D:AD=AD+I:GOTO20 
100 DATA 32, 115, 0, 32, 158, 173, 32, 24 

7, 183, 140, 170, 2, 192, 
110 DATA 240, 6, 192, 1, 240, 32, 208, 77 

, 173, 168, 2, 133, 252, 24 
120 DATA 105, 32, 133, 253, 169, 0, 133, 

fSPACE}251, 168, 145, 251, 230, 251, 

{SPACE} 208 
130 DATA 2, 230, 252, 166, 252, 228, 253, 

144, 242, 96, 32, 115, 0, 32 
140 DATA 158, 173, 32, 247, 183, 132, 253 

, 173, 169, 2, 56, 233, 1, 133 
150 DATA 252, 24, 105, 4, 133, 254, 169, 

{SPACE}8, 133, 251, 160, 247, 165, 25 

3 
160 DATA 145, 251, 230, 251, 208, 2, 230, 

252, 166, 252, 228, 254, 144, 242 
170 DATA 96, 32, 115, 0, 32, 158, 173, 32 

, 247, 183, 140, 171, 2, 141 
180 DATA 172, 2, 32, 115, 0, 32, 158, 173 

, 32, 247, 183, 140, 173, 2 
190 DATA 152, 41, 248, 133, 253, 141, 180 

, 2, 141, 174, 2, 169, 0, 133 
200 DATA 254, 141, 181, 2, 162, 4, 24, 38 

, 253, 38, 254, 202, 16, 248 
210 DATA 162, 2, 24, 46, 180, 2, 46, 181, 

2, 202, 16, 246, 24, 165 
220 DATA 253, 109, 180, 2, 141, 178, 2, 1 

65, 254, 109, 181, 2, 141, 179 
230 DATA 2, 173, 171, 2, 41, 248, 141, 17 

6, 2, 173, 172, 2, 141, 177 
240 DATA 2, 56, 173, 173, 2, 237, 174, 2, 

24, 109, 176, 2, 133, 251 
250 DATA 173, 177, 2, 109, 168, 2, 133, 2 

52, 24, 173, 178, 2, 101, 251 
260 DATA 133, 251, 173, 179, 2, 101, 252, 

133, 252, 56, 173, 171, 2, 237 
270 DATA 176, 2, 133, 253, 56, 162, 255, 

[SPACE}169, 0, 106, 232, 228, 253, 20 

a 

280 DATA 250, 141, 180, 2, 174, 170, 2, 2 

24, 3, 240, 10, 160, 0, 177 
290 DATA 251, 13, 180, 2, 145, 251, 96, 5 

6, 169, 255, 237, 180, 2, 141 
300 DATA 180, 2, 160, 0, 177, 251, 45, 18 

0, 2, 145, 251, 96,-1 

500 REM ** USER ROUTINE ** 

501 REM GRAPHS SINE CURVE 

505 POKE 53265, PEEK( 53265 )OR2T5 : REM ** S 

ET BIT MAP MODE 
510 POKE680,96:POKE681,92:REM ** SET POIN 

TERS FOR UTILITY 
515 POKE 53272, 120:POKE 56576, 2:REM ** 

{SPACE} SET UP VIC II MEMORY 
520 POKE 55, 0:POKE 56, 60;CLR;REM ** PRO 

TECTS BIT MAP FROM BASIC PROGRAM 
530 B=32768:REM ** SET BASE ADDRESS OF UT 

ILITY 
540 SYS B,0: SYS B, 1,16: REM ** CLEAR SCRE 

EN AND SET COLOR 
550 FOR X=0 TO 6 STEP .05 : Y=SIN(X) : REM * 






l.l^ti'.lAtJitll 



Using CodePro-64 
CBM-64 Keyboard Review 



%lc Tutoria 



2 — Introduction to BASIC 

3 — BASIC Commands 

4 — BASIC Statements 

5 — BASIC Functions 



Graohics & Music 



6 — Keyboard GRAPHICS 

7 — Introduction to SPRITES 

8 — SPRITE Generator 

9 — SPRITE Demonstrator 
A — Introduction to MUSIC 
B — MUSIC Generator 

C — MUSIC Demonstrator 

K — Keyword Inquiry 

R — Run Sample Programs 



SELECT CHOICE OR HIT SPACE FOR DEFAULT 



NEW! For the Commodore 64' 
ANNOUNCING 



CodePro-64~ 

A new concept in 

interactive visual 

learning . . . 



Now you can learn 1o code in BASIC and develop 
advanced programming skills with graphics, spriles and 
music— visually. You learn by interacting with CodePro- 
Gi, a new concept in interactive visual learning. 

SEE PROGRAM EXECUTION 

Imagine actually seeing BASIC statements execute 
CodePfO-64 guides you through structured examples ol 
BASIC program segments You enter the requested data 
or iet CQdePro-64 do the typing for you. (It will not )et you 
make a mistake.) 

Alter entering an example you invoke our exclusive 
BaslcView" which shows you how the BASIC program 
example executes. 

You Step through and actually see the execution of 
sam pie program statements by simply pressing the space 
bar, CodePro-64 does the rest. 

You see statements with corresponding flow chart 
graphics and variable value displays. You learn by visual 
examples. 



to FOR I - 10 TO 20 
STEP 2 



§^^a 



Fl=MAIN F3-CUflREHT F5=HEXT F7:PF FB^PB 



EXTENSIVE TUTORIAL 

CodePro-64's extensive tutorial guides you through 
each BASIC command, program statement, and lunclion. 
You get clear explanations. Then you enter program 
statements as interactive examples Where appropriate, 
you invoke BasicView to see examples execute and 
watch their flow charts and vanaljles change. 

By seeing graphic displays of program segment execu- 
tion you learn by visjal example You learn taster and 
grasp programming concepts easier with CodePro-6'> 
because you immediately see trie results of your input 

You control your learning You can go through the tutor- 
ial sequentially, or return to the main menu and select 
different topics, or use keywords to select language ele- 
ments to study You can page back and forth between 
screens within a topic at the touch ol a function key. 



CodePro-64 lets you lollow your Interests and prac- 
tice with interactive examples. But you can never get 
"lost". Fl will always return you to the main menu. Once 
you nave practiced and mastered the BASIC language 
elements you move on to more advanced concepts You 
learn about sprite and music programming 

SPRITE GENERATOR & DEMONSTRATOR 

CodePro-64 s sprite generator lets you define your 
own sprites on the screen. You learn how to define sprites 
and what data values correspond to your sprite defini- 
tions. (You can then use these values to write your own 
programs.) You can easily experiment with dilferent defi- 
nitions and make changes to mmediately see the effects 




We also help you learn to program with sprites by giving 
you a sprite demonstrator so you can see the effect of 
changing register values. You can expenment by moving 
your sprite around in a screen segment, change ils color 
or priority, and see the effects of your cfianges You learn 
by visual examples. 

MUSIC GENERATOR & DEIMONSTRATOR 

To leach you music programming CodePro-64 gives 
you an interactive music generator and demonstrator 
First we help you set all your SID parameters (altack/ 
decay, sustain /release, wavelorm, etc). Then you enter 
notes to play and we show your tune graphically as it 
plays, note by note, on the scale. You learn by seeing and 
hearing the results of your input. 



OUR GUARANTEE 
We guarantee your saiislaction. You must be 
satisfied wilfi CodePro-64 for the Commodore- 
64 Try it for 1 days and it tor any reason you are 
not satisfied return it to us (undamaged) for a full 
refund No risk. 




Our m usic demonstrator lets you experiment wil h va r- 
lOus combinations of music programming parameters 
and hear the results. You can quickly modify any of tlie 
SID register values to hear the effects ol the change. For 
example, you could easily change wavelorm and attack/ 
decay values while holding all other SID values constant. 
By seeing your input and hearing the result you quickly 
learn how to create new musical sounds and special 
sound effects, 

AND MORE . . . 

We don't have enough space to tell you everything 
CodePro-64 offers. You need to see for yourself, BASIC 
tutorials, graphics, sprites, music, keyboard review, sam- 
pie programs— the mam menu shown above gives you 
|U3t a summary of the contents of this powerful educa- 
tional product. 

Whether youYe a beginning programmer or an expen- 
enced professional, CodePro-64 will help you improve 
your Commodore 64 programming skills, WeYe sure 
because CodePro-64 was developed by a team ol two 
professionals with over 25 years ol softv^are development 
experience. 

CodePro-64 is a prolessional quality educational pro- 
gram lor the serious student of personal computing And 
It's fully guaranteed. Order yours today 

HOW TO ORDER 

Order your copy o! CodePro-6'l today by mail or phone. 
Send only S59 95 plus S3 00 shipping and handling to 

<- /. J ^ i SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATES 
^^^^^^/ 3700 computer Drive. Dept C 
^^W9W^m Raleigh, N C, 27609 

Available on diskette only. h/asterCard/VISA ac- 
cepted. For faster service on credit card orders call 
(919)787-7703, 

Commodore 64 is a trademark ol Commodore Business 

ti^achines, Inc 

Ad no 733. Copyr ghl 1 983. SMA 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



* GET VALUE FOR SINE CURVE 
560 X1=X*50:Y=Y*50:REM ** ENLARGE GRAPH S 

IZE 
570 Y=100-Y:SYS B,2,X1,Y:REM ** GRAPH POI 

NT 
580 NEXT X:REM ** GRAPH NEXT 
590 GOTO 590 
600 REM ** EXIT WITH BREAK/ RESTORE © 



^C commodore 64 




Drills, Puzzles. Competitive Games, Tutorials 

Uses Color, Graphics. Sound, Animation 

Tape and Disk Versions 

Send SASE for FREE CATALOG 

SIVIOKY MOUIMTAIINJ SOFTXA/ARE 

Sa WEST MAIN SmeeT BREVARD NC 2B71S 



When it saves you 
Time, it saves you 
Money... it all 
adds up to a great 
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Simply hook up ADDON 

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Then forget it. \ 

ADDON mokes it easy for 

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To odd, subtract, multiply and 

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From: 



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m COMPUTffI 




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(805)656-1330 



Unlock Yottr Creativity. 

Commodore' 64 Color Sketch Fad 

whether you're six or sixty-six, you can use high resolution graphics 
and color to DOODLE! Draw up a house plan, sketch a landscape, 
create a colorful masterpiece or just "doodle," On-line MENUS 
make DOODLE easy to use; 100% machine language means 
instant response. With your Commodore 64 and joystick or 
WICO® Trackball you can: 

• DR.AW pictures, and PAINT with 8 "brush" sizes. 

• ZOOM in to draw fine detail. 

• Instant BOXES and straight LINES anywhere on your screen 

• DUPLICATE, Enlarge, Stretch, Squeeze or Rotate 
any part of your doodle. 

• Instant NEGATIVE or MIRROR IMAGE of a doodle. 

• SAVE your doodle on a disk. LOAD it in to 
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• PRINT your doodle on 0^^/% OR 
many popular printers. ^»j5J 

For information, your nearegt dealer, or to order direct, CALL TOLL PREEl 



In Wisconsin, collect 
4U-191-S115 



1-800-558-1O08 

Dealer and Distributor Inquiries Invited 

GtySoftuMwe 



City Software Distributors, Inc. 
735 W. Wisconsin Ave. 
Milw^aukee, W| 53233 

© Cc^ryright ^^&S by Mark R, Rubin & OMNI Unlitnited- CommwioiT 6* is d registered 
trAdenurk of Commodore ElnrtTonits, Ltd. 



'tVlSA^^ i^^^ffii 




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652 Centropod 19.95 


687 Fractional Parts 14.95 


HS Physics (60 programs) $475 


653 Escape 19.95 


902 Estimating Fractions 14.95 


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695 Tutor Math 14.95 


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870 Square Root Trainer 14.95 


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699 Counting Shapes 14.95 


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TOTAI AMOUNT 





Atari 
Screenbyter 



Carl Zahrt and Orson Scott Cord 



Here's a graphics utility that lets you create screen 
displays in any of the regular pixel graphics modes - 
and GRAPHICS 6.5 and 7.5 as well. It's simple enough 
for a child to use. It gives you complete control over 
color, mode, and display size. And a special Fill Mode 
lets you quickly draw long lines or fill large areas with 
color in moments. 



Atari home computers have superb graphics. 
Creating screen displays from BASIC, page flip- 
ping, scrolhng, redefining characters, continuous 
memory, and changing from mode to mode to get 
exactly the effect you want - once you've worked 
with graphics on the Atari, some other home com- 
puters can seem a bit confining. 

But that doesn't mean using Atari graphics is 
easy, especially if you want large displays which 
extend far beyond the edges of the TV screen, or 
detailed drawings that would take hundreds of 
PLOT and DRAWTO statements to create from 
BASIC. Such things take painstaking work on 
graph paper and many POKEs into screen mem- 
ory - or a good chunk of your paycheck for soft- 
ware to do it for you. 

"Screenbyter" takes the pain out of creating 
beautiful graphics displays. 

• You can work in any of the non-GTIA pixel 
modes. 

• You have access to GRAPHICS 6.5 and 7.5, 
pixel modes that cannot be used with a simple 
GRAPHICS statement. 

• You can type RUN and start drawing with 
the joystick - no programming experience is 
needed. 

• You can fill in large areas quickly and 
easily. 

• Since the main action of the program is in 
machine language, it moves very quickly, but 

288 COMPUTEI December 1983 



a Slow Mode is provided so you can do detail 
work, pixel by pixel. 

• You can change screen colors with the 
joystick. 

• You aren't always limited by the size of 
the screen. In GRAPHICS 3 you can create 
scrolling displays many times larger than the 
TV screen, and all the modes except 7.5 and 8 
allow some scrolling. 

• When you save a display to disk, all the 
parameters - mode, size, and colors - are 
saved with the screen data, so that you can 
load them directly into your own programs. 

Using Screenbyter 

Setup. Screenbyter begins by displaying a direc- 
tory of all files on the disk with the extender 
".PIX". This extender is automatically added to 
all files created by Screenbyter. If no directory 
appears, there are no previously saved files on 
the disk. 

"What file should hold your finished screen? 
(Eight characters)." Respond to this prompt by 
giving the filename you want your new display to 
have, when you save it at the end of the editing 
session . Screenbyter automatically removes every- 
thing before a colon or after a period and replaces 
it with "Dl:" and ".PIX", so that you only need 
to enter the eight-letter filename. If you use illegal 
characters, Screenbyter will ask you to try again; 
if you use more than eight characters, only the 
first eight characters will be used. 

If the name you enter is the name of a file 
already on disk, Screenbyter will remind you of 
that. To change the name, press RETURN. Or, if 
you want your new display to overwrite the old 
file, press any other key to go on. 

"Would you like to edit a screen you have 
already saved? (Y or N)." If you answer Y, 
Screenbyter asks you for the name of the saved 



file. If the file is not on disk in the form 
" VI: filename. FIX" , Screenbyter will tell you and 
ask you to insert the correct disk or, if you wish, 
ask you again if you want to edit a previously 
saved screen. 

Once the file is found, Screenbyter reads the 
first four bytes of the file to get the mode number, 
the number of bytes per line, and the number of 
lines in the display as it was saved. Press RETURN 
if you want to change these parameters. Press 
any other key to leave them the same. 

Changing the parameters can have interesting 
effects. Remember that four-color modes all read 
the bytes the same way; if you want to draw your 
displays in GRAPHICS 3 (ANTIC 8) and then 
display them in a higher four-color mode, you 
can. Changing the length of a file either chops off 
the bottom or adds blank lines at the bottom of 
the display. Changing the line width, however, 
will usually result in garbage, since the vertical 
relationships will all be changed. The option is 
included, however, because sometimes even "gar- 
bage" can be fun. 

If you are not editing a previously saved dis- 
play, or if you are changing the parameters, you 
get the following series of prompts: 

"What Antic mode will you work in?" This 
prompt is followed by a table that lists the eight 
ANTIC pixel modes and their graphics mode 
equivalent. ANTICS, for instance, is GRAPHICS 
3; ANTIC F (15) is GRAPHICS 8. Two ANTIC 
modes, C (12) and E (14), have no GRAPHICS 
equivalent- they are the famous "GRAPHICS 
6.5" and "GRAPHICS 7.5." (See Table 1.) Enter 
the ANTIC mode number: 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, or 
F. 

"How wide a line? (Minimum nil bytes, 
maximum rin bytes)." Depending on the mode 
you chose, Screenbyter w^ill give you the min- 
imum and maximum number of bytes per line. 
Remember that in the four-color modes, each 
byte is four pixels, while in the two-color modes, 
each byte is eight pixels. The minimum is based 
on the minimum number of bytes required to fill 
the screen. The maximum is based on the widest 
possible line that will allow the display to fit within 
4K. If you enter numbers outside the legal range, 
Screenbyter will select the minimum or maximum, 
as appropriate. 

With ANTIC E and F, the minimum and 
maximum are the same - you have no option, so 
any number you enter will result in the same 
number of bytes per line. This is because these 
two modes will not scroll - they both require more 
than 4K. Scrolling a screen that crosses a 4K 
boundary requires elaborate arrangements of 
screen memory that are beyond the scope of this 
program. Displays created in £ and F will take up 
65 sectors on disk; all other displays will take up 



Table 1: Atari Pixel Modes 



ANTIC mode 8 



D 



Graphics 

mode 34 5 6 — 7 — 8 

Colors 42422442 

Resolution 24 x 48 x 48 x 96 x 192 x 96 x 192 x 192x 

40 80 80 160 160 160 160 320 

Memoiy, bytes 240 480 960 1920 3840 3840 7680 7680 

(sectors) (3) (5) (9) (17) (33) (33) (65) (65) 

Lines/screen 24 48 48 96 192 96 192 192 



20 20 40 40 40 

112 2 1 



Bytes/line 10 10 20 

Bits/pixel 2 12 

(Pixels/byte) (4) (3) (4) (8) (8) (4) (8) (4) 

ScanUnes/ 84421211 
pixel 

Color clocks/ 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 'A 

pixel 

Note: ANTIC C and E, the two "hidden" pixel 
modes, provide the same resolution. All the other 
pixel modes attempt to create as square a pixel as 
the TV screen allows - the same number of color 
clocks wide as scan lines high. C and £, however, 
are twice as wide as they are high, making each 
pixel very short and wide. They come very near the 
resoluHon of ANTIC F {GRAPHICS 8). The advan- 
tages are that, compared to F, C uses half the mem- 
ory and £ allows four colors. 



33 sectors or fewer. 

"How many lines do you want to edit? (Mini- 
mum nn, maximum im)." The minimum and 
maximum depend on the mode and the number 
of bytes per line already selected. Again, if you 
choose parameters outside the legal range, 
Screenbyter will select the minimum or maximum. 
And if you choose the maximum number of bytes 
per line, only the minimum number of lines per 
screen will be possible. 

When all selections have been made, you are 
given one last chance to change your mind. Ail 
the parameters you chose are displayed on the 
screen. If they are correct, press START, and the 
program will go on. If you want to make changes, 
press OPTION and the program will start over. 

Waiting. What's going on while you wait? 
Screenbyter configures the memory to reserve 
lOK (40 pages) at the top of memory to hold screen 
memory (up to 8K), the display Hst, and the 
machine language routine that actually puts your 
drawing on the screen. Screen memory is cleared 
and the machine language routines are loaded. If 
you chose to edit a previously saved screen, it is 
loaded into memory now. All this takes about six 
seconds. The rest of the time is spent writing the 
display list. The higher the ANTIC mode, the 
longer it takes to write the display list - ANTIC F 
requires about 200 POKEs in BASIC, plus the 
calculations to find out what numbers to POKE, 
and it can take as long as 20 seconds. 

DecemtiefW83 COMPUTE! 289 



When Screenby.ter is ready for you to edit, 
there will be a cursor in the upper-left-hand 
corner. 

Moving the cursor. The joystick controls the 
cursor. 

Drawing a line. Hold down the joystick but- 
ton to draw; let it up to move the cursor without 
drawing. 

Selecting a color. Press 1 or SHIFT-CAPS/ 
LOWR to select Color 1 . Press 2 or CONTROL- 
CAPS/LOWR for Color 2. Press 3 or SHIFT- 
CONTROL-CAPS/LOWR for Color 3. Press or 
CAPS/LOWR to select the background color. 
Drawing in the background color has the effect of 
erasing. 

Color Mode. To change the actual colors that 
are displayed by Colors 1, 2, or 3, or the back- 
ground color, press START. You will hear a buzz, 
and the cursor will no longer respond to the joy- 
stick. Instead, moving the joystick will change 
the colors displayed on the screen. Moving the 
joystick up or right will change the color from 
darker to brighter, then jump to the darkest value 
of the next color. Moving the joystick down or left 
will change the color from brighter to darker, then 
jump to the brightest value of the next color. 

To change the background color, move the 
joystick forward or back; to change Color 3, move 
the joystick left or right. To change Color 2, move 
the joystick forward or back with the button 
pressed; to change Color 1, move the joystick left 
or right with the button pressed. 

To return to Cursor Mode, press START 
again . No other commands will work during Color 
Mode. 

Slow Mode. Press the space bar to enter Slow 
Mode. A delay loop in the program makes the 
cursor move much more slowly around the screen, 
with a click between moves. This mode allows 
you to create details. To return to Fast Mode, press 
the space bar again. 

Fill Mode. Press the inverse key (Atari logo 
key) to enter Fill Mode. A low hum will come 
from the television. In this mode, when you press 
the joystick button, Screenbyter draws a dot of 
the selected color at the current cursor location, 
as usual, but it also searches to the right along the 
same line. If it finds another dot of the same color 
before it reaches the end of the line, it will fill in 
all the area between that dot and the current cursor 
position with dots of the same color. If no dot of 
the same color is found, no fill operation is 
performed. 

This allows you to fill large or small areas of 
the screen with a single color. Simply draw the 
right-hand edge of the figure first; then enter Fill 
Mode and draw the left-hand border. It takes 
some practice to get used to using this function 
without accidentally erasing parts of your screen, 

290 COMPUTE! Decembef1983 



but you may find that this can be the most useful 
feature of Screenbyter. 

To exit Fill Mode, press the inverse key again. 
The hum will continue as long as you are in Fill 
Mode, and will stop only when you leave. 

Insert a line. Press SHIFT-INSERT to insert a 
line at the current cursor position. The bottom 
line of the display will be pushed down and lost. 

Delete a line. Press SHIFT-DELETE to delete 
the current cursor line. A blank hne will be added 
at the bottom of the display. 

Clear the screen. Press CONTROL-SHIFT- 
CLEAR to erase the screen completely. If you 
haven't already saved the display, it will be lost. 

Saving the screen. Press SELECT to save the 
screen without ending the editing session. The 
current screen display will be saved as "DI: 
TEMPFILE.PIX". You can save as often as you 
like; Screenbyter will simply overwrite any ex- 
isting TEMPFILE.PIX file. 

Ending the editing session. Press OPTION 
to save the screen and end the editing session. 
(To exit without saving, press RESET.) The display 
will be saved as "D1:TEMPFILE.SCR." Then the 
regular GIL\PHICS screen will return and you 
will be given several prompts: 

"Do you want to save the screen as Dl:/f7c- 
mme.FlX? (Y or N)." If you answer N, the saved 
display will be left as TEMPFILE.PIX. If you an- 
swer Y, Screenbyter will erase any existing file 
that has the same filename. Then Screenbyter will 
rename TEMPFILE.PIX with the filename you 
chose. 

"Do you want to quit? {Y or N)." If you answer 
Y, Screenbyter will restore the old top of memory 
and exit to BASIC. If you answer N, you will get 
another prompt. To return to edit the screen you 
just left, press OPTION. That display will be re- 
loaded into memory, the display list will be re- 
written, and you can start over. To edit an entirely 
new screen, or to change the name of the save 
file, press START. In effect, Screenbyter will then 
start over. 

What's Going On Inside The Program? 

Like everything else in a computer, your display 
exists as a series of numbers stored in binary 
form in memory locations in the computer. The 
ANTIC chip scans screen memory as it is in- 
structed to do by the display list. But it doesn't 
read the numbers as numbers. Instead, it reads 
them as patterns of "on" and "off" bits. 

Four-color modes. In the four-color modes, 
each byte is read as code for four pixels. The eight- 
bit binary number is treated as four bit-pairs: 

00 00 00 00 

Each bit-pair provides the code for one pixel, or 
rectangle of color on the screen. In GRAPHICS 3, 



each pixel is the size of a character in GRAPHICS 

0. In GRAPHICS 7.5, each pixel is one scan line 
high and one color clock wide, which gives very 
good resolution. But all four-color modes read the 
bit-pairs the same way. 

00 means to display the background color 
(the color code stored at location 712). 

01 means to display Color 1 (the color code 
stored at location 708). 

10 means to display Color 2 (the color code 
stored at location 709). 

11 means to display Color 3 (the color code 
stored at location 710), 

This means that the number 216 (binary 
11011000) is treated as four pixel color instructions: 
The first pixel is Color 3, the second pixel is Color 

1, the third pixel is Color 2, and the last pixel is 
the background color. 

Two-color modes. The two-color modes treat 
each bit as a separate pixel instruction, so that 
each byte controls eight pixels. An "on" bit, or 1, 
is read as a Color 1 instruction, while an "off" bit, 
or 0, is read as a background color instruction. In 
a two-color mode, the number 216 would be 
treated as eight pixel color instructions: Two "on" 
pixels, one "off" pixel, two more "on" pixels, and 
three "off" pixels. (See Table 1 for a listing of all 
the modes.) 

Moving around the screen. Moving the cursor 
around the screen, then, isn't simply a matter of 
moving from one byte to the next in screen mem- 
ory. Screenbyter also has to move from bit to bit 
or from bit-pair to bit-pair within the bytes. This 
can be done in BASIC by adding or subtracting 
values, but it is very slow. Machine language, 
however, has powerful commands that make it 
easy to move from bit to bit. DRAWTO and PLOT 
commands do these manipulations for you, but 
since Screenbyter is circumventing the BASIC 
graphics commands entirely, there was no practi- 
cal choice but to execute the main drawing opera- 
tions in machine language. 

To understand what Screenbyter is doing, 
you need to understand a few machine language 
commands: EOR, ORA, and AND. The two OR 
instructions and the AND instruction are not the 
same as the AND and OR you use in Atari BASIC. 
In machine language, these are operations on the 
bits of an eight-bit number, and are often called 
"bitwise" AND and OR to help keep the difference 
in mind. 

AND, OR, EOR Explained 

All three operations compare two numbers, one 
stored in the accumulator and another somewhere 
else in memory. The operation results in a third 
number, which is stored in the accumulator in 
place of the number that was already there. 



• AND, referred to as "bitwise AND," com- 
pares the two numbers, bit by bit. Any bit that is 
on in both numbers stays on in the resulting 
number. All other bits are turned off. In other 
words, only bits that are on in the first number 
and in the second number remain on in the result. 

10010110 

AND 11110000 

results in 10010000 

• ORA, referred to as "bitwise OR," compares 
the two numbers, but in this case any bit that is 
on in either number stays on in the result: 



ORA 

results in 



10010110 
11110000 
11110110 



• EOR, referred to as "exclusive OR," com- 
pares the two numbers, and any bit that is on in 
one and only one number is left on in the result. 
Any bit that is on in both numbers or off in both 
numbers is off in the result: 

10010110 

EOR 11110000 

results in 01100110 

How do these actually work, in practice? 

Screenbyter maintains several masks. The 
Color Mask is in page 6, at memory location 1692. 
This byte is set from BASIC whenever the color is 
changed, and it is set so that every bit or bit-pair 
represents a pixel of the selected color. If the 
background color is selected, the Color Mask is 
00000000, If Color 1 is selected, the Color Mask is 
01010101. For Color 2, the Color Mask is 10101010, 
and for Color 3 it is 11111111. With two-color 
modes, the Color Mask is either 00000000 or 
11111111. 

The Cursor Mask is kept at location 1696. It is 
set to represent the current cursor pixel within 
the cursor byte. The bits in the current pixel are 
on; all others are off. In four-color modes, if the 
cursor is in the leftmost pixel of the cursor byte, 
the Cursor Mask will be set to 11000000; if it is in 
the rightmost pixel, the mask will be set to 
00000011. The two middle pixels are 00110000 and 
00001100. In two-color modes, a single "on" bit 
represents the cursor position. 

Whenever you move the cursor left or right 
or diagonally, the Cursor Mask is shifted left or 
right, so that at any given moment, the Cursor 
Mask will mark which bit or bit-pair Screenbyter 
should change. 

If you are drawing, Screenbyter first picks up 
the value of the current cursor byte and stores it 
at 1690. Then it picks up the Cursor Mask and 
EORs it with 11111111 (decimal 255). This reverses 
the Cursor Mask - any bit that was on is now off, 
and any bit that was off is now on. 

Let's see that in action in a four-color mode, 

December1983 COMPUTE! 291 



in which the background is black. Color 1 is red. 
Color 2 is green, and Color 3 is blue. The bit-pairs 
will be separated in these examples, to make it 
easier to keep track of the pixels. 



Cursor Mask 

EOR 

results in 



00 11 00 00 
11 11 11 11 
11 00 11 11 



(Reverse Cursor Mask) 
Screenbyter then ANDs the Reverse Cursor Mask 
with the number at 1690, which in effect makes a 
hole in the cursor position: 



Reverse Cursor Mask 1100 1111 










AND 01 01 01 11 


red 


red 


red 


blue 


results in 01 00 01 11 


red 


— 


red 


blue 



The two bits in the cursor position will always be 
turned off. 

Now Screenbyter must prepare the pixel code 
to go in that hole. Screenbyter picks up the Cursor 
Mask and ANDs it with the Color Mask. Since all 
the bits in the Cursor Mask are off except the two 
bits of the current pixel, the resulting number will 
have only the bits that represent the current color, 
and only in the pixel position; 



Cursor Mask 

AND Color Mask 

results in 



00 11 00 00 

10 10 10 10 green green green green 

00 10 00 00 — green — — 



Now we are ready to put the correct pixel 
code into the hole in the current cursor byte. To 
do this, we bitwise OR the current pixel we just 
got with the cursor byte with a hole in it from the 
operation before. Remember that with ORA, any 
byte that is on in either or both of the two numbers 
is on in the result: 



correct pixel 


00 10 00 00 — 


green — 


— 


ORA current byte 








with hole 


01 00 01 11 red 


— red 


blue 


results in 


01 10 01 11 red 


green red 


blue 



The result is then stored in 1690, and later in the 
program it is put into screen memory. 

If you are not drawing (merely moving the 
cursor) the operation is a little different, but AND, 
EOR, and ORA perform the same functions. 

Machine language is so fast that all this seems 
to happen instantaneously. In fact, the only reason 
the cursor doesn't fly around the screen out of 
control is because Screenbyter keeps leaving the 
machine language routine, returning to BASIC to 
check the keyboard for other commands. Even 
so, the cursor moves so quickly that it has to be 
slowed down in order to allow you to draw details. 

Use of Page 6- The machine language routine 
at SCROLL uses a field in Page 6 to hold some 
important variables. The memory locations in 
Page 6 are explained in Table 2. 

Screenbyter Displays In Your Own 
Programs 

Here are two routines you can add to your own 

292 COMPOTl! December 1983 



Table 2: page 6 Locations 

1670 WIDE- 1 . Used to check for the end of the logical 

line. 

1671 Used in fill routine to keep track of right border 
of fill. 

1672 Cursor location: current byte on logical line. 

1673 Used by the fill routine to hold the pattern of the 
rightmost byte of the fill line, 

1674-1675 LINE-1. Used to check for last line of display. 
1676-1677 Cursor location: current logical tine number. 

1678 Bytes per screen line-1. Used by the scrolling 
routine to check tor the end of the screen line. 

1679 Cursor location: Current byte on screen line. 

1680 Lines per screen-1. Used by the scrolling routine 
to check for the bottom of the screen display. 

1681 Cursor location; current screen line number. 

1682 Used by the Mil routine to hold the pattern of the 
leftmost byte of the fill line. 

1683 A temporary holding location. 

1684 Used by the fill routine to hold the real value of 
the byte currently being tested. *- ,' 

1685 A temporary holding location. 

1686-1687 The current screen starting address (the address 
of the upper-left-hand corner of the screen). 

1688-1689 Cursor location: the address of the current cursor 
byte in screen memory. 

1690 The real conten ts of the curren t cursor byte . 

1691 The, reverse (cursor display) contents of the 
current cursor byte. 

1692 Color Mask. 

1693 The number of bits per pixel (1 or 2). 

1694 Scroll flag (0 = do not scroll). 

1695 FiD flag (0 = do not fill). 

1696 Cursor Mask. 

1697 Joystick value. 

1698 Total number of lines per screen. Used in the 
scroll routine to change the correct number of 
LMS inslruclions in the display list. 

1699 WIDE. Used in the scroll routine to increment the 
LMS addresses in the display list. 

1700 Fill Test Mask. Used in the fill routine to isolate 
and test each pixel until a pixel of the selected 
color is found. 

1701 Starting Fill Test Mask. Either 192 (four-color 
mode) or 128 (two-color mode), 

1702-1704 Machine language jump vector: JMP followed by 
the address of the fill subroutine held in the 
string FILLS. 



programs, which will allow you to load the dis- 
plays you created with Screenbyter, The first 
routine. Load and Display List, works with any 
Screenbyter file. However, it sets up a custom 
display list with individual LMS instructions, 
suitable for scrolling. This makes the setup time 
rather long. So a Simple Load Routine is also in- 
cluded. It will work with any display file that was 
created using the minimum line width and number 
of lines per screen, except screens created in 
ANTIC C and E (GRAPHICS 6.5 and 7.5). You 
cannot use it if you intend to scroll horizontally. 
However, you can use it if you intend to scroll 
vertically or flip pages, and if your display was 
created with the minimum line width. 



Both routines will configure memory to pro- 
tect the screen display, read the display param- 
eters from whatever display file you choose, and 
load the file into memory. It uses a load routine 
very similar to the one used by Fontbyter, so we 
won't explain them again here. 

Notice that in loading displays created in 
ANTIC E and F (GRAPHICS 7.5 and 8), the screen 
display must cross a 4K boundary line. The ANTIC 
chip gets fussy at this point, and ignores anything 
after a 4K boundary line until the beginning of 
the line pointed to by the next LMS instruction. 
Therefore, screen memory must be arranged so 
that the 4K boundary line comes right at the end 
of a line; the display list routine will have set the 
value of SC, the start of screen memory, so that 
the 4K boundary line will fall right at the end of a 
line. 

Program 1: Load And Display List Routine 



5 CLR 
7), 
40 
4000 



4005 

4010 
4015 

4020 
4025 

4030 
4035 

4040 

4045 

4050 
4055 

4060 
4065 
4070 



:DIM PPB (7) ,BPL (7) ,MXW<7) ,LPS ( 
FL*(20) :FL*="D1:SHIP.PIX": GOSUB 
00 

FDR 1=0 TO 7:READ W , N , C , T : PPB ( 1 
)=W:BPL(I)=N:MXW<I)=C:LPS(I)=T: 
NEXT I 

A= PEEK (106) :TOP=A-36:SP=TOP+4:S 
C=SP*256: DL=256*T0P: POKE 106, TO 
PiGRAPHICS 0:PRINT "tCLEARJ" 
X=16: ICC0M=S34: ICBADR=a36: ICBLE 
N=a40:SCON=PEEK<5S9) :K4=4096 
OPEN ttl , 4, 0, FL*:GET #l,M:Ha=M-B 
:GET #1,WIDE:GET #1,LL0:GET #1, 
LHI : LINE=LLO+256«LHI :S2=WIDE»LI 
NE 

FOR 1=708 TO 711:6ET #l,N:POKE 
I.N: NEXT I : POKE I , N 

SC = SC+( <LINE«WIDE) >K4) » (K4-INT ( 
K4/WIDE) «WIDE) :SH=INT(BC/2S6> :S 
L=SC-256*SH 
FOR 1=0 TO 2:PaKE DL+ I , 1 1 2 : NE X T 

I : N = 
FOR I=DL+3 TO DL+3*LPS(M8) STEP 

3:C=SC+N*WIDE: POKE I,64+M:T=IN 
T<C/256) 

POKE I+2,T:POKE I + 1 , C-256 »T : N=N 
+ 1 : NEXT 1 

POKE I,65:P0KE I + 1,0:PDKE 1+2, D 
L/256 

POKE 560,0:POKE 561,DL/256 
POKE ICBADR+X+1 , SH: POKE I CBADR+ 
X,SL:POKE I CBLEN + X + 1 , 1 + I NT ( SZ / 2 
56):P0KE ICBLEN+X,0 

POKE ICCOM + X, 7: I=USR <ADR C "hhhQL 
VE" ), X) : CLOSE # 1 : RETURN 
DATA 2,10,170,24,1,10,85,48,2,2 
0, 85, 48, 1 , 20, 42, 96 

DATA 1,20,21,192,2,40,42,96,2,4 
0,40,192,1,40,40,192 



4000 
4005 

4010 
4015 

4020 
4025 

4030 
4035 

4055 

4060 
4065 



FOR 1=0 TO 15:READ N:GM(I)=N:NE 

XT I 

A=PEEK ( 106) : T0P=A-36: 5P=TDP+4: S 

C=SP*256: DL=256«T0P: POKE 106, TO 

P:GRAPHICS 0:PRINT "<CLEAR>" 

X=16: ICC0M=B34: ICBADR=B36: ICBLE 

N=840: SCON=PEEK (559) :K4=4096 

OPEN #1 , 4,0, FL*:GET ttl,M:6ET #1 

,WIDE:6ET «1,LLD:GET #1,LHI:LIN 

E=LL0+2S6«LHI :SZ=WIDE«LINE 

FOR 1=708 TO 711:SET #1,N:P0KE 

I,N:NEXT I : POKE I,N 

SC = BC+MLINE*WIDE)>K4)*(K4-INT( 

K4/WIDE)«WIDE) :SH=INT(SC/256>:S 

L=SC-256*SH 

GRAPHICS Gf1(ri)+16:IF GM(M)=0 TH 

EN ? "INVALID MODE" -.RETURN 

DL = PEEK (560) +2 56«PEEK <561 ) :DL4 = 

DL + 4:DL5 = DL + S-. POKE DL4,SL: POKE 

DLS, SH 

POKE ICBADR+X+1 ,SH: POKE ICBADR+ 

X,SL:POKE 1 CBLEN + X + 1 , 1 + I NT ( SZ / 2 

56) :POKE ICBLEN+X,0 

POKE ICCOM + X, 7: I=USR(ADRC"hhhEaL 

VE") , X) :CLDSE «1:RETURN 

DATA 0,0, 0,0, 0,0,0, 13, 3, 4, 5, 6,0, 

7,0,0 



Program 2: Simple Load Routine 

5 CLR :D1M SM ( 1 5 ) , PL* ( 20 ) : FL«= " Dl : GB 
.PIX":GOSUB 4000 

6 FOR 1=0 TO 30000:NEXT I 



Program: Scieenbyter 

After the main listing of the BASIC program, 
you will find several programs to create disk files 
containing the machine language routines used in 
Screenbyter. If you prefer, you can easily add 
these DATA statements to your program and 
read them that way, or - as we prefer to do - load 
them into string constants and use them that way, 
without so many disk accesses. However, typing 
in strings that have lots of inverse and control 
characters in them can be tedious and often leads 
to typing errors, so these DATA statements are 
necessary in the published version of the program. 

If you are also using "Fontbyter" {COMPUTE!, 
September 1983), you might notice that Screen- 
byter follows the same structure. That's because 
Fontbyter was used as the starting point, and 
changed wherever Screenbyter's needs were dif- 
ferent. However, the line insert, line delete, and 
clear screen machine language routines are not 
identical, so don't try to use the similar Fontbyter 
routines for Screenbyter - you will hopelessly con- 
fuse your Atari if you do, and confused Ataris 
have unpleasant ways to express their frustration. 

Program 3: Screenbyter 

5 DIM FSAVE* (20) , FLOADt (20) , FL* (40) , 
FLL*<20) ,DELETE*(118) ,EXPAND*(102) 
,Nt(13),FlLL*(230) , CLEAR* £26) 
10 DIM PPB<7> ,BPL (7) ,MXW (7) ,LPS (7) , C 

OL ( 1 1 ) , CL (3) 
15 A=PEEK ( 106) : TOP=A-40: SP=T0P+8: SC= 

SP*256: DL =25 6* TOP: SCROLL=DL+600 : P 

GKE 106, TOP 
20 X=16: ICCOM=834: ICBADR=a36: ICBLEN= 

840: GRAPHICS 0:SCON=PEEK (559) :F=1 



December 1983 COMPUTE! 293 



670: K4 = 4096: N*="Nq equi val ent " 
C=707:FOR 1=0 TO 7:IF I/2=INT(I/2 
) THEN C=C+1:IF C=711 THEN C=712 
CQL(I)=C:NEXT I:CL<0)=0:CL(1)=85: 



CL (3) =255: FMS=ADR ( "hhhQ 



TO 7 : READ W, N 
=N: MXW ( I ) =C; L 
16, 112: GOTO 3 

#1,MD:BET #1, 
LHI : LN=LL0+2 

BET #1,N:P0KE 



CL (2) =170 
LVE" ) 
35 RESTORE 770:FOR 1=0 
,C, T:PPBC I ) =W: BPL ( I ) 
PS<I)=T:NEXT I:PQKE 
15 
40 OPEN *1 , 4, 0, FL*: BET 
WD:GET #l,LLO:SET tt 1 
56»LH1 :SZ=WD»LN 
45 FOR 1=0 TO 6 STEP 

COL (I ) , N: NEXT I 
50 POKE ICBADR+X+1 ,SH:POKE ICBADR+X, 
SL:POKE ICBLEN + X + 1 , 1 + I NT ( S Z /256 ) : 
POKE ICBLEN+X,0 
55 POKE ICCOM + X, 7: I=USR(FriS, X> : CLOSE 

#1 : RETURN 
60 OPEN «1 , a, 0, "Dl : TEMPFILE. PIX" :PUT 
#l,t1:PUT ttl,WIDE:PUT «1,LL0:PUT 
#1 , LHI 
65 FOR 1=0 TO 6 STEP 2:PUT *1,PEEKCC 
OL(I)):NEXT I : POKE PEEK t 1 683 ) +256 
*PEEK ( 1689) .PEEK ( 1690) 
70 POKE ICBADR + X+-1 , SH: POKE ICBADR+X, 
SL: POKE ICELEN+X+1, 1+INT( (L1NE*WI 
DE) /256) ; POKE ICBLEN + X,0 
75 POKE ICCDM+X, 1 1 : I=USR (FMS, X) :CLDS 

E *1:RETURN 
30 IF ( tLINE*WIDE-PI X ) <WIDE) THEN RE 

TURN 

85 C=USR(ADR (DELETES) ): POKE 1690, PEE 

K < PEEK ( 1638) +256* PEEK (1689) ) : POKE 

53279, 4:0N SPEED GOSUB 740:RETUR 

N 

90 IF ( CLINE*WIDE-PI X ) <WIDE) THEN RE 

TURN 
95 T=SC+WIDE*LINE-WIDE-l:C=INT(T/256 
) : T = T-256*C: POKE 205,T:POKE 206, C 
100 POKE (PEEK ( 16B8) +256*PEEK ( 1639) ) 

. PEEK ( 1690) 
105 C=USR (ADR (EXPAND*) ): POKE 1690,0: 
POKE 53279, 4: ON SPEED 60SUB 740: 
RETURN 
110 POKE 1690, PEEK (SO : POKE 1691,121 

:POKE 559, SCON: DPT=8 
115 aPT=PEEK (53279) : IF 0PT=6 THEN 60 

SUB ia0:GOTO 115 
120 N=PEEK (632) : C=USR (SCROLL, N) : IF N 
<15 THEN POKE 77,0: IF SPEED THEN 
GDSUB 740: POKE 53279,4 
125 IF PEEK(753)=3 THEN 60SUB 140:GD 

TO 115 
130 ON 0PT=3 GOTO 550: IF 0PT=5 THEN 

BOSUB 60:GOTO 115 
135 BOTO 115 
140 GOSUB 635:DN ( C= 1 1 6 ) +2 * ( C= 1 1 9 ) +3 

*(C=246) GOTO 80,90,170 
145 IF N = 60 THEN C = C-59 : SH I F= I NT ( C / 6 

4) : BOSUB 725 
150 IF C=31 OR C=30 OR C=26 OR C=50 

THEN BOSUB 720 
155 IF N=33 THEN SPEED= 1 « < SPEED=0 ) : B 

OSUB 715 
160 IF N=39 THEN VERS=255« ( VERS=0 ) : P 

OKE 1695, VERS: GOSUB 735 
165 RETURN 

170 C=USR (ADR (CLEAR*) , SP) : POKE 1690, 
0:POKE 1691 , PEEK ( 1696) : RETURN 

29d COMPUTE! December 1983 



175 
180 
185 



190 
1 95 



?00 
!05 

'.1 



215 
220 

225 

230 



240 
245 
250 
255 

260 



265 
270 
275 

280 
285 
290 



!95 



300 

305 
310 
315 

320 



325 



GOSUB 715:RETURN 

GOSUB 715 

DI=PEEK (632) : T= PEEK (644) : DI=DI+5 

* (DI=7) : DI=DI-1 1 : DPT = PEEK (532 7 9) 
: IF 0PT = 6 THEN 175 

IF DK0 OR DI>3 THEN 185 
DI=4*T + DI:IF D I / 2= I NT ( D I / 2 ) THEN 
POKE COL (DI ) , PEEK (COL (DI ) ) -2+25 
6* (PEEK (CDL (DI) > <2) : GOTO 185 
POKE COL ( DI > , PEEK (COL ( DI ) ) +2-256 

* (PEEK (COL (DI ) ) >253> : GOTO 185 
FLL*=FL*:FQR 1=1 TO LEN (FL* ) : N= A 
SC (FL* ( I , I ) ) : ON N = Sa BOSUB 245:N 
EXT I:FL*=FLL* 

FLL*=FLt:FOR 1=1 TO LEN(FL$):N=A 

SC CFL$ ( I , I ) ) : ON N=46 BOSUB 250:N 

EXT I:FL$=FLLS 

IF LEN(FL*)>8 THEN FL*=FL*(l,a) 

IF LEN(FL$)<1 THEN 265 

N=ASC (FL* ( 1 , 1 ) ) : IF N>90 OR N<65 

THEN 260 

IF LEN(FLS)<2 THEN GOTO 240 

FDR 1=2 TO LEN (FL*) : N=ASC (FL4 ( I , 

I)>:ON (N>90 OR N<65) AND (N>57 

OR N<48) GOTO 255:NEXT I 

FLL*="D1 ; ":FLL«(4) =FL* : N=0 : RETURN 

FLL* = FL* ( I + l , LEN (FL*) ) : RETURN 

FLL*=FL* ( 1 , I-l ): RETURN 

POP :? ■■ <:CLEAR>" :? "Illegal char 

acters in ";FL*:BOTO 265 

? "{CLEAR}":? FL*;" must start w 

ith a capital":? " 1 etter . " : GOTO 

265 

? "Let's try that 

= 1 : RETURN 

TRAP 275:0PEN # 1 , 4 , , FL* : N = : 

SE #1:RETURN 

? :? FL*;" isn't on disk in": 

drive 1":? "Insert disk with 



n ame ag a i n , 



N 



CLO 



'press RETURN. 



CLOSE 



L*; "and" : 

#1 
? "Or to try another -file name, 
press anyother key." 

ON PEEK (753) <>3 GOTO 285: BOSUB 6 
35:0N N=12 GOTO 270 : N= 1 : RETURN 
TRAP 310:DPEN 4tl,4,0,FL*:? FL*;" 

is already on disk.":? "Unless 
you change the name, the old" 
? "file will be lost. To change 

the namepress RETURN":? "Or pre 
S5 any other key to continue. ":C 
LOSE #1 

ON PEEK (753) <>3 BOTO 300: GOSUB 6 
35:0N N=12 GOTO 305 : N=0 : RETURN 
N= 1 : RETURN 
CLOSE ttl : N=0: RETURN 
? "{CLEARJC12 SPACES]- 



PU3S" 



GOSUB 695:? :? "What -file should 
hold your finished-f3 SPACES yscr 

een? (Eight c h ar act er s )": POKE 76 

4, 255: INPUT FSAVE* 

FL*=FSAVE*: BOSUB 205:ON N GOTO 3 

20: FSAVE* = FLL*: FSAVE* (LEN(FLL*) + 

1 )=" . PIX" 
330 FL*=FSAVE*: BOSUB 290: ON N GOTO 3 

20 
335 FLDAD*="":? :? "Would you like t 

D edit a screen you<:3 SPACES>hav 

e already saved? (Y or N) " 
340 GOSUB 635:QN N=35 GOTO 390:ON N= 



43 GOTO 34S:GOTO 340 255) 

345 ? :? "What is the name o-f the sa 480 POKE 1 678 , BPL ( MS ) - 1 : POKE 1630, LP 

ved screen -file? " : POKE 764,255 S(Ma)-l:POKE 1 692 , CL < 3 ) : POKE 16'? 

: INPUT FLOAD* 3 , PPB < MS ) : POKE 1 678 , LPS ( MS ) : POKE 

350 FLt=FLOAD*: GOSUB 205:DN N=0 GOTO 1679, WIDE 

355: GOTO 335 485 GOSUB 755:B0SUB 490:GOSUB 505:60 
355 FLOAD« = FLL*: FLOAD* (LEN (FLL* ) +1 ) = SUB 650:GDSUB 530:ON FLOAD GOSUB 

".PIX" 500:GOTO 110 

360 FL* = FLOAD*: GOSUB 270:ON N GOTO 3 470 OPEN tt 1 , 4 , ." D 1 : CLEARS . SUB ": FDR 

35:0PEN 4* 1 , 4 , 0, FLOAD* : GET #1,MD: 1 = 1 TO 26:GET tt 1 , N : CLE AR* ( I , I ) =C 

GET #1,WD:GET #1,LL0:6ET #i,LHI HR$(N):NEXT I : CLOSE #1 

365 CLOSE #1 : FL0AD=1 ; LN = LL0-i-256«LHI 495 C = USR ( ADR ( CLE ARS ), SP ): RETURN 

370 ? :? FLDAD«;" was saved as:":? " 500 T=S Z : FL*=FLDAD* : GOSUB 40:SZ=T:RE 

Mode ";MD;",":? "with ";LN;" lin TURN 

Bs":? "o-f ";WD;" characters per 50s DL4 = DL + 4 : DL5 = DL-^5 : FDR 1=0 TO 2:P 

line." OKE DL+ I , 1 1 2 : NEXT I : C= INT ( SC/256 

375 ? "I-f you wish to HIETiirE these p ):N = SC-C*256 

arameterspress RETURN.":? "To le 510 FOR 1=1686 TO 1683 STEP 2:P0KE I 

avB them dnSCHnrS?: press any ,N:P0KE I-^1,C:NEXT I ; N = 

i3 SPACESJother key." 515 FOR I=DL + 3 TO DL-i-3 *LPS < M8 ) STEP 
380 ON PEEK(753)<>3 GOTO 380:GOSUB 6 3 : C = SC-i-N * W I DE : POKE I , 64 + M : T= 1 NT ( 

35; IF N=12 THEN 375 C/256) 

385 M = MD: M8 = M-a: WIDE = WD: LINE = LN: GOTO 520 POKE I-h2,T;P0KE I ■»- 1 , C-256*T : N = N + 

445 1:NEXT I 

390 FLaAD = 525 POKE I, 65: POKE I + 1,0:POKE I-<-2,DL 
395 ? :? "What Antic mode will you w /256:RETURN 

ork in?":? :? " Ant i c " , " Gr aph i c s " 530 OPEN » 1 , 4 , , " D : SCROLL . SUB " : N= I NT 

:? 8,3:7 9,4:? "A <10)",5:? "B ( ( SCROLL /256 ): C = SCR0LL-256 »N 

11)", 6 535 POKE ICBADR-<-X-t-l , N: POKE ICBADR-frX, 
400 ? "C <12)",N*:? "D (13) ",7:7 "E C:POKE I CBLEN+ X + 1 , 3 : POKE ICBLEN-^ 

(14)-',N*:? "F (15)",8:P0KE 764,2 x,0 

55 540 POKE ICCGM + X, 7: I=USR (FMS, X> : CLOS 
405 TRAP 405:DPEN tt 1 , 4 , , " K : " : GET #1 E *1 

,N:CLDSE »1:0N N<56 OR (N>57 AND 545 POKE 560,0:POKE 56 1 , DL/256 : CLOSE 
N<65) OR N>70 GOTO 405 #1: RETURN 

410 M = N-4S: M = M-7« CM:>9> : Ma = M-8 550 POKE PEEK < 1 68B ) +256«PEEK ( 1 689 ), P 
415 ? :? "How wide a line?":? " (Mi EEK ( 1 690 ): GOSUB 60:GRAPHICS 0:PO 

nimum ";BPL(Ma);" bytes":? " KE 764,255 

{3 spaces: nia>: i mum ";MXW(M8);" by 555 ? "Screen is saved as D1:TEMPFIL 

tes) " E.SCR":? :? "Do you want to save 

420 POKE 764,255: TRAP 420: INPUT WIDE the screen as":? FSAVE*;"? (Y o 

: WIDE=INT (WIDE) : GOSUB 640:GOSUB j- N)" 

745 560 GOSUB 635 : ON N< >43 AND N< >35 GOT 
425 ? :? "How many lines do you want q 560: IF N=43 THEN GOSUB 610:GOT 
to edit?":? "(Minimum ";LPS(M8) q 570 

;", Maximum ";MXL;")" 565 FSAVE=0 

430 TRAP 430: INPUT LINE 570 ? :? "Do you want to quit? (Y or 
435 LINE=INT (LINE) : ON LINE<=MXL AND N>":POKE 764,255 

LINE> = LPS (MB) GOTO 440 : L I NE = M XL * 575 BOSUB 635:0N N043 AND N035 GOT 

(LINE>MXL) +LPS (MS) « (LINE<LPS (MS) 575;ON N=35 GOTO 580:ON N=43 G 

) OTO 605 

440 LHI=INT (LINE/256) : LL0=LINE-256»L 580 ? :? "To return to edit the same 

HI screen, <:4 SPACES>press [ilA**!!: " : 

445 7 "<:CLEAR>":? "You have chosen:" ? :? "To start SCREENBYTER over, 

:? "Save -file — ";FSAVE*:? "Load press aHESi" 

-file — ";FLOAD* 585 OPT = PEEK ( 53279 ): ON ( ( 0PT = 6 > + ( 2 « ( 
450 ? "Mode "jM:? LINE;" lines o-f "; 0PT = 3))) GOTO 590,595;GDTD 585 

WIDE;" characters" 590 POKE 1 06 , A : GRAPH I CS 0:GDTO 20 

455 ? "If this is right, press fe*f:1:>i 595 POKE 1 06 , TOP : FL*= " D 1 : TEMPF I LE . P I 

{9 SPACES>Td make changes, press X":IF FSAVE=1 THEN FL*=FSAVE* 

[ ■ ] :**<■ ]: " 600 GOSUB 755:G0SUB 40:GOSUB 505:POK 
460 ON (PEEK (53277) =6) + (2* (PEEK(5327 E S60,0iPOKE 56 1 , DL/ 256 : GOTO 110 

9)=3)) GOTO 465,315:G0T0 460 605 POKE 106,A:POKE 764 , 255 : GRAPH I CS 
465 ? " ■[CLEAR> Just a minute while I 0;END 

get myself{:6 SP ACES: t oget h er . . 610 FSAVE=1:TRAP 615:0PEN #2,4,0,FSA 

VE*:CLOSE tt2:XI0 36 , #2 , , , FSAVE 
470 SC=SC+ ( (LINEtWIDE) >K4) « (K4-INT (K *:XIO 33 , #2 , , , FSAVE* s GOTO 620 

4/WI DE) *WIDE) : SH=INT (SC/256) : SL= 615 CLOSE #2 

SC-256«SH 620 FL«= " D 1 : TEMPF I LE . P 1 X , " : FLL*=FSAV 
475 POKE 1670, WIDE-1 :POKE 1674,LL0-1 E* ( 4 , LEN ( FSAVE* ) ) s FL* ( 1 7 ) =FLL* 

+256* (LLO=0) : POKE 1 675 , LH I - ( LLO= 625 XIO 32 ,* 1 , , , FL*: RETURN 

December 1983 COMPUTt! 2<?5 



Program 5: Delete Line Routine 



630 ON PEEK(753)<>3 GOTO 630:RETURN 1056 DATA 56,165,205,237,163,6,133,2 
635 C = PEEK (764) : N = C-64*I NT (C/6-4 ) : RET 05 

URN 1064 DATA 165,206,233,0,133,206,56,1 
640 IF WIDE>=BPL (M8) AND WIDE<=MXW(M 65 

8) THEN RETURN 1072 DATA 203,237,163,6,133,203,165, 
645 WIDE=MXW (MS) « (WIDE>MXW (M8) > +BPL < 204 

MS) « (WIDE<BPL (MB) ): RETURN 1080 DATA 233,0,133,204,24,144,212.1 
650 OPEN »1 , 4, 0, "D: DELETES. SUB": FOR 65 

1 = 1 TO 11B:GET * 1 . N : DELETE* ( I , I ) 1088 DATA 208,208.206,172,163,6,169, 

=CHR« (N) : NEXT I : CLOSE #1 ' 

665 OPEN #1 , 4, 0, "D: EXPANDS. SUB" : FDR 1096 DATA 145,203,136,208,251,96 

1=1 TO 102:GET tt 1 , N : EXPAND* ( I , I ) 

=CHR* (N) : NEXT I : CLOSE #1 
680 OPEN ttl , 4, 0, "D: FILL. SUB" :FOR 1=1 

TO 230:GET # 1 , N : F I LL* ( I , I ) =CHR* 900 OPEN * 1 , 8 , ," D 1 : DELETE S . SUB " 

(N):NEXT I 910 FOR 1=1 TO 118:READ N:PUT #1,N:N 
690 CLOSE #1 : C = ADR (FILL*) : N=INT (C/25 EXT I : CLOSE #1:7 I : END 

6) : C=C-N*256: POKE 1702,76:PaKE 1 1000 DATA 104,56,173,152,6,237,136,6 

703,C:POKE 1704, N: RETURN 1008 DATA 133,203,173,153,6,233,0,13 
695 TRAP 710:XIO 36 , # 1 , , , " D 1 -. « . P I X 3 

1016 DATA 204,24,165,203,109,163,6,1 
700 ? :? "Currsntly saved screen fil 3 3 

e==" 1024 DATA 205,165,204,105,0,133,206, 
705 FL*="D1: «. FIX": OPEN #1,6,0,FL*:F 56 

OR 1=0 TO 50:INPUT »1,FLL*:? FLL 1032 DATA 173,138,6,237,140,6,133,20 

*:NEXT I 7 

710 CLOSE ttl:RETURN 1040 DATA 173,139,6,237,141,6,133,20 
715 FOR 1=0 TO 10:POKE 53279, 4:NEXT ^ 

I:RETURN 1048 DATA 165,208,240,5,162,255,24,1 
720 SHIF= (C=31 ) +2* (C=30) +3* (C=26) ^^ 

725 POKE 53279, 4:PQKE 1 692 , CL ( SH I F ) : 1056 DATA 2,166,207,172,163,6,177,20 

IF PPB(M8)=1 AND SHIF>0 THEN SHI 5 

F = 3:PDKE 1 692 , CL ( SH I F ) 1064 DATA 145,203,136,208,249,202,24 
730 RETURN 0,31 

735 N= (VERS = 255) : SOUND , 200 « N , 1 4*N , 1072 DATA 24,165,205,109,163,6,133,2 

4»N:RETURN 05 

740 FOR 1=0 TO 10:NEXT I : RETURN 1080 DATA 165,206,105,0,133,206,24,1 
745 IF BPL (M8) =MXW (M8) THEN MXL=LPS ( 65 

Ma):RETURN 1088 DATA 203,109,163,6,133,203,165, 
750 MXL=INT (K4/WIDE) : RETURN 204 

755 FOR 1=1677 TO 1681 STEP 2:PaKE I 1096 DATA 105,0,133,204,24,144,212,1 

,0:NEXT I:FOR 1=1686 TO 1688 STE 65 

P 2:P0KE I,SL:POKE I+1,SH:NEXT I 1104 DATA 208,208,206,172,163,6,169, 
760 N=128 + 64* ( PPB (MS) =2) : POKE 1696, IM 

sPOKE 1701, N 1112 DATA 145,205,136,208,251,96 
765 POKE 1672,0: POKE 1 676 , : VERS = : G 

OSUB 735: POKE 1 695 , VERS : RETURN PrOqram 6: CUFSOr MOVemcnt Routine 

770 DATA 2,10,170,24,1,10,85,48,2,20 „„„ „„^.. „, „ 

35 48 1 ^0 4^ 96 '^^ °^^'^ * 1 , 8, 0, " D 1 : SCROLL . SUB " 

775 DATA 1 ! 20^2 i , t 92 , 2 , 40 , 42 , 96 , 2 , 40 ^^^ ™ J=l TO 650:READ N:PUT «1,N:N 



, 40, 192, 1 , 40, 40, 192 

Program 4: insert Line Routine 



EXT IsCLOSE #1:? I : END 

1000 DATA 104,104,104,141,161,6,173, 

152 

1008 DATA 6,133,207,173,153,6,133,20 

900 OPEN ttl , a, 0, " Dl : EXPANDS. SUB" 8 

910 FDR 1=1 TO 102:READ NiPUT #1,N:N 1016 DATA 160,0,140,158,6,173,154,6 

EXT I:CLOSE #1:? I : END 1024 DATA 145,207,173,161,6,41,8,240 

1000 DATA 104,56,165,205,237,163,6,1 1032 DATA 92,173,161,6,41,4,208,71 

33 1040 DATA 172,157,6,173,160,6,42,176 

1008 DATA 203,165,206,233,0,133.204, 1048 DATA 8,136,208,250,141^160,6,24 

56 

1016 DATA 173,138,6,237,140,6,133,20 1056 DATA 54,42,136,208.252,141,148, 

7 6 

1024 DATA 173,139,6,237,141,6,133,20 1064 DATA 173,136,6,208,2,240,40,173 

a 1072 DATA 148,6,141,160,6,56,173,136 

1032 DATA 165,208,240,5,162,255,24,1 1080 DATA 6,233,1,141,136,6,56,173 

44 1088 DATA 152,6,233,1,141,152,6,173 

1040 DATA 2,166,207,172,163,6,177,20 1096 DATA 153,6,233,0,141,153,6,173 

3 1104 DATA 143.6,240,6,206,143,6,24 

1048 DATA 145,205,136,208,249,202,24 1112 DATA 144,99,173,158,6,9,8,141 

0,31 1120 DATA 158,6,24,144,88,172,157,6 

296 COMPUTE! December 1983 



1128 DATA 173, 160. (!), 106, 176, B, 136, 20 1600 DATA 105.3.133,205,165,206,105, 

8 

1136 DATA 250,141,160,6,240,71,106,1 1608 DATA 1 33 , 2l?t6 , 24 , 1 65 , 203 , 1 0V , 1 63 

36 , 6 

1144 DATA 208,252,141,148,6,173,136, 1616 DATA 133,203,165,204,105,0,133, 

6 204 

1152 DATA 205,134,6,208,2,240,54,173 1624 DATA 202,208,215,173,155,6,160, 

1160 DATA 148,6.141,160,6,24,173,136 

1168 DATA 6,105,1,141,136,6,24,173 1632 DATA 145,207,173,159,6,201,255, 

1176 DATA 152,6,105,1,141,152,6,173 208 

1184 DATA 153,6,105,0,141,153,6,173 1640 DATA 8,173,132,2,208,3,32,166 

1192 DATA 143,6,205,142,6,240,6,238 1648 DATA 6,96 

1200 DATA 143,6,24,144,8,173,158,6 

1208 DATA 9,4,141,158,6,173,161,6 PrOOram 7; Clear Scroen RoutlnG 

1216 DATA 41,1,240,83,173,161,6,41 '=' 

1224 DATA 2,208,62,173,140,6,205,133 900 OPEN # 1 , 8 , ," D 1 : CLEARS . SUB " 

1232 DATA 6,208,8.173,141,6,205,139 910 FOR 1=1 TO 26:READ N:PUT #1,N:NE 

1240 DATA 6,240,124,24,173,140,6,105 XT 1 : CLOSE #1:? I : END 

1248 DATA 1,14 1,140,6,173,141,6,105 ^^^ef DATA 1 04 , 1 04 , 1 04 , 1 33 , 208 , 1 67 , o2 

1256 DATA 0.141,141,6,24,173,152,6 ,169 

1264 DATA 109,163.6,141,152,6,173.15 1008 DATA 0,133,707,160,255,145,207, 

' ■ ■ ■ " 136 

1272 DATA 6,105,0,141,153,6,173,145 1016 DATA 208,251,145,207,230,208,20 

1280 DATA 6.205,144,6,240.6,238,145 2,208 

128B DATA 6,24,144,75,173,158,6,9 1024 DATA 238,96 

1296 DATA 1,14 1,158,6,24,144,64,173 

1304 DATA 140,6,208,5,173,14 1,6,240 prograiTI 8: Fill Subroutine 

1312 DATA 54,56,173,140.6,233,1,141 ^ 

1320 DATA 140,6,173,141,6,233,0,141 900 OPEN # 1 , S , , " D 1 : F ILL . SUB " 

1328 DATA 14 1^6,56,173,152,6,237,163 910 FOR 1=1 TO 230:READ N:PUT #1,N:N 

1336 DATA 6,141,152,6,173,153,6,233 EXT I:CLOSE #1:7 I : END 

1344 DATA 0,141,153,6,173,145,6,240 1000 DATA 173,136,6.141,135,6,173,15 

1352 DATA 6,206,145,6,24,144,8,173 4 

1360 DATA 158,6,9,2,141,158,6,173 1008 DATA 6,141,146,6,165,207,133,20 

1368 DATA 152,6,133,207,173,153,6,13 3 

3 1016 DATA 165,208,133,204,162,0,173, 

1376 DATA 208,173,132,2,240,36,160,0 160 

1384 DATA 177,207,141,154,6,73,255,4 1024 DATA 6,141,148,6,172,157,6,78 

5 1032 DATA 148,6,176,52,136,208,248,1 
1392 DATA 160,6,141,155,6,173,160,6 73 

1400 DATA 73,255,45,154,6,13,155,6 1040 DATA 146,6,45,148,6,141,149,6 

1408 DATA 141,155,6,173,158,6,240,40 1048 DATA 173,156,6,45,148,6,205,149 

1416 DATA 208,41,160,0,177,207,141,1 1056 DATA 6,240,20,141,149,6,173,148 

55 1064 DATA 6,73,255,45,146,6,13,149 

1424 DATA 6,173,156,6,45,160,6,141 1072 DATA 6,141,146,6,24,144,205,173 

1432 DATA 16 1,6,173,160,6,73,255,45 1080 DATA 146,6,129,207,141,154,6,96 

1440 DATA 155!, 6, 141 , 155, 6, 13, 161 , 6 1088 DATA 173,135,6,205,134,6,240,24 

1448 DATA 14 1,154,6,173,158,6,208,3 7 

1456 DATA 24,144,98,41,8,240,17,56 1096 DATA 238,135,6,24,165,203,105,1 

1464 DATA 173,150,6,233,1,141,150,6 1104 DATA 133,203,165,204,105,0,133, 

1472 DATA 173,151,6,233,0,141,151,6 204 

1480 DATA 173,158,6,41,4,240,17,24 1112 DATA 16 1,203,141,148,6,173,165, 

1488 DATA 173,150,6,105,1,141,150,6 6 

1496 DATA 173,151,6,105,0,141,151,6 1120 DATA 141,164,6,173,164,6,45,148 

1504 DATA 173^158,6,41,1,240,18,24 1128 DATA 6,141,149,6,173,164,6,45 

1512 DATA 173,150,6,109,163,6,141,15 1136 DATA 156,6,205,149,6,240,13,172 

1144 DATA 157,6,78,164,6,176,193,136 

1520 DATA 6,173,151,6,105,0,141,151 1152 DATA 208,248,240,223,172,157,6, 

1528 DATA 6,173,158,6,41,2,240,24 14 

1536 DATA 56,173,150,6,237,163,6,141 1160 DATA 164,6,176,29,136,208,248,1 

1544 DATA 150,6,173,151,6,233,0,141 73 

1552 DATA 151,6,24,144,3,24,144,67 1168 DATA 164,6,45,156,6,141,149,6 

1560 DATA 173,150,6,133,203,173,151, 1176 DATA 173,164,6,73,255,45,148,6 

6 1184 DATA 13,149,6,141,148,6,24,144 
1568 DATA 133,204,24,173,48,2,105,4 1192 DATA 219,162,0,173,148,6,129,20 
1576 DATA 133,205,173,49,2,133,206,1 3 

74 1200 DATA 173,146,6,129,207,141,154, 

1584 DATA 162,6,160,0,165,203,145,20 6 

5 1208 DATA 56,173,135,6,237,136,6,240 

1592 DATA 200,165,204,145,205,24,165 1216 DATA 12.168,136,240,8,173,156,6 

,205 1224 DATA 145,207,136,208,251,96 © 

December 1983 COMPUTE! 297 



Disk Explorer 
For Commodore 



Robert W, Boker 



Ifi/ou've ever been curious about tlie 1541's memonj, 
this program giivs you an inside vieto of the unit's 
ROMs. It alloios you to display both a disassembly of 
the 1541's ynacltiue language instructions and a hex 
dump of the drive's RAM and ROM addresses. 



"Disk Explorer," a program written for the 64 but 
suitable for other Commodore users, is designed 
to let you look around inside the VlC-1541 disk 
controller. You can directly display a disassembly 
of the machine language instructions in the disk 
unit's ROMs. Alternately, vou can display a 
hexadecimal dump of any area of the disk con- 
troller 6502 microprocessor's address space, in- 
cluding peripheral chips, RAM, or ROM. With 
some knowledge about assembly language and a 
little about hardware, this program provides an 
easy method of exploring the disk controller. 

A Variety Of Choices 

When the program starts, there's a short delay 
while a data array is built for the disassembler 
(lines 110 - 130). Then you're prompted for the 
starting address of where you'd like to start looking. 
The desired address can be entered as a decimal 
number, or a hexadecimal number preceded by a 
dollar sign. Program lines 160-240 validate the 
digits of the address and convert a hex address to 
a decimal value. An invalid address is discarded 
and you're prompted again for the starting address. 

The program normally displays the data on 
the screen, but you can select printed output as 
shown in lines 250 - 270. You'll notice the OPEN 
statement in line 270 opens either device 3 or 4 

298 COMPUTE' December 1983 



depending on whether a printed output is desired . 
Device 3 is the display screen, and device 4 is the 
printer. This provides a simple switch between 
devices for all following PRINT#4 statements 
without having separate routines for display and 
printed data. You can still force output to the dis- 
play screen by using the simple PRINT statement. 

The last prompt is for the data display type: 
either a hexadecimal dump or an instruction dis- 
assembly. If a hex dump is selected, then eight 
bytes of data are displayed, in hex, per screen 
line. Each line also includes the hex address and 
the ASCII translation of the data displayed. The 
ASCII translation is simply the displayable char- 
acter for each byte shown, with nondisplayable 
characters converted to periods. 

An instruction disassembly shows one 
6502 instruction per line using the standard 
mnemonics. Each line indicates the address of the 
instruction in both decimal and hex, along with 
the hex opcode for the instruction displayed. To 
make things a little easier to read, branch instruc- 
tions indicate the hex address to which the in- 
struction would branch rather than an offset from 
the current location. 

Three Choices 

When displaying data cin the screen, the program 
will pause after 16 lines of hex data or 20 disas- 
sembled instructions. A prompt message will ask 
whether you want to: continue displaying data 
with the next sequential location; restart the dis- 
play with a new address and/or format; or stop 
the program and return to BASIC. 

When data is being printed, pressing any key 



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on the keyboard will halt the printer at the end of 
the next printed line and display the same pause 
message. You'll also have the same options. I 
would suggest using the space bar or some key 
other than the C, R, or S characters to avoid pos- 
sible problems. 

The heart of the program is the M-R command 
to the disk unit that lets you read any address 
within the disk controller. All reads of the disk 
address space are done by the subroutine in lines 
605-607. Line 605 converts the address (A) to the 
corresponding high (H) and low (L) bytes for the 
M-R command. Line 606 first issues the M-R com- 
mand and then the GET#15 command to read the 
data from the address specified. The remainder of 
line 606 and the beginning of line 607 convert the 
data into the decimal value (V) of the byte. 

Exploring The Controller 

Now that we know how to use the program, what 
do we do with it? The first thing you'll probably 
want to look at is the interrupt vectors at the top 
of the ROMs . The NMI vector is at SFFFA - $FFFB, 
the RESTART vector is at $FFFC - $FFFD, and the 
IRQ vector is at $FFFE - $FFFF. The data in each 
pair of bytes will be the hex address of the start of 
the routine that processes the corresponding in- 
terrupt. Remember that the addresses will be in 
the standard 6502 format, low byte first, then 
high byte. 

The RESTART vector is probably the most 
reveaUng pointer since this is where the disk con- 
troller starts executing instructions when the unit 
is first turned on. If you follow the instruction 
flow from there, you'll see the self-test procedures 
executed when the unit is turned on and the disk 
controller checks to see that everything is working 
properly. After these tests, the unit goes on to 
initialize various pointers and control flags and 
then waits for a command. 

There's 2K of RAM from locations $0000 - 
$07FF plus 8K of ROM from locations $C000 - 
$FFFF. Additionally, there are two 6522 Versatile 
Interface Adapters (VIAs) based at locations $1800 
and $1C00. If you do go peeking elsewhere, you 
may see "reflections" of various devices at other 
addresses due to the address decoding scheme 
within the disk controller. 

For PET/CBM And VIC Users 

Although written for the Commodore 64, this 
program can also be used on the older PET and 
CBM models to look into the 4040, 8050, and simi- 
lar disk units. However, those units have a much 
more complex structure with two microprocessors 
and shared memory. You might want to refer to 
Jim Butterfield's article "Inside the 2040 Disk 
Drive" on page 94 of the January/February 1980 
issue of COMPUTE! for more information. 

302 COMPUIi! December 1983 



For VIC-20 users, at least 8K memory expan- 
sion is required. You'll have to tinker with re- 
ducing the length of the displayed data to fit the 
22-column screen. The hex dump can be trimmed 
to four bytes per line by simply changing the 
heading in line 1000 and the FOR-NEXT loop count 
in line 1010. The disassembly display is a little 
harder to trim, but you could eliminate the decimal 
address (line 330), separating spaces in the object 
(lines 350 and 370) and corresponding blanks for 
no object (SPC in lines 360 and 390), plus fix the 
heading (hne305). 

Disk Explorer 

90 PRINT" {CLR}[RVS} D I S k{3 SPACES3l O 
{ SPACE }0 K E R" 

100 PRINT" f 3 DOWN} INITIALIZING 

105 OPEN15,8,15 

110 DIM M?(255):{2 SPACES }h$="0123456789A 

BCDEF" 
120 FOR X=0 TO 255: READ A$ : IF A$="*" TH 
EN A$="0*?*" 

130 A$=LEFT$(A$+"[6 SPACES} .", 6 ) : M$(X)=A 

$: NEXT X 
140 PRINT" {CLR} ENTER DECIMAL STARTING ADD 

RESSfDOWN] 

150 print"or hex address preceded by ' $ ' 

(down) 
160 input a$; if left$ ( a? , 1 ) =" $ " then 

170 FOR X=l TO LEN(A$): C$=MID$ ( A? , X, 1 ) : 

[space! IF C$ < "0" OR C5 > "9" THEN 1 

40 
180 NEXT X: A=INT{ VAL{ A$ ) /8) *8 : GOTO 250 
190 A=0: IF LEN(A$)<2 THEN 140 
200 FOR X=2 TO LEN(A$): C5=MID$ ( A$ , X, 1 ) : 

[SPACE} IF C? < "0" THEN 140 
210 IF C$<="9" THEN A=A*16+VAL (C$ ) : GOTO 

[SPACE} 240 
220 IF C$<"A" OR C$>"F" THEN 140 
230 A=A*16+ASC(C$)-55 
240 NEXT X 
250 INPUT" [down 3 WANT PRINTED COPY (Y/N) 

[3 SPACES} N[ 3 LEFT}";C$ 
260 P=3:IF LEFT${C$,1)="Y" THEN P=4 
270 0PEN4,P 

275 INPUT" {DOWN} HEX DUMP (H) OR DISASSEMB 
LY (D){3 SPACES]H{3 LEFT]";DM5 

276 IF DM$<>"D" AND DM$<>"H" THEN 275 
280 PRINT" [CLR}"r: IF P=3 THEN 300 

2^0 PRINT"DEPRESS ANY KEY TO HALT PRINTER 

":PRINT#4 
300 IP DMS="H" THEN 1000 
302 IF DM$<>"D" THEN 300 
305 PRINT#4, "{RVS} LOC-DEC/HEX [ 3 SPACES}0 

EJECT [3 SPACES} DISASSEMBLY[ 2 SPACES} 

": PRINT#4 
310 IF P=3 THEN FOR N=l TO 20 
320 IF A>65535 THEN A=A-65536 
330 A5=STR$(A): L=LEN{A$): PRINT#4, " "SPC ( 

7-L);A$;" "; 
340 Y=A:GOSUB 6^0: PRINT#4, " : " ; 
350 GOSUB 605: GOSUB 630: PRINT#4, " " ; : 

[2 SPACES } A=A-l-l : [2 SPACES} A$=M? (V) 
355 IF A>65535 THEN A=A-65536 
360 IF LEFT$(A?, 1)="0" THEN PRINT#4 , " " SPC 

(7) ;MID$(A$,2,3) : GOTO 540 
370 GOSUB 605: GOSUB 630: PRINT#4," " ; : A 

=A+1 



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380 IF LEFT$(A$, 1)="2" THEN 470 

390 PRINT#4,""SPC{4);MID${A$,2,3) ;" " ; : I 

F MID$(A$,5,1)<>"R" THEN 420 
400 IF V>127 THEN V=V-256 
410 y=A+V: IF Y>65535 THEN Y=Y-65536 
415 GOSUB 610: GOTO 530 
420 IF MID5CA?, 5, !)="#" THEN PRINT#4,"#?" 

;: GOSUB 630: GOTO 530 
430 IF HID${A$,6, 1)=")" THEN PRINT#4,"C"; 
440 PRINT#4, "?"; : GOSUB 630: IF MID$(A$,5 

,1)=" " THEN 530 
450 IF MID$(A?,5,2)="Y)" THEN PRINT#4,"), 

Y" : GOTO 540 
460 PRINT#4, ", ";MID$(A$,5,2) : GOTO 540 
470 V1=V: GOSUB 605: GOSUB 630: A=A+1 : PR 

INT#4,"[2 SPACES}";MID$(A$,2,3);" "; 
475 IF A>65535 THEN A=A-65536 
4^0 Y=V1+(256*V) 
490 IF MID$(A$, 5. 1)=")" THEN PRINT#4,"("; 

: GOSUB 610: PRINT#4,")": GOTO 540 
500 GOSUB 610 

510 IF MID$(A$,5,1)=" " THEN 530 
520 PRINT#4,", ",-MID5(A$,5,l) r 
530 PRINT#4 

540 IF P=3 THEN NEXT N: GOTO 560 
550 GET C$: IF C5="" THEN 320 
560 PRINT"{DOWN] {RVSlCONTINUE, RESTART, O 

R STOP (C,R,S) ?{2 SPACES]"; 
570 GET C$: IF C$="C" THEN 280 
580 IF C$="R" THEN CLOSE 4: GOTO 140 
590 IF C$<>"S" THEN 570 
595 CL0SE15 
600 PRINT#4: CLOSE 4: END 

605 H=INT(A/256) :L=A-(H*256) 

606 PRINT#15, "M-R" ;CHR$CL) ?CHR$(H) :GET#15 
, AC$ : I FAC$= " " THENV=0 : RETURN 

607 V=ASC(AC$) ; RETURN 
610 PRINT#4,"$"; 

620 V=INT(Y/256) : GOSUB 630; V=Y-(V*256) 

630 H=INT(V/16): L=V-(H*16) 

640 PRINT#4,MID$(H$,H+1,1);MID$(H$,L+1,1) 

; : {2 SPACES} RETURN 
650 DATA 0BRK, lORAX) ,*,*,*, lORA, lASL,* 
660 DATA 0PHP, 1ORA#,0ASL, *,*, 20RA,2ASL,* 
670 DATA IBPLR, lORAY), *,*,*, 10RAY,1ASLX,* 
680 DATA 0CLC,2ORAY,*,*,*,2ORAX,2ASLX,* 
690 DATA 2JSR, lANDX) ,*,*,1BIT, lAND, IROL,* 
700 DATA 0PLP,1AND#,0ROL,*,2BIT,2AND,2ROL 

* 
f 

710 DATA IBMIR, lANDY) ,*,*,*, lANDX, IROLX,* 

720 DATA 0SEC,2ANDY,*,*,*,2ANDX,2ROLX,* 

730 DATA 0RTI,1EORX),*,*,*,1EOR, ILSR,* 

740 DATA 0PHA,1EOR#,0LSR,*,2JMP,2EOR,2LSR 

* 
t 

750 DATA IBVCR.IEORY), *,*,*, 1E0RX,1LSRX,* 

760 DATA 0CLI,2EORY, *,*,*, 2EORX,2LSRX,* 

770 DATA 0RTS, lADCX), *,*,*, lADClROR,* 

780 DATA 0PLA, 1ADC#,0ROR,*,2JMP),2ADC,2RO 

R,* 
790 DATA IBVSR, lADCY), *,*,*, 1ADCX,1R0RX,* 
800 DATA 0SEI, 2ADCY, *,*,*, 2ADCX, 2R0RX,* 
810 DATA *, ISTAX) ,*,*,1STY, ISTA, ISTX,* 
820 DATA 0DEY,*,0TXA,*,2STY,2STA,2STX,0 
830 DATA 1BCCR,1STAY) ,*,*, ISTYX, ISTAX, 1ST 

XY,* 
840 DATA 0TYA,2STAY,0TXS,*,*, 2STAX,*,* 
850 DATA 1LDY#,1LDAX),1LDX#,*,1LDY,1LDA, 1 

LDX,* 
860 DATA 0TAy, 1LDA#,0TAX,*,2LDY,2LDA,2LDX 

870 DATA 1BCSR,1LDAY),*,*, ILDYX, ILDAX, ILD 
304 COMPUTE! December 1983 



XY,* 
880 DATA 0CLV,2LDAY,0TSX.-*,2LnYX,2LDAX,2L 

DXY,* 
890 DATA 1CPY#,1CMPX),*,*,1CPY,1CMP,1DEC, 

900 DATA 0INY,1CMP#,0DEX,*,2CPY,2CMP,2DEC 
* 
# 

910 DATA 1BNER,1CMPY),*,*?,*,1CMPX,1DECX,* 

920 DATA 0CLD,2CMPY, *,*,*, 2CMPX, 2DE;CX,* 

930 DATA 1CPX#,1SBCX),*,*,1CPX,1SBC,1INC, 

* 

940 DATA 0INX,1SBC#,0NOP,*,2CPX,2SBC,2INC 

* 
I 

950 DATA IBEQR, ISBCY) ,*,*,*, ISBCX, IINCX,* 

960 DATA 0SED,2SBCY,*,*,*,2SBCX,2INCX,* 

1000 PRINT#4,"{RVS} L0C{3 SPACES] 

[2 SPACES] 1{ 2 SPACES32E2 SPACES] 3 

{2 SPACES}4{2 SPACES]5[2 SPACES)6 

{2 SPACES}7{2 SPACEsi-ASCII- ": PRINT 

#4: 

1010 IF P=3 THEN FOR N=l TO 16 

1040 Y=A;GOSUB 620: PRINT#4, " : " ; 

1045 F$=" ": FOR X=l TO 8 

1047 IF A>65535 THEN A=A-65536 

1050 GOSUB 605: GOSUB 630: PRINT#4, " "r 

1060 V=(V AND 127): IF V<32 OR V>95 THEN 

{ SPACE} F$=F$+" ." : GOTO 1080 

1070 F$=F$+AC$ 

1080 A=A+1: IF A>65536 THEN A=A-65536 

1085 NEXT X: PRINT#4,F$ 

1090 IF P=3 THEN NEXT N:GOTO 560 

1100 GETC5:IFCS=""THEN1020 

1110 GOTO 560 Q 




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multiple-deck games pose no problem 
if you play properly. You can win just 
as easily in 1983asyou could in 1961 
when the first Blackjack strategies 
were created. 

This ad is your cue to join the small 
group of Blackjack players who are 
no longer gambling. Become a strategy 
player and win. Consistently. 

The Obstacle 

Despite the wild claims made by the 
Blackjack system charlatans, it is not 
possible to learn an effective strategy 
overnight. Learning an effective strate- 
gy takes time and discipline. If learning 
a strategy were easy, everyone would 
be making a living playing Blackjack. 
As It stands, less than one percent 
play well enough to make money. 

The Solution 
BLACKJACK TEACHER simulates, in 
precise detail, the. events that tran- 
spire in actual casino play. The display 
screen depicts the top view of a 
Blackjack table. You interact with the 
program just as you would an actual 
game. Computer controlled players 
occupy adjacent seats. All events 
occur in real-time. 



BLACKJACK TEACHER teaches seven 
different strategies of varying complex- 
ity and accuracy. This spectrum of 
strategies allows you to select a 
strategy that suits your needs. 

BU^CKJACK TEACHER monitors your 
betting and strategy decisions (hit/ 
stand/double/split/insurance). If your 
decisions are incorrect within the 
guidelines of your strategy, the system 
will display error messages showing 
you the correct decisions. 

BLACKJACK TEACHER is the result of 
over ten years of Blackjack research . 
The strategies encompassed by the 
system were developed using com- 
puters. The more complex strategies 
are among the most powerful ever 
devised. 

Complete documentation is included 
which tells you everything you need to 
know to become an expert strategy 
player. 

The SOTA Story 

SOTA Enterprises has consistently 
produced nothing less than the 
highest quality software. When you 
buy software from SOTA, we do our 
utmost to make sure you get your 
money's worth. 



ATTENTION VIC 20 USERS 
A new version of BLACKJACK 
TEACHER is now available for the 
VIC 20. Although not as compre- 
hensive as the original 32K program, 
the VIC 20 version does teach Basic 
Strategy - a must for the Blackjack 
strategy beginner! 



FILL OUT AND MAIL TODAY! 

Name 

Address 

City 

State 



Zip 



Check Box 

D VIC 20 ($19.95) 

D COMMODORE 64 ($49.95) 

D PET (32K) ($49.95) 

D PET 2001 (32K) ($49.95) 

D CBM 4032 ($49.95) 

Media 
D Cassette D 



Disc 



Make Check or Money Order Payable to: 

SOTA Enterprises, Inc. 

833 Garfield Ave, Suite 101 
South Pasadena, CA 91030 

Include $2.50 Postage and Handling •California Residents add &k% Sales Tax 




f 



THE 
HIDDEN PITFALLS 

OF 
COMPUTER ARITHMETIC 



Michael A Covington 



Computers sometimes give "false" results after per- 
forming calculations. This article discusses the way a 
computer handles numbers, describes the most common 
types of errors, and offers solutions. 



Here is a simple — and surprising — BASIC pro- 
gram to try on your computer. 

10 LET A = 

20 LET A = A + 0.1 

30 PRINT A 

40 GO TO 20 

You'd expect it to print the numbers, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 
0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and so on until you stop it. But unless 
your computer is a TI-99 — which is different in a 
way we'll get to presently — you probably won't 
get what you're expecting. If you let the program 
run long enough, you'll get numbers that are just 
a bit off, such as 5.00001 or 4.99999 instead of 5. 
The margin of error may increase as the program 
runs, or it may rise for a while, then diminish, 
then go off in the other direction, then diminish 
to zero again, over and over. 

Tlie Computer's Approach To Numbers 

What's going on? Well, you've just seen that num- 
bers are not always what they seem inside a com- 
puter. We humans ordinarily write numbers in 
base 10 notation — that is, there are ten different 
digits (0 through 9); and in a number like 1234.567, 
the successive digits represent thousands, hun- 
dreds, tens, ones, and, to the right of the point, 
tenths, hundredths, and thousandths. But num- 
bers inside the computer are represented in binary 
(base 2) notation. In the binary system there are 

306 COMPUTE! December1983 



only two digits, and 1, and the successive digits 
represent sixteens, eights, fours, twos, ones, and, 
to the right of the point, halves, quarters, eighths, 
sixteenths, and so on. Thus, for example, the 
decimal number 9.5 goes into binary as 1001.1 
(one eight, no fours, no twos, one one, and one 
half). The place value associated with each digit is 
half that of the preceding one. 

So far, so good. In binary, 2 becomes 10 (one 
two, no ones), 8 becomes 1000, 39.125 becomes 
100111.001, one-sixteenth becomes 0.0001, and so 
on. But the binary system suffers from a problem 
that we're already familiar with from the decimal 
system — there are numbers which can't be rep- 
resented using a finite number of digits. 

Consider 1/3, for example. In decimal notation, 
1/3 is approximately 0.3333, A better approxima- 
tion is 0.3333333333. But a completely correct rep- 
resentation would require an infinitely long list of 
3s — you can keep adding decimal places until 
your paper leaves the galaxy and still never quite 
get to 1/3. Not surprisingly, 1/3 isn't representable 
with a finite number of binary digits either. 

What is surprising is that many numbers 
that give us no trouble in decimal notation 
aren't representable exactly in a finite number of 
binary digits. In fact, lyiosf decimal numbers 
can't be represented exactly in binary. Consider 
0.1, for instance. There is no combination of 
halves, quarters, eighths, sixteenths, and such 
that exactly adds up to 0.1. If we had an infinite 
number of binary digits, we could represent 0.1 
as 0.00011001100110011001100110011..., with the 
0011 repeating ad infinitum. But the computer 
has only a finite number of binary digits — usually 
about 24 — and hence it can't represent 0. 1 exactly. 



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That's why what gets added to A in the program 
above isn't exactly 0.1. 

A Matter Of Precision 

In order to be representable exactly in binary, a 
number has to be divisible by an integral power 
of 2, such as 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and so forth. 
Since 1 is in the list, all integers (numbers divisible 
by 1) go into binary without any problem, and 
you can trust your computer's representation of 
them. But numbers with decimal places almost 
always get distorted a bit within the computer. 

This is of practical concern because if numbers 
aren't represented exactly within the computer, 
your program can't test for precise equality be- 
tween numbers that were arrived at in different 
ways. Try this program, for example: 

10 LET A = 
20 LET A = A + 0.3 
30 PRINT A 
40 IF A = 3 THEN 60 
50 GO TO 20 
60 END 

Add 0.3 to ten times and you get 3, so the pro- 
gram will terminate after ten cycles through the 
loop, right? Wrong. What you're adding to A 
isn't 0.3 exactly, but some binary number very 
close to 0.3. Add that number to ten times, and 
you won't get 3 exactly, though you'll be awfully 
close — probably so close that your computer will 
round the value to 3 before printing it out. Line 
40, however, asks whether A is equal to exactly 3 
(unlike 0.3, 3 is an integer and is representable 
exactly). And A will never hit 3 exactly — so line 
40 never has any effect, and the program runs 
without end. (A few computers have rounding 
routines that will catch the discrepancy and make 
line 40 work the way you intended — but don't 
count on it.) 

This leads to an important rule: 

Never test whether two numbers are 
exactly equal unless both are integers and 
result from a process that can't possibly pro- 
duce anything that isn't an integer. Instead, 
use "less-than-or-equal-to" or "greater-than- 
or-equal-to" (to catch numbers going over or 
under a limit), or test lohether the difference 
between two numbers is sufficiently small. 

For example, in the program above, we could 
change line 40 to: 

40 IF A >= 3 THEN 60 

This will make the program terminate when A 
reaches or exceeds 3. But that may not be quite 
what we want — we don't know whether our 
first attempt to get 3 will be a little low or a little 
high, and if it's a little low, the statement we've 
just formulated will not catch it. So we try this: 

40 IF ABS(A-3) < 0.001 THEN 60 



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ATARI SOFTWARE 



ADVENTURE INTL 

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Keys/Acheron (OD) . . $14 

Cursaof Ra(C/D) $14 

Danger/Drindi5ti(C/D) $14 

Jumpman(C;D) $27 

Escp VuicansislelD) .$20 
Crypt of Undead(D) . . $20 

Nightmare 10) $20 

Armor Assault (D) .... $27 

Monster Maze (R) $27 

Alien Garden (R) $27 

PlattermarnaJR) $27 

Morloc's Tower (C) ... $14 

King Arthur's Heir 

(D)$20(C)$14 

Hellfife Warrior (C/D) . $27 
Invasion Orion (C/D) . . $17 
Temple of Aps. IC/D) . $27 

Star Warrior (C/D) $27 

Dragon's Eye (D) $20 

Crush Cfumble (C/D) .$20 
GEBELLI 

Firebird (R) $27 

Embargo (R) $30 

Candy Factory (D) S20 

Match Racers (C/D) . . $20 

Dr. Goodcode(D) $20 

HAYDEN 

Go (D)$23(C)S20 

Sargonll . . (D) $23 (C) $20 
Bulldog Pinball(C) ... $20 
HES 

Coco (C/D) $34 

Coco II (C/D) $27 

INFOCOM 

Suspended (D) $34 

Zo'kl,llorlll(D) $27 

Starcross(D) $27 

Deadline (D) $34 

Witness (D) $34 

INHOME 

Baseball . . (R)$23(D|S23 

Crypts ot Terror 

(D)$23(C)$20 

INNOVATIVE DESIGN 

Pool 1.5(0) $23 

Juggfer(D} $20 

Speedway Blast 

(D)$20(R)$27 

Pool 400(H) $27 

JV SOFTWARE 

Jrny to Pints (C/D) S20 

Action Quest (C/D) ... $20 

Ghost Encount. (C/D) . 520 

LJK 

Letter Perfect (0) ... $104 

Data Perfect (0) $74 

Letter Perfect (R) ...$137 

Edit 6502 (R) $137 

MONARCH DATA SYS. 

ABC Compiler (D) $48 

OOESTA 

Chess (D| $45 

Checkers (D) $34 

Odin{D) $34 

OPTIMIZED SYSTEMS 

C-65 (D) $5B 

Bug-65(D) $23 

MaK.65(D) $58 

Basic A -I- (D) $58 

Action (D) $65 

Speed Read Plus (D) . . $40 

PHOENIX 

BIfthol Phoenix (D) .. $16 

Adv. In Time (D} $20 

QUALITY 

Fastgammon (C) $14 

Name Thai Song 

., (D)S13(C)$11 

Starbase Hyperion 

(D)$17(C)$14 

AIIBaba/40Thvs(D) . . $20 
Jeepar Creepers (D| . . $20 
ROKLAN 

Gorf (D) $27 (R) $30 

Wizard/Wor . (D)$27 (R!$30 
Dlx Invaders (D)$23(R)S27 
AntiSubPtrl (D)$20(C|S14 

Telecom (D) $49 

Space Journey (R) ...$30 
SENTIENT 

Gold Rush (O) $23 

Cyborg(D) $23 

SIERRA ON-LINE 
Mission Asteroids (D) $17 
Ulys.&QIdn Fleece (D) $27 
Crossfire , . (D)$20(R)$23 

MouseattacK(D) $23 

Jawbreaker (D)$20(R)$23 

Threshold (D) $27 

Softporn (D) $20 

Ultima 11(D) $39 



SIERRA ON-LINE 

Marauder (D) $23 

Lunar Leeper(D| $20 

Wiz& Princess (D) ... $22 

Frogger(C/D) $23 

SIRIUS 

Alpha Shield (R) $27 

Wavy Navy (D) $23 

Bandits (D| $23 

Space Eggs(D) $20 

Sneakers (D) $20 

Way Out (D| $27 

Type Attack (D) $27 

Repton (D) $27 

Critical Mass(D) $27 

Fast Eddy (R) $23 

Worm War iR) $23 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troop 1,2 (D) . $30 

Klndercom3 (0) $20 

Rhymes* Riddles (0) $20 
Hey Diddle Diddle (D) . $20 
Srch AmzniiThngslO) $27 

Story Machine (D( $23 

Face Make r(D| $23 

STRATEGIC SIM. 
Cosmic Balance (D) ..$27 
Cosmic Balance 11(D) $27 
Tigers In Snow (C/D) .. $27 
Battle of ShIlofi (C/D) , $27 
Battle of Norm, (C/D) .$27 
Cytron Masters (D) ... $27 
Knights/Desert (C/D) . S27 
Combat Leader (C/D) .$27 
SUBLOGIC 

Pinball(C/D) $20 

SWIFTY 

J. White Music Lessons 

(C/D) $20 

Space Shutlle(D) $20 

SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 

FiiaMnflrBOO-i- $65 

Protector II (D)$23(R)529 
Sham us ... (D)$23(R1$29 
Fort Apocalypse (C/D) $23 

Shamu5ll(C/D) $23 

Necromancer (C/D) ... $23 
Pharoh's Curse (C/D) . $23 

Slime (C/D) $23 

Page6(D| $23 

Reptilian (C/D) $23 

Picnic Paranoia (C/D) . $23 
Claim Jumper(C/D) ..$23 

Drelbs (C/D; $23 

Shadow World (C/D) . . $23 

Survivor (C/D) $23 

T.N.T.(C/0) $23 

N.Y.C.(C/D) $23 

Slamball(C,'D) $23 

Blue Max (C/D) $23 

Nautilus (C/D) $23 

Chicken (R/D) $23 

Quasimodo (C/D) $23 

River Quest (C/D) .... $23 
SYNERGISTIC 
ProgramrWkshp(D) .. $23 
Graph Workshop (D) .. $27 
Disk Workshop (D) , , , $23 
Worlock's Revenge (D) $23 
THORN EMI 

Soccer (R) $34 

Jumbo Jet (R| $34 

Submarine Comm.(R) $34 

Kick Back (R) $34 

Pool(C) $22 

HumptyDumpty(C) . . $22 
Hckry Dckry Dck(C) . . $22 

Darts (C) $22 

USA 

Atari World (D) $39 

3-DSprgrphcs(C/D) ..$27 
'IvafAdv. ( 



. (C/D) 



, $17 



Surviva 
VERSA 

Mind Bggirs I (D)$14 (C)$12 

Globe Mastar(O) $20 

MISCELLANEOUS 
Financial Wizard (Dj . . $41 
CaslleWolfen3teln(D) $20 

Master Typo (D) $27 

Astro Chase (D) $22 

Miner 2049er(R) $34 

Cypher Bowel (C) $33 

Bug Attack iC/D) $20 

Raster Blas:er (O) .... $20 

AirSlrlke(C'D) $27 

Prism(D) $18 

Megalegs(C) , . $23 

Cap'nCosn-o(D| $19 

Spy's Demise (D) , , , . $14 
Galac. Chase (D)$20 (C|Sie 

Kid Grid (C/D) $20 

Battle Trek (0) $20 

Snapper (Dj $19 

T&F-PMP Property 

Management (D) .. $149 
Millionaire (0[ $39 



VIC 20 64 



LATE ARRIVALS 



64 COMMODORE 



1541 DISK DRIVE $239 

1701 Cslor Monttw . . J25o 1530 HKOrdsr S$3 

152S Mntar $239 1600 Modam S59 

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Large Selection 

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VIC 20 SOFTWARE VIC 20 



APPLIED SYSTEMS 
Number Gulper(C) ... $17 
Number Chaser (C) ... $17 
BRODERBUND 
Martian Raider (C) ... $U 
Muitisound Synth. (C) SU 

Sharli Trap (C) JU 

ShyBiazer(R| S27 

Sealox |R) S27 

AE (R| $27 

CBS 

il-RazyPatroilR) $29 

K-RazyAnIii(3(H| S29 

COMM-DATA 

Pal(acuda(C) $13 

Sketch and Paint |C) . . $13 

Eight Baii(C) $13 

invader Educ. Series 

{each){C) .- . $13 

COMPUTERMAT 

Paratroopers {C) $15 

BugBiast(C) $12 

Cricl(et(Cl $12 

CREATIVE S.W. 

Black Hoie(R) $36 

Trash man (R) $36 

Astroblitz(R) $36 

City Bomber (R) $20 

Apple Panic (Rl $36 

Choptifter(R) $36 

Serpentine (R) $36 

Videomania(R) $36 

Terraguard (R) $36 

EPYX 

Monster Maze (R) $27 

Swofd ot Fargoal (C) . $20 

Ricochet (C) $14 

Rescue at Rigel(C| ... $20 
Temple of Apshai(D) -$27 
HES 

GrldrunnBr(R) $27 

flaiOof Isram(C) $14 

Robot Panic (fl) $27 

Protector (R| $29 

Shamus(R) $27 

Predator (R) $27 

Syn The Sound (R| ... $39 

AggrBssor(R) $27 

HeswrilBr{R) $27 

Turtle Graphics(H) ... $27 

HBsmon(R) $27 

Vic Forth (R) $39 

65e2Prof.Dev,Sys.(C| $20 

TorgiC) $13 

Concentration (C) $12 

Fuel Pirates (C) $12 

Simon (C) $12 

Vic Trek |C) $13 

CoColl|C/Dl $27 

IMAGIC 

Demon Attack (R| $2S 

Atlantis (R) $25 

LITTLE WIZARD 

Pro Football (C) $15 

Cosmic Crusader (C), . $12 
LOGISTIC 

X-RatBd(C| $9 

AigeBfaWiHC) $9 

Profess, Journal |C) ..$36 

Vlocalc(C) $36 

Budgel&BiliPayerfC) $15 
Accounts Payable (C| $36 

MatiBomberlC) $10 

MIS 

VieVatigoiC) '..$10 

Galactic Crossfire {C) $11 

Checkbook (C) $14 

FruitfiyfC) $10 

Allen Soccer (C) $11 

NUFEKOP 

Kfazy Kong (C) $11 

3-DMan(C) ...". $17 

Exterminator(C) $20 

ON LINE 

Cross(ire(C) $20 

UitimafC) $14 



QUICK BROWN FOX 

Prot.Word. Proc $48 

SIRIUS 

Snake Byte (R) $27 

Fly Wars (R) $27 

Type Attack (Rl $27 

Fast Eddy (R) $27 

Deadly Duck (R) $27 

Turmoil (R} $27 

Plasmanla(R) $27 

Spider Cily(R) $2/ 

Squish 'Em |R) $27 

Final Orbit (H| $27 

Bumper Bash |R) $27 

SPECTRAVISION 

Cave In (R| $27 

Number Crunch (R) ... $27 
Reaganomic5{R) .... $27 

Gold Mine (D) $27 

Ape Escape (D) $27 

STAHTECH 

Asteroids (C) $18 

Backgammon (C) ....$18 

Ski Run (C) $12 

Meteor (CI $9 

VicMen(C| $18 

Vic Panic |C) $18 

SYNAPSE 

Harfier(C) $23 

Squee2B{C| $23 

Astro Patrol (C) $23 

TAYLORMADE 

Fun Fractions (C| $18 

Vic Lemonade (C| $12 

Teh Typing Tutor (C) .. $13 
T4F SOFTWARE 

Word Search |C) $14 

Sporis Search (C) $14 

Arcade Search (C) .,$14 
TOTL 

MallinoList(C} $14 

Time Management (G) $22 
Research Asst. |C) ... $22 
THORN EMI 

River Rescue |R) $29 

Vic Music Comp.(R) .. $29 
Submarine Comm.(R| $29 

MulantHerd(R| $29 

Fourth Encounter |R) .$29 
TRONIX 

Galactic Blitz (C| $17 

Swarm (C) $20 

Sidewinder(C| $20 

Scorpion (R) $27 

Gold Fever (R) $27 

Deadly Skies (R) $27 

UMI 

Video Vermin (R) $27 

Amok (C/R) $20 

Outwarld(R) $27 

SalellitBS&Met.(R) .. $27 

Subchase(CJ $17 

Kosmic Kamikaze tC) , $17 
MeteorShower(C) ...$11 
Super Hangman (C) ..$14 
Spiders ol Wars(R) ... $27 

Meteor Run (R) $27 

Vicalc(C) $11 

VI Term A |C) $14 

VICat{C) $17 

VI Check (C) $17 

Alien Blitz(C;R) $20 

SkyMath{C) $11 

Space Division (C) ...$11 

The Allen {C| $17 

Grand Master (C) $27 

Renaissance (R| $33 

Cloud Burst (R) $20 

SklbbefeenIR) $20 

Wordcratl20|R) $65 

VICTORY 

Adv. Pakl(Cl $14 

Adv. Pak 11(C) $14 

Annihilator(C) $1B 

Grave Robbers (C| ...$12 

Kongo Kong |C) $18 

Trek(C) $12 



BATTERtiS INCLUDED 

Dalphli OraclefCI .... 114 
Paper Clip(D) 89 

COHM— DATA 
(N*w Vanloni) 

Supercud»(C/D| 18 

Pegaaaus Odys3ey(C/P) 18 

Escape MCP(C/D| is 

Toddler Tutor(C/D) .... 18 

Prim. Math Tutor(C/0) . IB 

Math Tutor(C/D) 18 

English lnvaders(C/D) . 18 

DATA 20 

Pro Word Proc.(C) 21 

General Ledger(C| 21 

Accounts R8C-[C1 21 

Elec. Spreedsheet(C| .. 21 

EN— TECH 

Studio 64(0) 28 

Sprite Fun(C) 18 

EPYX 

sv«ord Fargoal(C/D) .,..£0 

Crush Crurable(D) 20 

Upper Reaches APS(0 1 14 

HES 

Synthe Souria 64 (RJ ... 34 

64 Forth(R) 40 

Time/Money Mgr-(D) .. 48 



INFO— DESIQNS 

Q/L (D) ,.--. 61 

A/P (D) 61 

A/H (D) 61 

NUFEKOP 

exterminator(C) 20 

3-D Man(C} 16 

RAINBOW 

Pers. Finance Assist. (D) 41 

PSYCOM SOFTWARE 

Personality Analyzer(D| 24 

SIERRA ON— LINE 

Crossllre(D) 20 

SOUTHERN SOLUTIONS 

Bill Payer(A/Pl 68 

Business MBn(G/L) 63 

Paymaster(Payrol1| 68 

Bill Collector(A/R) 68 

Widget(lnvBntory) 68 

T * F SOFTWARE 

Word Search(C) 15 

Sport Search(C) 15 

Arcade Search(C| 15 

TIMEWOHKS 

Programming Kil 1(D) . 18 
Programming Kil 2(D) . 18 
Programming Kit 3 (D) . 18 



a 



U CBM 64 CALL 

1541 DISK DRIVE ... $239 



1701 Color Monnof . . S255 

ISZSNirtir S239 

ISZOCaiorPtr $169 

Clrt 7 (liTfc) $60 

Ught P«n $29 

CiitettalFitc $29 

Cird 7 Snftwira $16 



ISSORKOrdif $S9 

1600 Madtm $5S 

1650AiitoMod«iTl ... $158 

CMBMRtlGutd* $1t 

ThaConivdlonllnft) .. $85 

MSD Dlik Drive $339 

PTI 45 Lot Board $59 



Script 64 $77 

Gale Result Prof $114 

Gale Result Easy $68 

The Home Accountant $48 

Delphis Oracle S1 14 

Word Pro 3 with Spell S78 



64 



SOFTWARE 



64 




SPECIALS 

GeminHOX Printer $289 

Prowriler Printer $349 

Gorilla Banana Printer $199 

Card ? Printer Interface $60 

Ttie Connection Printer Interface $85 

1541 Disk Drive $239 

Koala Graphics Tablet $69 

Flip N' File Diskette Box $21 

Elephant Disks (10) $21 

Ttie Boss Joystick (Wico) $15 

WicoJoystick $23 

Wico Trackball $49 

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ACCESS SOFTWARE 

Neutral Zone (C/D) . . . S26 
Sprite Master (C/D) ... $27 

AVALON HILL 

Nul(ewar(C) S12 

Planat Miners (C) $12 

Anidrom. Conquest (C) J14 
Midway Campaign (C) S12 
North Atl. Convoy (C) . J12 
Comp. Stcks/ands (C) $15 
Computer Football (C) S18 

TeiengardtC) J18 

BATTERIES INCLUDED 

PaperClip(D) $89 

O.Base $114 

BRODERBUND 

Chopliftef(B) $2S 

Serpentlne(R) $27 

Seafox (R) $27 

David's Midnight (D) .. $23 

COMMODORE 

EasyFile(D) $75 

Easy Finance (O) $38 

EasyMail(D) $38 

Easy Script (D| $75 

Easy Schedule (D) ... $59 

Logo(R) $75 

Pilot (0) $75 

Assembler (D) $38 

Music Machine(D) ...$25 
Music Composer (D) .. $25 

Heza Music (D) $75 

Video/MusicSupt.(D) $38 

Jupiter Lander (Fi) $25 

Radar Rat Race (R| ... $25 

SeaWolt(R) $25 

K(chman{R) $25 

COMM-DATA 

Pakaouda . (C)$14(D)$1B 
Escp.MCP . (C)$14(D)$18 
Centropods (C)$14(D)$1B 

COMPUTERMAT 

Arcadfl-Pak (C) $18 

Education-Pak(C) $18 

CREATIVE SOFTWARE 

Moondust|R) $25 

Trashman (R) $25 

Save Nev< York (R| ...$25 

AstrobliU (H) $25 

Household Fin. (D) ... $25 

DATA2C 

Video PakSO $139 

Zeo Video Pak $229 

EN.TECH 

Finance CalcM $3* 

Data ease 64 $56 

invoice Ease 64 $56 

EPYX 

Temple of APS (D) ...$27 
Upper Reach. APS (D) $14 
Jumpman(D) $27 

HES 

HES Modem , $59 

6502 Prof. DBV.Sys.(C) . $22 

Hesmon64(R) $27 

Turtle Graplcs II (R) . . $41 

Hesv*riter64(n) $32 

6ridrunner(R| $27 

Retroball(R) $27 

INFOCOM 

Zorkl.llorllKD) $27 

Deadline (D) $35 

Staroross |D), $27 

JIN SAM 

Mini-Jinl(R) $75 

LITTLE WIZARD 

Pro.Mall.Llst (C)t22(0)$25 
Stockmaster 

(Inventory) (C)$25(D)$23 
LOGISTIC 

Datacalc64 (CI $55 (D) $59 
Home Journal (D) ....$55 



MICROSPEC 

Payroi ISy3tem(D) ... $73 

Inventory Pkg(D) $73 

General Ledger (D) ... $73 
Disk Data Mgr (D) .... $82 

Mall List Mar{D) $41 

Checkbook Mgr (D) ... $39 
M-SOFT 

M-FllB(D) $89 

ONLINE 

Frogger(D) $23 

Jawbreaker (D) $20 

PACIFIC COAST SOFT. 
PCS (80 Col BD, Word Proc. 
D.Base.Spreadsheet) CALL 
Account PACIC/D) ... $34 

FiloPAC(D) $30 

Editor PACjDJ $39 

Inquire PAC(D) $57 

Happy Tutor Typng(D) $18 
PROFESS. SOFTWARE 
WordPro 3 + «4{D) ...$68 
QUICK BROWN FOX 
Prof.Word Proc. (R) . . . $50 
RAINBOW 

Writers Assistant .... $95 
Spreadsheet Assist- . . $95 

File Assistant $95 

SIRIUS 
Blade/Slackpoodle (D) $27 

Type Attack (D) $27 

Repton{D) $27 

Critical Mass (D) $27 

Snake Byte {D| $23 

Way Out ID) $27 

Fast Eddie (D| $23 

Turmoil (D) $23 

Spider City (D) $27 

Squish'Em (D) $23 

Final Orbit (D) $27 

Alpha Shield (D) $27 

SKYLES ELEC. WORKS 

Buslcalc (C/D) $52 

Busiwritar(D) $72 

SPINNAKER 
SnooperTroopsI ID) .$29 

Pacemaker (D) $23 

Kindercomp (0) $20 

Hey Diddle (D) $20 

Most Amaz. Thing (01 . $27 

SYNAPSE 

Fort Apocalypse (C/D| $23 

Survivor (C/D| $23 

Drelbs (C/D) $23 

PharoH'S Curse (C/0) .$23 

Pfotector 11(D) $23 

Mofgal{D) $23 

Shamus(D) $23 

TAYLORMADE 
Touch Typing Tutor 

3.0 (D| $21 

TIMEWORKS 

Rbbrs/Lost Tomb (C/D) $21 

Wall Street |C/0) $21 

Money Manager (C/D) $21 

Data Master (CJD) $21 

Dungeons of Alg. 

Dragons |C/D) $21 

TOTL 

Taxi 2.6 ... (C) $32 (D| $34 
Label2.6 ., |C)$15(D)$17 
Time Manager 2.6(C) .$24 
TimeManager2.6(0) .$27 
Resrch Assist. 2.0(C) .$24 
Resrch Assist. 2.0(D) .$27 
UMI 

Motor Manla(C) $20 

Renaissance (C) $27 

VICTORY 

Annthllator(C/0) $16 

Kongo Kong (C/D) $16 

Trek(C/0) $14 

Adv. Pack #1 (C/D) ... $16 
Adv. Pack#2(C/D| ... $16 
Grave Robbers (C/D) .. $13 
Chomper Man (C/D) ..$18 



This will catch a number that comes within 0.001 
of 3 in either direction. 

We noted earlier that TI-99s were different. 
To be specific, the TI-99/4 is the only computer 
in widespread use (aside from certain large busi- 
ness computers) that does not convert its numbers 
into binary. Instead, it represents numbers inter- 
nally with codes for decimal digits (or rather pairs 
of them, so that its actual base is 100 rather than 
10). Hence, anything you type — with up to 14 
significant digits — will be represented exactly. 
This is, in my opinion, one of the unsung virtues 
of the TI-99 — there are no errors of representation 
to worry about. 

Calculations With Fields 
Of Various Lengths 

Most home computers allow you the equivalent 
of about seven decimal digits of accuracy (some- 
times rounded off to five or six digits for printing 
in order to conceal various slight errors). You get 
seven significant (nonzero) digits regardless of 
the position of the decimal point, so that, for ex- 
ample, 12345.67, 0.1234567, 12345670000, and 
0.000001234567 are ec]ually good. The computer 
keeps a separate record of where the decimal point 
goes, and it can be within or outside the string of 
digits that really count. 



Seven digits are usually enough; after all, it's 
unlikely that you'll be doing calculations based 
on measurements that are accurate to better than 
one part in ten million, or dealing with eight-figure 
salaries, or anything like that. But problems can 
arise when you're calculating with numbers of 
widely differing sizes. 

Suppose, for instance, you want to compute 
0.000853-1-4256.3-4256.203. First, the computer 
adds 4256.3 to 0.000853, giving 4256.300853. But 
this has too many digits, and the computer trun- 
cates it to 4256.300 (that is, 4256.3) — the addition 
of 0.000853 has had no effect at all. Then 4256.203 
is subtracted, giving 0.097. But the correct answer 
is 0.097853. If you had performed the calculations 
in a different order, you would have the right 
answer: 4256.3-4256.203 gives 0.097, and this 
added to 0.000853 gives 0.097853 without any 
problems. The rule here is: 

Group your calculations so that,.asfar as 
possible, each addition works on numbers of 
nearly equal size, and operations on numbers 
of widely differing size are saved until last. 
There really are no sure-fire rules about how to 
avoid numerical accuracy problems. It's often 
best to work through some typical cases with a 
hand calculator, looking at the size of the inter- 
mediate results and trying to imagine what could 
go wrong. © 



COMMODORE 64 189 

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312 COMPUni December 1983 




THE MICRO COMPUTER BUSINESS 

WILL GROW FROM $10 TO $100 BILLION 

IN THE NEXT EIGHT YEARS! 

ARE YOU READY TO CASH IN? 

The micro computer business is predicted to grow from its present $10 billion to S100 billion before 1990' Imagine Ihe 
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1933, THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 



Tl Word Processor 



James D Baker 



This menu-based word processor includes many of the 
basic fealures of commercial 'word processors: text crea- 
tion, addition, deletion, modification, paragraphs, 
pagination, margin control, page overflow, and text 
centering. Written for the TI-99/4A with Extended 
BASIC, a disk drive and printer, the program runs 
loith standard 16K memory. 



Just like thousands of other TI users, I have added 
to my system since the original purchase of the 
computer and a TV set. After 1 had purchased 
Extended BASIC, the Peripheral Expansion Box, 
disk drive and controller, RS-232 interface, and a 
printer, my next choice was word processing 
capability. As the Texas Instruments package was 
not yet on the market and would also require 32K 
memory expansion, like all others available, I 
decided to write my own word processor. 

This program runs with standard 16K mem- 
ory because of linked list access for text files: Only 
one line of text is in memory at a time, with before 
and after indices pointing to the previous or fol- 
lowing line of text. 

With this design, addition and deletion of 
text lines are possible. The addition of a single line 
or an entire paragraph of text is possible and, 
therefore, updating text after the initial input 
process is easy. 

Automatic pagination, margins (top, bottom, 
left, and right), page overflow, text centering, 
and text modification are also included features. 

The program is written in two distinct sec- 
tions: first, the create/edit section, then the print 
section. If additional features are added, it may 
be necessary to split the program into two separate 
programs in order to maintain the objective of 
minimal memory usage. 

Let's look in detail at the program features. 

Program Initializafjon 

Upon initial execution of the program, the user 
will be asked for a filename (assumed on DSKl) 
where text is stored. The subroutine called in 
line 140 sets characters in lowercase. 

311 COMPUTE! D«cembeH9e3 



Next, a screen menu is displayed with these 
options: 

N — NEW DATA FILE 

A — ADD TO END OF EXISTING FILE 

C — CHANGE EXISTING FILE 

P — PRINT FILE 

New Data File 

Upon selection of the first option, a header record 
is written to the opened disk file. This record is 
used to maintain a pointer to the last text record 
in the file. Initially, this record does not contain 
any meaningful information, but will be updated 
at the end of the program to contain the actual 
last record number. 

Control is then passed to the routine for en- 
tering new text (lines 380 - 470). Original text is 
entered using the LINPUT statement, which limits 
the length of a single entry to 128 characters. How- 
ever, this is not a severe limitation; the program 
will simply cause wraparound of the text from 
one record to the next. The computer will beep to 
remind you that you have exceeded the length of 
the input string, and you must then press ENTER 
to cause this record to be written to disk and begin 
entry of the next record. Also, note that during text 
entry all the standard control key operations are 
allowed, including cursor left or right, character 
delete or insert, erase, etc. 

The pointers for previous and next record 
locations are then updated, and a check for one of 
the special control functions, /E/, is performed. 
This is used to indicate the end of text and must 
be entered as the last record of the text. If the rec- 
ord just entered is not the end marker (/E/), the 
program writes the text line to disk and returns 
for the next line of text. 

When text entry is complete and the /E/ is 
entered, lines 490 - 510 update record with the 
record number of the last record on file. Finally, 
the option of printing the text is offered. If you 
answer Y for yes, control is passed to the print 
routine (line 2400); otherwise the program ends. 



COMPUTEI's 

Programmer's Reference Guide 

to the TI-99/4A 



Author: C. Regena 
Price: SI 4.95 
On Sale: Now 



U: Leuer Puz'^'"'^'"'"^ '^'""'' ^^'^^^ ^ 208 

5-4. Bingo 222 

5-5. Birthday List ^24 

230 

Chapter 6: Programming Techniques 233 

Program Listings 
6-1. CoultieFile . 

(>-2. "Angry Bull" . . . . ' ^j] 

6-3. Wesle^ Slates... ^51 

6-4. N'ew England States ..■.'.' ^ 

6-3. Tvpe-ette, L'nii 2 .W *= 

6-6. Type-etle Timer i'' 

6-7. Sort 1: Bubble Sort , i°/, 

fi-S.S„rt2: Shell Sort ^94 

6-9. Sort 3: Minimum Search ,..■;::.■ %i 

6-0. Son 4: Minimum and Ma.vimum' .' .' : 297 

6-n. Name and Address File (Cassette) ^ 

6-12. Monthly Pavmcnis . ' *f 

317 



Chapter 7: A Doren More Programs 
Program Listings ~ 

7-1. Division wilh Remainder 

7-2. Equivalent Fractions 

7-3. Simplifying Fractions 
7-4. Multiplying Fraction: 



7-5. Dividing Fractions . , . .' .' '.',.' ■ p,efarp 
7-6, Adding Fractions "etace 



Table of Contents 



7-7. Solving Simultaneous Equati 
l'°- ^I'i* Competency: Earning ^ 
/-9. Math Competency: Buying Ii 
7-10, Typing Drill: Musical Bugle 
/■ll. Typing Drill: Type Invaders 
/-12, Car Cost Comparison 

Appendix - Characters: Code Nu 

Index Chapter 3: Graphics and Sound . 



Publisher's Foreword 

Chapter 1: Introduction . . . 
Chapter 2: Getting Started . 
Program Listing 

2-1. Defining Characters . . 



1 

13 

43 
47 



Just about the best way to iearn how 
to program a computer is to sit down 
with a patient friend who already knows 
how, and asl< questions while you ex- 
periment with the computer. Owners 
of the popular Texas Instruments home 
computer will find thatC. Regena is 
that kind of friend, and Programmer's 
Reference Guide to the TI-99/4A is that 
kind of book. 

Regena carefully explains every 
BASIC command and function, and all 
the techniques needed to program Tl 
graphics, sound, and speech. It's hard 
to think of a question that she doesn't 
answer simply and clearly, with hints 
about ways to write programs that do 
exactly what you want. 

The book also provides dozens 
arid dozens of programs, ranging from 
very short examples to full-length 
commercial-quality software. In effect, , 

readers can look over Regena's